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Attachment 1

MANAGEMENT 14E GE A01_ROBB5839_14_GE_FM.indd 1 26/07/17 10:48 AM This page intentionally left blank MANAGEMENT Stephen P. Robbins San Diego State University Mary Coulter Missouri State University With contributions by Joseph J. Martocchio University of Illinois Lori K. Long Baldwin Wallace University 14E GE Harlow, England • London • New York • Boston • San Francisco • Toronto • Sydney • Dubai • Singapore • Hong Kong Tokyo • Seoul • Taipei • New Delhi • Cape Town • Sao Paulo • Mexico City • Madrid • Amsterdam • Munich • Paris • Milan A01_ROBB5839_14_GE_FM.indd 3 26/07/17 10:49 AM Vice President, Business Publishing: Donna Battista Director of Portfolio Management: Stephanie Wall Portfolio Manager: Kris Ellis-Levy Associate Acquisitions Editor, Global Edition: Ishita Sinha Associate Project Editor, Global Edition: Paromita Banerjee Assistant Editor, Global Edition: Tahnee Wager Editorial Assistant: Hannah Lamarre Vice President, Product Marketing: Roxanne McCarley Director of Strategic Marketing: Brad Parkins Strategic Marketing Manager: Deborah Strickland Product Marketer: Becky Brown Field Marketing Manager: Lenny Ann Kucenski Product Marketing Assistant: Jessica Quazza Vice President, Production and Digital Studio, Arts and Business: Etain O’Dea Director of Production, Business: Jeff Holcomb Managing Producer, Business: Ashley Santora Senior Manufacturing Controller, Global Edition: Trudy Kimber Content Producer, Global Edition: Purnima Narayanan Content Producer: Claudia Fernandes Operations Specialist: Carol Melville Creative Director: Blair Brown Manager, Learning Tools: Brian Surette Content Developer, Learning Tools: Lindsey Sloan Managing Producer, Digital Studio, Art and Business: Diane Lombardo Digital Studio Producer: Monique Lawrence Digital Studio Producer: Alana Coles Media Production Manager, Global Edition: Vikram Kumar Full-Service Project Management and Composition: Cenveo® Publisher Services Interior Designer: Cenveo® Publisher Services Cover Image: Comaniciu Dan/Shutterstock Acknowledgments of third-party content appear on the appropriate page within the text. Pearson Education Limited KAO Two KAO Park Harlow CM17 9NA United Kingdom and Associated Companies throughout the world Visit us on the World Wide Web at: www.pearsonglobaleditions.com © Pearson Education Limited 2018 The rights of Stephen P. Robbins and Mary A. Coulter to be identified as the authors of this work have been asserted by them in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. Authorized adaptation from the United States edition, entitled Management, 14th Edition, ISBN 978-0-13-452760-4 by Stephen P. Robbins and Mary Coulter, published by Pearson Education © 2018. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without either the prior written permission of the publisher or a license permitting restricted copying in the United Kingdom issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd, Saffron House, 6–10 Kirby Street, London EC1N 8TS. All trademarks used herein are the property of their respective owners. The use of any trademark in this text does not vest in the author or publisher any trademark ownership rights in such trademarks, nor does the use of such trademarks imply any affiliation with or endorsement of this book by such owners. ISBN 10: 1-292-21583-6 ISBN 13: 978-1-292-21583-9 British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Typeset in Times NR MT Pro by Cenveo® Publisher Services Printed and bound by Vivar in Malaysia A01_ROBB5839_14_GE_FM.indd 4 11/07/17 9:33 AM http://www.pearsonglobaleditions.com To my wife, Laura Steve To my husband, Ron Mary A01_ROBB5839_14_GE_FM.indd 5 11/07/17 9:33 AM This page intentionally left blank STEPHEN P. ROBBINS received his Ph.D. from the University of Arizona. He previously worked for the Shell Oil Company and Reynolds Metals Company and has taught at the University of Nebraska at Omaha, Concordia University in Montreal, the University of Baltimore, Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville, and San Diego State University. He is currently professor emeritus in management at San Diego State. Dr. Robbins’s research interests have focused on conflict, power, and politics in organizations, behavioral decision making, and the development of effective interpersonal skills. His articles on these and other topics have appeared in such journals as Business Horizons, the California Management Review, Business and Economic Perspectives, International Management, Management Review, Canadian Personnel and Industrial Relations, and The Journal of Management Education. Dr. Robbins is the world’s best-selling textbook author in the areas of management and organizational behavior. His books have sold more than 7 million copies and have been translated into 20 languages. His books are currently used at more than 1,500 U.S. colleges and universities, as well as hundreds of schools throughout Canada, Latin America, Australia, New Zealand, Asia, Europe, and the Arab World. Dr. Robbins also participates in masters track competition. Since turning 50 in 1993, he’s won 23 national championships and 14 world titles. He was inducted into the U.S. Masters Track & Field Hall of Fame in 2005. MARY COULTER received her Ph.D. from the University of Arkansas. She held different jobs including high school teacher, legal assistant, and city government program planner before completing her graduate work. She has taught at Drury University, the University of Arkansas, Trinity University, and Missouri State University. She is currently professor emeritus of management at Missouri State University. In addition to Management, Dr. Coulter has published other books with Pearson including Fundamentals of Management (with Stephen P. Robbins), Strategic Management in Action, and Entrepreneurship in Action. When she’s not busy writing, Dr. Coulter enjoys puttering around in her flower gardens, trying new recipes, reading all different types of books, and enjoying many different activities with husband Ron, daughters and sons-in-law Sarah and James, and Katie and Matt, and most especially with her two grandkids, Brooklynn and Blake, who are the delights of her life! About the Authors A01_ROBB5839_14_GE_FM.indd 7 11/07/17 9:33 AM This page intentionally left blank Preface 29 Acknowledgments 37 Brief Contents Part 1 Introduction to Management Chapter 1: Managers and You in the Workplace 38 Management History Module 66 Chapter 2: Decision Making 80 Part 1 Management Practice 110 Chapter 3: Global Management 114 Chapter 4: Valuing a Diverse Workforce 144 Chapter 5: Socially-Conscious Management 178 Chapter 6: Managing Change 212 Chapter 7: Constraints on Managers 252 Part 2 Management Practice 282 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace Part 3 Planning Chapter 8: Planning and Goal-Setting 288 Chapter 9: Strategic Planning 312 Chapter 10: Fostering Entrepreneurship 342 Part 3 Management Practice 378 Part 4 Organizing Chapter 11: Organization Design 382 Chapter 12: Organizing Around Teams 414 Chapter 13: Human Resource Management 444 Part 4 Management Practice 482 Part 5 Leading Chapter 14: Interpersonal and Organizational Communication 486 Chapter 15: Organizational Behavior 518 Chapter 16: Leadership 554 Chapter 17: Motivation 588 Part 5 Management Practice 624 Part 6 Controlling Chapter 18: Controlling Activities and Operations 630 Planning and Control Techniques Module 664 Managing Operations Module 682 Part 6 Management Practice 698 Glossary 703 • Name Index 715 • Organization Index 735 • Subject Index 741 A01_ROBB5839_14_GE_FM.indd 9 11/07/17 4:36 PM This page intentionally left blank Preface 29 Acknowledgments 37 Part 1 Introduction to Management 38 Chapter 1: Managers and You in the Workplace 38 Who Are Managers and Where Do They Work? 40 Who Is a Manager? 40 Where Do Managers Work? 41 Why Are Managers Important? 43 What Do Managers Do? 44 Management Functions 45 Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles and a Contemporary Model of Managing 46 Management Skills 47 How Is the Manager’s Job Changing? 49 Focus on the Customer 49 Focus on Technology 51 Focus on Social Media 51 Focus on Innovation 52 Focus on Sustainability 52 Focus on the Employee 53 Why Study Management? 53 The Universality of Management 53 The Reality of Work 54 Rewards and Challenges of Being a Manager 54 Gaining Insights into Life at Work 55 Boxed Features It’s Your Career: The ABC’s of Managing Your Time 38 FYI 42 Future Vision: Is It Still Managing When What You’re Managing Are Robots? 42 Let’s Get REAL 46, 49 Leader Making a Difference: Ursula Burns 52 Workplace Confidential: Dealing with Organizational Politics 56 Preparing for: Exams/Quizzes 57 Chapter Summary by Learning Objectives 57 Review and Discussion Questions 58 Preparing for: My Career 59 Personal Inventory Assessments: Time Management Assessment 59 Ethics Dilemma 59 Skill Exercise: Developing Your Political Skill 59 Contents 11 A01_ROBB5839_14_GE_FM.indd 11 11/07/17 9:33 AM 12 Contents Working Together: Team Exercise 60 My Turn to Be a Manager 60 Case Application 1: The Power of Social Media 60 Case Application 2: Who Needs a Boss? 61 Management History Module 66 Early Management 66 Classical Approach 68 Scientific Management 68 General Administrative Theory 69 Behavioral Approach 71 Quantitative Approach 73 Contemporary Approaches 75 Chapter 2: Decision Making 80 The Decision-Making Process 81 Step 1: Identify a Problem 82 Step 2: Identify Decision Criteria 83 Step 3: Allocate Weights to the Criteria 84 Step 4: Develop Alternatives 84 Step 5: Analyze Alternatives 84 Step 6: Select an Alternative 85 Step 7: Implement the Alternative 85 Step 8: Evaluate Decision Effectiveness 85 Approaches to Decision Making 86 Rationality 86 Bounded Rationality 87 Intuition 87 Evidence-Based Management 88 Types of Decisions and Decision-Making Conditions 89 Types of Decisions 89 Decision-Making Conditions 91 Decision-Making Biases and Errors 94 Overview of Managerial Decision Making 96 Effective Decision Making in Today’s World 98 Guidelines for Effective Decision Making 98 Design Thinking and Decision Making 99 Big Data and Decision Making 100 Boxed Features It’s Your Career: Problem Solving—Not A Problem 80 FYI 86, 89, 96, 99 Let’s Get REAL 89 Future Vision: Crowdsourcing Decisions 92 Leader Making a Difference: Elon Musk 94 Workplace Confidential: Making Good Decisions 97 Preparing for: Exams/Quizzes 101 Chapter Summary by Learning Objectives 101 Review and Discussion Questions 102 A01_ROBB5839_14_GE_FM.indd 12 11/07/17 9:33 AM Contents 13 Preparing for: My Career 103 Personal Inventory Assessments: Solving Problems Analytically and Creatively 103 Ethics Dilemma 103 Skills Exercise: Developing Your Creativity Skill 103 Working Together: Team Exercise 104 My Turn to Be a Manager 104 Case Application 1: On The Cards: Decision Making 105 Case Application 2: Manchester City: Football Big Data Champions 105 Part 1: Management Practice 110 A Manager’s Dilemma 110 Global Sense 110 Continuing Case: Starbucks—Introduction 110 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace 114 Chapter 3: Global Management 114 Who Owns What? 116 What’s Your Global Perspective? 117 Understanding the Global Trade Environment 118 Regional Trading Alliances 118 Global Trade Mechanisms 122 Doing Business Globally 124 Different Types of International Organizations 124 How Organizations Go International 125 Managing in a Global Environment 126 The Political/Legal Environment 127 The Economic Environment 127 The Cultural Environment 129 Global Management in Today’s World 132 Challenges of Managing a Global Workforce 133 Boxed Features It’s Your Career: Developing Your Global Perspective—Working with People from Other Cultures 114 FYI 117, 118, 124 Leader Making a Difference: Lucy Peng 123 Future Vision: Communicating in a Connected World 128 Let’s Get REAL 133 Preparing for: Exams/Quizzes 134 Chapter Summary by Learning Objectives 134 Review and Discussion Questions 136 Preparing for: My Career 136 Personal Inventory Assessments: Intercultural Sensitivity Scale 136 Ethics Dilemma 136 Skills Exercise: Developing Your Collaboration Skill 137 Working Together: Team Exercise 137 My Turn to Be a Manager 137 A01_ROBB5839_14_GE_FM.indd 13 11/07/17 9:33 AM 14 Contents Case Application 1: Dirty Little Secret 138 Case Application 2: The Power of Presence 139 Answers to “Who Owns What” Quiz 140 Chapter 4: Valuing a Diverse Workforce 144 Diversity 101 146 What Is Workplace Diversity? 146 Why Is Managing Workforce Diversity So Important? 147 The Changing Workplace 150 Characteristics of the U.S. Population 150 Global Population Trends and the Changing Global Workforce 152 Types of Workplace Diversity 153 Age 153 Gender 155 Race and Ethnicity 157 Disability/Abilities 158 Religion 160 LGBT: Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity 161 Other Types of Diversity 161 Challenges in Managing Diversity 162 Personal Bias 162 Glass Ceiling 163 Workplace Diversity Initiatives 165 The Legal Aspect of Workplace Diversity 165 Top Management Commitment to Diversity 165 Mentoring 166 Diversity Skills Training 167 Employee Resource Groups 167 Boxed Features It’s Your Career: Find a Great Sponsor/Mentor—Be a Great Protégé 144 FYI 148, 150, 156, 164, 165 Let’s Get REAL 149, 158 Workplace Confidential: Dealing with Diversity 151 Future Vision: Diversity of Thought 162 Leader Making a Difference: Dr. Rohini Anand 163 Preparing for: Exam/Quizzes 168 Chapter Summary by Learning Objectives 168 Review and Discussion Questions 169 Preparing for: My Career 170 Personal Inventory Assessments: Multicultural Awareness Scale 170 Ethics Dilemma 170 Skills Exercise: Developing Your Valuing Diversity Skill 170 Working Together: Team Exercise 171 My Turn to Be a Manager 171 Case Application 1: An Ethical Hotel where Disabled People Can Find Their Way 172 Case Application 2: Women in Management at Deutsche Telekom 173 A01_ROBB5839_14_GE_FM.indd 14 11/07/17 9:33 AM Contents 15 Chapter 5: Socially-Conscious Management 178 What Is Social Responsibility? 180 From Obligations to Responsiveness to Responsibility 180 Should Organizations Be Socially Involved? 181 Green Management and Sustainability 183 How Organizations Go Green 183 Evaluating Green Management Actions 184 Managers and Ethical Behavior 186 Factors That Determine Ethical and Unethical Behavior 186 Ethics in an International Context 189 Encouraging Ethical Behavior 191 Employee Selection 192 Codes of Ethics and Decision Rules 193 Leadership at the Top 195 Job Goals and Performance Appraisal 195 Ethics Training 196 Independent Social Audits 196 Social Responsibility and Ethics Issues in Today’s World 197 Managing Ethical Lapses and Social Irresponsibility 197 Social Entrepreneurship 199 Businesses Promoting Positive Social Change 199 Boxed Features It’s Your Career: How to Be Ethical When No One Else Seems to Be 178 FYI 183, 187, 192, 196, 200 Leader Making a Difference: Yvon Chouinard 184 Let’s Get REAL 185, 191 Future Vision: Building an Ethical Culture That Lasts 193 Workplace Confidential: Balancing Work and Personal Life 201 Preparing for: Exams/Quizzes 202 Chapter Summary by Learning Objective 202 Review and Discussion Questions 203 Preparing for: My Career 204 Personal Inventory Assessments: Ethical Leadership Assessment 204 Ethics Dilemma 204 Skills Exercise: Developing Your Building Trust Skill 204 Working Together: Team Exercise 205 My Turn to Be a Manager 205 Case Application 1: A Novel Wellness Culture 205 Case Application 2: Defeating the System: Ethics at Volkswagen 206 Chapter 6: Managing Change 212 The Case for Change 214 External Factors 215 Internal Factors 215 The Change Process 216 Calm Waters Versus White-Water Rapids Metaphors 217 Reactive Versus Proactive Change Processes 218 A01_ROBB5839_14_GE_FM.indd 15 11/07/17 9:33 AM 16 Contents Areas of Change 219 Strategy 220 Structure 220 Technology 220 People 221 Managing Change 222 Why Do People Resist Change? 222 Techniques for Reducing Resistance to Change 223 Contemporary Issues in Managing Change 225 Leading Change 225 Creating a Culture for Change 226 Employee Stress 227 Stimulating Innovation 232 Creativity Versus Innovation 232 Stimulating and Nurturing Innovation 232 Innovation and Design Thinking 236 Disruptive Innovation 237 Definition 237 Why Disruptive Innovation Is Important 238 Who’s Vulnerable? 238 Implications 239 Boxed Features It’s Your Career: Learning to Manage Your Stress 212 FYI 215, 225, 228, 232, 234 Let’s Get REAL 223, 235 Leader Making a Difference: Satya Nadella 227 Workplace Confidential: Coping with Job Stress 231 Future Vision: The Internet of Things 233 Preparing for: Exams/Quizzes 241 Chapter Summary by Learning Objectives 241 Review and Discussion Questions 242 Preparing for: My Career 243 Personal Inventory Assessments: Are You a Type A Personality? 243 Ethics Dilemma 243 Skills Exercise: Developing Your Change Management Skill 243 Working Together: Team Exercise 244 My Turn to Be a Manager 244 Case Application 1: A. S. Watson Group 245 Case Application 2: The iPhone: A Technology Disruptor 246 Chapter 7: Constraints on Managers 252 The Manager: Omnipotent or Symbolic? 254 The Omnipotent View 254 The Symbolic View 254 The External Environment: Constraints and Challenges 255 The Economic Environment 256 The Demographic Environment 256 How the External Environment Affects Managers 258 A01_ROBB5839_14_GE_FM.indd 16 11/07/17 9:33 AM Contents 17 Organizational Culture: Constraints and Challenges 261 What Is Organizational Culture? 261 Strong Cultures 264 Where Culture Comes From and How It Continues 265 How Employees Learn Culture 266 How Culture Affects Managers 268 Current Issues in Organizational Culture 271 Creating an Innovative Culture 271 Creating a Customer-Responsive Culture 271 Creating a Sustainability Culture 272 Boxed Features It’s Your Career: Reading an Organization’s Culture: Find One Where You’ll Be Happy 252 Future Vision: Tomorrow’s Workplace: Sustainability and You 257 Let’s Get REAL 258, 266 Leader Making a Difference: Indra Nooyi 260 FYI 261 Workplace Confidential: Adjusting to a New Job or Work Team 269 Preparing for: Exams/Quizzes 273 Chapter Summary by Learning Objectives 273 Review and Discussion Questions 274 Preparing for: My Career 274 Personal Inventory Assessments: What’s My Comfort with Change? 274 Ethics Dilemma 274 Skills Exercise: Developing Your Environmental Scanning Skill 275 Working Together: Team Exercise 275 My Turn to Be a Manager 275 Case Application 1: Tesco: Time to Refocus 276 Case Application 2: The Sky is the Limit 277 Part 2: Management Practice 282 A Manager’s Dilemma 282 Global Sense 282 Continuing Case: Starbucks—Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace 282 Part 3 Planning 288 Chapter 8: Planning and Goal-Setting 288 The What and Why of Planning 290 What Is Planning? 290 Why Do Managers Plan? 290 Planning and Performance 290 Goals and Plans 291 Types of Goals 291 Types of Plans 292 Setting Goals and Developing Plans 294 Approaches to Setting Goals 294 A01_ROBB5839_14_GE_FM.indd 17 26/07/17 10:58 AM 18 Contents Developing Plans 298 Approaches to Planning 299 Contemporary Issues in Planning 300 How Can Managers Plan Effectively in Dynamic Environments? 300 How Can Managers Use Environmental Scanning? 301 Digital Tools 302 Boxed Features It’s Your Career: You Gotta Have Goals 288 FYI 291, 298, 300 Let’s Get REAL 292, 297 Leader Making a Difference: Jeff Bezos 294 Workplace Confidential: When You Face a Lack of Clear Directions 295 Future Vision: Using Social Media for Environmental Scanning 303 Preparing for: Exams/Quizzes 304 Chapter Summary by Learning Objectives 304 Review and Discussion Questions 305 Preparing for: My Career 306 Personal Inventory Assessments: Tolerance of Ambiguity Scale 306 Ethics Dilemma 306 Skills Exercise: Making a To-Do List that Works and Using It 306 Working Together: Team Exercise 307 My Turn to Be a Manager 307 Case Application 1: Hermès: Delivering Change 308 Case Application 2: Shifting Direction 309 Chapter 9: Strategic Planning 312 Strategic Management 314 What Is Strategic Management? 314 Why Is Strategic Management Important? 314 The Strategic Management Process 316 Step 1: Identifying the Organization’s Current Mission, Goals, and Strategies 316 Step 2: Doing an External Analysis 317 Step 3: Doing an Internal Analysis 317 Step 4: Formulating Strategies 319 Step 5: Implementing Strategies 319 Step 6: Evaluating Results 319 Corporate Strategies 319 What Is Corporate Strategy? 321 What Are the Types of Corporate Strategy? 321 How Are Corporate Strategies Managed? 322 Competitive Strategies 323 The Role of Competitive Advantage 323 Choosing a Competitive Strategy 326 Current Strategic Management Issues 327 The Need for Strategic Leadership 327 The Need for Strategic Flexibility 329 Important Organizational Strategies for Today’s Environment 330 A01_ROBB5839_14_GE_FM.indd 18 11/07/17 9:33 AM Contents 19 Boxed Features It’s Your Career: Learning Your Strengths and Weaknesses: Accentuate the Positive 312 FYI 317, 325, 329 Let’s Get REAL 318, 328 Workplace Confidential: Developing a Career Strategy 320 Leader Making a Difference: Mary Barra 321 Future Vision: Big Data as a Strategic Weapon 324 Preparing for: Exams/Quizzes 332 Chapter Summary by Learning Objectives 332 Review and Discussion Questions 333 Preparing for: My Career 334 Personal Inventory Assessments: Creative Style Indicator 334 Ethics Dilemma 334 Skills Exercise: Developing Your Business Planning Skill 334 Working Together: Team Exercise 336 My Turn to Be a Manager 336 Case Application 1: Fast Fashion 336 Case Application 2: A Simple Strategy at Costco 337 Chapter 10: Fostering Entrepreneurship 342 The Context of Entrepreneurship 343 What Is Entrepreneurship? 343 Entrepreneurship Versus Self-Employment 344 Why Is Entrepreneurship Important? 344 The Entrepreneurial Process 345 What Do Entrepreneurs Do? 345 Social Responsibility and Ethical Issues Facing Entrepreneurs 346 Start-Up and Planning Issues 348 Identifying Environmental Opportunities and Competitive Advantage 349 Researching the Venture’s Feasibility—Ideas 351 Researching the Venture’s Feasibility—Competitors 354 Researching the Venture’s Feasibility—Financing 354 Developing a Business Plan 355 The Sharing Economy 356 Organizing Issues 357 Legal Forms of Organization 357 Organizational Design and Structure 359 Human Resource Management 360 Initiating Change 361 The Importance of Continuing Innovation 362 Leading Issues 362 Personality Characteristics of Entrepreneurs 362 Motivating Employees Through Empowerment 363 The Entrepreneur as Leader 364 Control Issues 365 Managing Growth 365 Managing Downturns 367 Exiting the Venture 368 A01_ROBB5839_14_GE_FM.indd 19 11/07/17 9:33 AM 20 Contents Boxed Features It’s Your Career: Being Entrepreneurial Even If You Don’t Want to Be an Entrepreneur 342 FYI 346, 349, 351 Workplace Confidential: Dealing with Risks 347 Future Vision: The Growth of Social Businesses 348 Let’s Get REAL 352, 356 Leader Making a Difference: Mark Zuckerberg 364 Preparing for: Exams/Quizzes 369 Chapter Summary by Learning Objectives 369 Review and Discussion Questions 370 Preparing for: My Career 371 Personal Inventory Assessments: Innovative Attitude Scale 371 Ethics Dilemma 371 Skills Exercise: Developing Grit 371 Working Together: Team Exercise 372 My Turn to Be a Manager 372 Case Application 1: The Fear of Failure 373 Case Application 2: The Right Recipe for Entrepreneurs: Fifteen 374 Part 3: Management Practice 378 A Manager’s Dilemma 378 Global Sense 378 Continuing Case: Starbucks—Planning 378 Part 4 Organizing 382 Chapter 11: Organization Design 382 Six Elements of Organizational Design 383 Work Specialization 384 Departmentalization 385 Chain of Command 387 Span of Control 390 Centralization and Decentralization 391 Formalization 392 Mechanistic and Organic Structures 392 Contingency Factors Affecting Structural Choice 393 Strategy and Structure 393 Size and Structure 394 Technology and Structure 394 Environmental Uncertainty and Structure 394 Traditional Organizational Design Options 395 Simple Structure 395 Functional Structure 395 Divisional Structure 395 Organizing for Flexibility in the Twenty-First Century 396 Team Structures 396 Matrix and Project Structures 397 A01_ROBB5839_14_GE_FM.indd 20 11/07/17 9:33 AM Contents 21 The Boundaryless Organization 398 Telecommuting 400 Compressed Workweeks, Flextime, and Job Sharing 402 The Contingent Workforce 402 Boxed Features It’s Your Career: Staying Connected 382 Let’s Get REAL 388, 401 Workplace Confidential: Coping with Multiple Bosses 389 FYI 390, 391, 398, 401, 402 Leader Making a Difference: Zhang Ruimin 393 Future Vision: Flexible Organizations 399 Preparing for: Exams/Quizzes 404 Chapter Summary by Learning Objectives 404 Review and Discussion Questions 405 Preparing for: My Career 406 Personal Inventory Assessments: Organizational Structure Assessment 406 Ethics Dilemma 406 Skills Exercise: Developing Your Acquiring Power Skill 406 Working Together: Team Exercise 407 My Turn to Be a Manager 407 Case Application 1: A New Kind of Structure 408 Case Application 2: Organizational Volunteers 409 Chapter 12: Organizing Around Teams 414 Groups and Group Development 416 What Is a Group? 416 Stages of Group Development 416 Work Group Performance and Satisfaction 418 External Conditions Imposed on the Group 418 Group Member Resources 418 Group Structure 418 Group Processes 422 Group Tasks 425 Turning Groups into Effective Teams 426 The Difference Between Groups and Teams 426 Types of Work Teams 427 Creating Effective Work Teams 428 Contemporary Challenges in Managing Teams 432 Managing Global Teams 432 Building Team Skills 433 Understanding Social Networks 434 Boxed Features It’s Your Career: Developing Your Coaching Skills 414 FYI 422, 426, 428, 429 Let’s Get REAL 425, 430 Future Vision: Conflict 2.0 425 Workplace Confidential: Handling Difficult Coworkers 431 Leader Making a Difference: Dr. Dara Richardson-Heron 433 A01_ROBB5839_14_GE_FM.indd 21 11/07/17 9:33 AM 22 Contents Preparing for: Exams/Quizzes 435 Chapter Summary by Learning Objectives 435 Review and Discussion Questions 436 Preparing for: My Career 437 Personal Inventory Assessments: Diagnosing the Need for Team Building 437 Ethics Dilemma 437 Skills Exercise: Developing Your Coaching Skills 437 Working Together: Team Exercise 438 My Turn to Be a Manager 438 Case Application 1: Who Needs a Manager? 438 Case Application 2: 737 Teaming Up for Takeoff 439 Chapter 13: Human Resource Management 444 Why Human Resource Management Is Important and the Human Resource Management Process 446 External Factors that Affect the Human Resource Management Process 448 The Economy 448 Labor Unions 448 Laws and Rulings 449 Demography 451 Identifying and Selecting Competent Employees 452 Human Resource Planning 453 Recruitment and Decruitment 454 Selection 456 Providing Employees with Needed Skills and Knowledge 459 Orientation 460 Employee Training 460 Retaining Competent, High-Performing Employees 462 Employee Performance Management 462 Compensation and Benefits 463 Contemporary Issues in Managing Human Resources 466 Managing Downsizing 466 Managing Sexual Harassment 467 Controlling HR Costs 467 Boxed Features It’s Your Career: Negotiating Your Salary 444 Leader Making a Difference: Laszlo Bock 451 Workplace Confidential: Job Search 455 FYI 456, 461, 467 Let’s Get REAL 459, 464 Future Vision: Gamification of HR 468 Preparing for: Exams/Quizzes 469 Chapter Summary by Learning Objectives 469 Review and Discussion Questions 471 Preparing for: My Career 471 Personal Inventory Assessments: Work Performance Assessment 471 Ethics Dilemma 472 Skills Exercise: Developing Your Interviewing Skills 472 Working Together: Team Exercise 473 My Turn to Be a Manager 473 A01_ROBB5839_14_GE_FM.indd 22 19/07/17 9:41 AM Contents 23 Case Application 1: Maersk and HR Management Challenges in China 474 Case Application 2: Measuring Output, Not Hours Worked 475 Part 4: Management Practice 482 A Manager’s Dilemma 482 Global Sense 482 Continuing Case: Starbucks—Organizing 482 Part 5 Leading 486 Chapter 14: Interpersonal and Organizational Communication 486 The Nature and Function of Communication 487 What Is Communication? 488 Functions of Communication 488 Methods and Challenges of Interpersonal Communication 489 Methods 489 Barriers 492 Overcoming the Barriers 494 Effective Organizational Communication 497 Formal Versus Informal 497 Direction of Flow 497 Networks 498 Workplace Design and Communication 500 Communication in the Internet and Social Media Age 501 The 24/7 Work Environment 502 Working from Anywhere 502 Social Media 502 Balancing the Pluses and Minuses 503 Choosing the Right Media 503 Communication Issues in Today’s Organizations 504 Managing Communication in a Digitally Connected World 504 Managing the Organization’s Knowledge Resources 505 The Role of Communication in Customer Service 505 Getting Employee Input 506 Communicating Ethically 507 Becoming a Better Communicator 508 Sharpening Your Persuasion Skills 508 Sharpening Your Speaking Skills 508 Sharpening Your Writing Skills 508 Sharpening Your Reading Skills 509 Boxed Features It’s Your Career: I’m Listening! 486 Leader Making a Difference: Angela Ahrendts 492 FYI 494, 497, 500 Let’s Get REAL 495, 499 Workplace Confidential: An Uncommunicative Boss 496 Future Vision: No Longer Lost in Translation 503 A01_ROBB5839_14_GE_FM.indd 23 11/07/17 9:33 AM 24 Contents Preparing for: Exams/Quizzes 509 Chapter Summary by Learning Objectives 509 Review and Discussion Questions 511 Preparing for: My Career 511 Personal Inventory Assessments: Communication Styles 511 Ethics Dilemma 511 Skills Exercise: Developing Your Presentation Skills 512 Working Together: Team Exercise 512 My Turn to Be a Manager 512 Case Application 1: Is Anytime Feedback Too Much? 513 Case Application 2: Neutralizing the Concordia Effect! 514 Chapter 15: Organizational Behavior 518 Focus and Goals of Organizational Behavior 520 Focus of Organizational Behavior 520 Goals of Organizational Behavior 521 Attitudes and Job Performance 521 Job Satisfaction 522 Job Involvement and Organizational Commitment 524 Employee Engagement 524 Attitudes and Consistency 525 Cognitive Dissonance Theory 525 Attitude Surveys 526 Implications for Managers 527 Personality 527 MBTI® 528 The Big Five Model 530 Additional Personality Insights 530 Personality Types in Different Cultures 532 Emotions and Emotional Intelligence 533 Implications for Managers 536 Perception 537 Factors That Influence Perception 537 Attribution Theory 538 Shortcuts Used in Judging Others 539 Implications for Managers 540 Learning 540 Operant Conditioning 540 Social Learning 541 Shaping: A Managerial Tool 541 Implications for Managers 542 Boxed Features It’s Your Career: Self Awareness: You Need to Know Yourself Before You Can Know Others 518 FYI 522, 525, 538 Leader Making a Difference: Carolyn McCall 527 Let’s Get REAL 529, 533 Workplace Confidential: An Abusive Boss 534 Future Vision: Increased Reliance on Emotional Intelligence 535 A01_ROBB5839_14_GE_FM.indd 24 11/07/17 9:33 AM Contents 25 Preparing for: Exams/Quizzes 542 Chapter Summary by Learning Objectives 542 Review and Discussion Questions 544 Preparing for: My Career 544 Personal Inventory Assessments: Emotional Intelligence Assessment 544 Ethics Dilemma 544 Skills Exercise: Developing Your Shaping Behavior Skill 545 Working Together: Team Exercise 545 My Turn to Be a Manager 545 Case Application 1: A Great Place to Work 546 Case Application 2: Employees First 547 Chapter 16: Leadership 554 Who Are Leaders and What Is Leadership? 555 Early Leadership Theories 556 Leadership Traits 556 Leadership Behaviors 556 Contingency Theories of Leadership 559 The Fiedler Model 559 Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory 561 Path-Goal Model 562 Contemporary Views of Leadership 564 Leader–Member Exchange (LMX) Theory 564 Transformational-Transactional Leadership 564 Charismatic-Visionary Leadership 565 Authentic Leadership 566 Ethical Leadership 567 Team Leadership 567 Leadership Issues in the Twenty-First Century 569 Managing Power 569 Developing Trust 571 Empowering Employees 572 Leading Across Cultures 573 Becoming an Effective Leader 574 Boxed Features It’s Your Career: Being a More Charismatic Leader 554 FYI 556, 562, 564, 566, 571, 575 Leader Making a Difference: Dr. Delos “Toby” Cosgrove 565 Let’s Get REAL 568, 571 Workplace Confidential: A Micromanaging Boss 570 Future Vision: Flexible Leadership 574 Preparing for: Exams/Quizzes 576 Chapter Summary by Learning Objectives 576 Review and Discussion Questions 577 Preparing for: My Career 578 Personal Inventory Assessments: Leadership Style Inventory 578 Ethics Dilemma 578 Skills Exercise: Developing Your Choosing an Effective Leadership Style Skill 578 A01_ROBB5839_14_GE_FM.indd 25 11/07/17 9:33 AM 26 Contents Working Together: Team Exercise 579 My Turn to Be a Manager 579 Case Application 1: Indra Nooyi: An Inspiring Leader 580 Case Application 2: Leadership Development at L’Oréal 581 Chapter 17: Motivation 588 What Is Motivation? 589 Early Theories of Motivation 590 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory 590 McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y 591 Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory 592 Three-Needs Theory 593 Contemporary Theories of Motivation 594 Goal-Setting Theory 594 Reinforcement Theory 596 Designing Motivating Jobs 596 Equity Theory 599 Expectancy Theory 602 Integrating Contemporary Theories of Motivation 603 Current Issues in Motivation 605 Managing Cross-Cultural Motivational Challenges 605 Motivating Unique Groups of Workers 606 Designing Appropriate Rewards Programs 609 Boxed Features It’s Your Career: What Motivates You? 588 FYI 592, 596, 600, 610 Leader Making a Difference: Susan Wojcicki 595 Workplace Confidential: Feelings of Unfair Pay 601 Let’s Get REAL 604, 611 Future Vision: Individualized Rewards 607 Preparing for: Exams/Quizzes 612 Chapter Summary by Learning Objectives 612 Review and Discussion Questions 613 Preparing for: My Career 614 Personal Inventory Assessments: Work Motivation Indicator 614 Ethics Dilemma 614 Skills Exercise: Developing Your Motivating Employees Skill 614 Working Together: Team Exercise 615 My Turn to Be a Manager 615 Case Application 1: Hong Kong Disneyland: HR Programs to Motivate Employees 616 Case Application 2: Balancing Success and Happiness 617 Part 5: Management Practice 624 A Manager’s Dilemma 624 Global Sense 625 Continuing Case: Starbucks—Leading 626 A01_ROBB5839_14_GE_FM.indd 26 11/07/17 9:33 AM Contents 27 Part 6 Controlling 630 Chapter 18: Controlling Activities and Operations 630 What Is Controlling and Why Is It Important? 632 The Control Process 633 Step 1: Measuring Actual Performance 634 Step 2: Comparing Actual Performance Against the Standard 635 Step 3: Taking Managerial Action 636 Managerial Decisions in Controlling 636 Controlling for Organizational and Employee Performance 637 What Is Organizational Performance? 637 Measures of Organizational Performance 638 Controlling for Employee Performance 639 Tools for Measuring Organizational Performance 642 Feedforward/Concurrent/Feedback Controls 642 Financial Controls 643 Information Controls 645 Balanced Scorecard 646 Benchmarking of Best Practices 646 Contemporary Issues in Control 647 Adjusting Controls for Cross-Cultural Differences and Global Turmoil 648 Workplace Privacy 649 Employee Theft 650 Workplace Violence 651 Controlling Customer Interactions 652 Corporate Governance 654 Boxed Features It’s Your Career: How to Be a Pro at Giving Feedback 630 FYI 639, 651, 654 Let’s Get REAL 640, 644 Workplace Confidential: Responding to an Unfair Performance Review 641 Leader Making a Difference: Bob Iger 647 Future Vision: Real-time Feedback 650 Preparing for: Exams/Quizzes 655 Chapter Summary by Learning Objectives 655 Review and Discussion Questions 656 Preparing for: My Career 657 Personal Inventory Assessments: Workplace Discipline Indicator 657 Ethics Dilemma 657 Skills Exercise: Managing Challenging Employees 657 Working Together: Team Exercise 658 My Turn to Be a Manager 658 Case Application 1: The Challenge of “Healthy” Fast-Food 658 Case Application 2: Bring Your Own Device 659 Planning and Control Techniques Module 664 Techniques for Assessing the Environment 664 Environmental Scanning 664 A01_ROBB5839_14_GE_FM.indd 27 11/07/17 9:33 AM 28 Contents Forecasting 666 Benchmarking 668 Techniques for Allocating Resources 669 Budgeting 669 Scheduling 671 Breakeven Analysis 674 Linear Programming 674 Contemporary Planning and Control Techniques 676 Project Management 676 Scenario Planning 678 Managing Operations Module 682 The Role of Operations Management 683 Services and Manufacturing 683 Managing Productivity 684 Strategic Role of Operations Management 685 What Is Value Chain Management and Why Is It Important? 685 What Is Value Chain Management? 686 Goal of Value Chain Management 686 Benefits of Value Chain Management 687 Managing Operations Using Value Chain Management 687 Value Chain Strategy 687 Obstacles to Value Chain Management 690 Current Issues in Managing Operations 691 Technology’s Role in Operations Management 692 Quality Initiatives 692 Quality Goals 694 Mass Customization and Lean Organization 695 Part 6: Management Practice 698 A Manager’s Dilemma 698 Global Sense 698 Continuing Case: Starbucks—Controlling 699 Glossary 703 Name Index 715 Organization Index 735 Subject Index 741 A01_ROBB5839_14_GE_FM.indd 28 11/07/17 9:33 AM The book you have before you is one of the world’s most popular introductory management textbooks. It’s used by several hundred U.S. colleges and universities; it’s translated into Spanish, French, Russian, Dutch, Bahasa, Korean, and Chinese; and there are adapted edi- tions for Australia, Canada, India, and the Arab World. For a textbook first published in 1984—in a crowded market where there are currently several dozen choices, why has Robbins/Coulter Management been so popular and enduring? We believe there are three characteristics that set us apart: contemporary topic coverage, read- ability, and relevance. Contemporary Topic Coverage We have always prided ourselves on bringing the latest management issues and research to this book. In preparing each edition, we carefully comb the academic journals and business periodicals to identify topics that students need to be current on. For instance, prior editions of this book were the first to discuss self-managed teams, emotional intelligence, open-book management, sustainability, social entrepreneurship, stretch goals, the contingent workforce, self-managed careers, wearable technology, big data, and design thinking. This current edition continues the tradition by including a new section on disruptive inno- vation. No topic appears to be more current or important to students today than dealing with major structural changes taking place in industries as varied as automobiles, hotels, banking, TV networks, or book publishing. In fact, there are few industries that aren’t being threat- ened by disruptive innovation. In Chapter 6, we define disruptive innovation; explain why it’s important; describe who is vulnerable; and discuss implications for entrepreneurs, corporate managers, and your career planning. Key Changes to the 14th Edition • Chapter 6 on managing change has been expanded to include a discussion of disruptive in- novation as an important driver of change. • The Part 2 module on creating and leading entrepreneurial ventures has become a separate chapter (Chapter 10). We’ve expanded our discussion, added end-of-chapter applications, and acknowledged the importance of entrepreneurship by giving it its own chapter. • The two chapters on organizational design have been merged into one chapter (Chapter 11) in response to comments by users and reviewers. But we’ve retained the key concepts that students need to know. • The addition of “Workplace Confidential” pages throughout the book which address com- mon frustrations and challenges that employees face in the workplace. • Current and timely topics—including the Internet of things, real-time feedback, and choos- ing appropriate communication media, among others—have been added. • Dozens of current examples illustrating management practices and challenges in start-up and established organizations, small and large organizations, and manufacturing, service and technology organizations have been added. Readability Every author claims his or her books are highly readable. The reality is that few actually are. From the first edition of this book, we were determined to make the field of manage- ment interesting and engaging for the reader. How did we do it? First, we committed to a Preface 29 A01_ROBB5839_14_GE_FM.indd 29 11/07/17 9:33 AM 30 Preface conversational writing style. We wanted the book to read like normal people talk. Second, we relied on an extensive use of examples. As your senior author learned early in his teaching career, students don’t remember theories but they do remember stories. So you’ll find a wealth of current examples in this book. A well-written book should be able to be used successfully at all levels of higher education, from community colleges to graduate programs. And over its 30+ years of life, this book has done just that. You’ll find this book is used in community colleges, at for-profit colleges, by undergraduate students at both regional and land-grant uni- versities, and in numerous graduate programs. Relevance Students are unlikely to be motivated if they think a course and its textbooks aren’t relevant to their career goals. We’ve responded to this challenge in a number of ways. Our latest inclusion is an important new feature—the Workplace Confidential pages— that’s designed to make this book more meaningful to non-management majors. We also want to highlight four additional features that have helped build this book’s repu- tation for practicality. Providing value to non-management students. New to this edition are in-chapter pages entitled Workplace Confidential. This unique feature marks a distinct break from what typically has been included in the traditional introductory management text. Your authors have long heard a common complaint about the introductory manage- ment course from students in majors such as accounting, finance, and marketing. As summed up by one accounting student: “Why do I need to take a management course? I have no interest in pursuing a career in management!” Even though that accounting student might some day lead an audit team or manage an office of a major CPA firm, we understand those non-management majors who question the relevance of this course to their career goals. We’ve listened and responded. We’ve made the contents of this 14th edition relevant to any student who plans to work in an organization. Regardless of whether an organization employs three people or 300,000, there are common challenges that every employee encounters. We’ve researched those challenges and identified the nearly dozen-and-a-half most frequent. Then we looked at providing students with guidance for dealing with these challenges. The result is the Workplace Confidential features that you’ll find throughout this book. For instance, you’ll find suggestions for dealing with organizational politics, job stress, coping with an uncommunicative or abusive boss, and responding to an unfair performance review. Insights from real managers. One feature that has differentiated Robbins/Coulter for more than 15 years is our “real” managers. Student feedback tells us that they appreciate learning from real managers in their everyday jobs. In Let’s Get Real boxes, actual managers respond to problem scenarios. In Leader Making a Difference boxes, you’ll meet a variety of global executives whose knowledge and skills significantly influenced organizational outcomes. Focus on skills. Today’s students need both knowledge (knowing) and skills (doing). Students want to leave class knowing what management is all about but also with the skills necessary to help them succeed in today’s workplaces. In response, you’ll find several features in this book that are designed to build skill expertise. It’s Your Career chapter openers cover skills ranging from managing time and being self aware to being a pro at giving feedback and being change ready. These chapter open- ers include information about the skill and are reinforced with a Pearson MyLab Management component that tests students’ comprehension of the skill. Also, at the end of each chapter, you’ll find more skill exercises, where we provide a thorough discussion of additional skills and give students opportunities to practice these skills. Looking ahead. Students are going to spend most of their future work life in a setting that’s likely to look very different from today. To help students prepare for that future, we have included Future Vision boxes throughout the book that look at how A01_ROBB5839_14_GE_FM.indd 30 11/07/17 9:33 AM Preface 31 management and organizations might change over the next 15 to 20 years. Although no one has a perfectly accurate view into the future, certain trends in place today offer insights into what tomorrow’s work world might look like. We draw from recent research and forecasts to consider this future. Pearson MyLab Management Suggested Activities Making assessment activities available online for students to complete before coming to class will allow you, the instructor, more discussion time during the class to review areas that students are having difficulty in comprehending. The activities below are available in Pearson MyLab Management and are integrated into the textbook. Watch It Recommends a video clip that can be assigned to students for outside classroom viewing or that can be watched in the classroom. The video corresponds to the chapter material and is accompanied by multiple-choice questions that reinforce students’ comprehen- sion of the chapter content. Try It Recommends a mini simulation that can be assigned to students as an outside class- room activity or be done in the classroom. As the students watch the simulation they will be asked to make choices based on the scenario presented in the simulation. At the end of the simulation the student will receive immediate feedback based on the answers they gave. These simulations reinforce the concepts of the chapter and the students’ comprehension of those concepts. Talk About It These are discussion-type questions that can be assigned as an activity within the classroom. Write It Students can be assigned these broad-based, critical-thinking discussion questions that will challenge them to assimilate information that they’ve read in the chapter. Personal Inventory Assessments (PIA) Students learn better when they can connect what they are learning to their personal experience. PIA (Personal Inventory Assessments) is a collection of online exercises de- signed to promote self-reflection and engagement in students, enhancing their ability to connect with concepts taught in principles of management, organizational behavior, and human resource management classes. Assessments are assignable by instructors who can then track students’ completions. Student results include a written explanation along with a graphic display that shows how their results compare to the class as a whole. Instructors will also have access to this graphic representation of results to promote classroom discussion. Assisted Graded Writing Questions These are short essay questions that the students can complete as an assignment and submit to you, the professor, for grading. Chapter-by-Chapter Changes Chapter 1 • New FYI features • New Workplace Confidential: Dealing with Organizational Politics • New Watch It Pearson MyLab Management recommended video assignments • New Let’s Get Real • New Ethics Dilemma A01_ROBB5839_14_GE_FM.indd 31 11/07/17 9:33 AM 32 Preface • New examples • New Working Together and My Turn to Be a Manager activities • New Case Application on the ALS Ice Bucket Challenge Chapter 2 • New Workplace Confidential: Making Good Decisions • New examples • New Future Vision: Crowdsourcing Decisions • New FYI features • New Watch It Pearson MyLab Management recommended video assignments • New Ethics Dilemma • Updated Skills Exercise, new Working Together and My Turn to Be a Manager activities • New Case Application on Card Connection’s business model to decide on franchi- see locations • New Case Application on Manchester City Football Club’s use of big data in game strategies Chapter 3 • Updated It’s Your Career opener and Pearson MyLab Management component: Developing Your Global Perspective: Jump-start Your Cultural Intelligence • Updated Future Vision: Communicating in a Connected World • New Leader Making a Difference: Lucy Peng (Alibaba) • New FYI features • New Watch It Pearson MyLab Management recommended video assignments • New examples • New Ethics Dilemma • Updated Skills Exercise, new Working Together and My Turn to Be a Manager activities • New Case Application on expanding internationally at Tableau, a technology company Chapter 4 • New Future Vision: Diversity of Thought • New FYI features • New examples • New Watch It Pearson MyLab Management recommended video assignments • New Let’s Get Real • New Workplace Confidential: Dealing with Diversity • New Ethics Dilemma • Updated Skills Exercise, new Working Together and My Turn to Be a Manager activities • New Case Application on ethical management at Albergo Etico Chapter 5 • New FYI features • New Workplace Confidential: Balancing Work and Personal Life • New examples • New Watch It Pearson MyLab Management recommended video assignments • New Let’s Get Real • New Ethics Dilemma • Updated Skills Exercise, new Working Together and My Turn to Be a Manager activities • New Case Application on ethical problems at Volkswagen Chapter 6 • New It’s Your Career opener and Pearson MyLab Management component: Learning to Manage Your Stress • New Future Vision: The Internet of Things • New FYI features • New Workplace Confidential: Coping with Job Stress A01_ROBB5839_14_GE_FM.indd 32 19/07/17 9:42 AM Preface 33 • New Examples • New Watch It Pearson MyLab Management recommended video assignments • New Let’s Get Real’s • New Working Together and My Turn to Be a Manager activities • New Case Application on the iPhone as a technology disruptor Chapter 7 • New Leader Making a Difference: Indra Nooyi (Pepsi) • New FYI features • New Watch It, Pearson MyLab Management recommended video assignments • New Let’s Get Real • New Workplace Confidential: Adjusting to a New Job or Work Team • New examples • Updated Skills Exercise, new Working Together and My Turn to Be a Manager activities • New Case Application on organizational culture at Tesco • New Case Application on Amazon’s use of drone technology Chapter 8 • New Future Vision: Using Social Media for Environmental Scanning • New FYI features • New Watch It Pearson MyLab Management recommended video assignments • New Workplace Confidential: When You Face a Lack of Clear Directions • New examples • New Let’s Get Real • New Ethics Dilemma • New Working Together and updated My Turn to Be a Manager activities • New Case Application on shipping challenges at Hermès Chapter 9 • New Leader Making a Difference: Mary Barra (GM) • New FYI features • New Watch It Pearson MyLab Management recommended video assignments • New Workplace Confidential: Developing a Career Strategy • New examples • New Let’s Get Real • New Ethics Dilemma • New Working Together and My Turn to Be a Manager activities • New Case Application on Costco’s strategy Chapter 10 • New It’s Your Career opener and Pearson MyLab Management component: Being Entrepreneurial Even If You Don’t Want to Be an Entrepreneur • New Leader Making a Difference: Mark Zuckerberg (Facebook) • New Future Vision: The Growth of Social Businesses • New FYI features • New Watch It, Pearson MyLab Management recommended video assignments • New Let’s Get Real’s • New Workplace Confidential: Dealing with Risks • New examples • New Ethics Dilemma • New Personal Inventory Assessment • New Working Together and My Turn to Be a Manager activities • New Skills Exercise: Developing Grit • New Case Applications on Jamie Oliver’s unique social business at Fifteen Chapter 11 • New FYI features • New Workplace Confidential: Coping with Multiple Bosses A01_ROBB5839_14_GE_FM.indd 33 19/07/17 9:43 AM 34 Preface • New examples • New Working Together activity Chapter 12 • New Leader Making a Difference: Dr. Dara Richardson-Heron (YWCA USA) • New FYI features • New Watch It Pearson MyLab Management recommended video assignments • New Let’s Get Real • New Workplace Confidential: Handling Difficult Coworkers • New examples • Updated Ethics Dilemma • Updated Skills Exercise, new Working Together and My Turn to Be a Manager activities • New Case Application on self-directed teams at W.L. Gore and Associates Chapter 13 • New It’s Your Career opener and Pearson MyLab Management component: Negotiating Your Salary • New Future Vision: Gamification of HR • New FYI features • New Watch It Pearson MyLab Management recommended video assignments • New Let’s Get Real • New Workplace Confidential: Job Search • New examples • Updated statistics • Updated Skills Exercise, new Working Together and My Turn to Be a Manager activities • New Case Application on Maersk and the HR management challenges in China • New Case Application on BAE Systems making use of schedule based working Chapter 14 • New It’s Your Career opener and Pearson MyLab Management component: I’m Listening • New Future Vision: No Longer Lost in Translation • New Leader Making a Difference: Angela Ahrendts (Apple) • New FYI features • New Workplace Confidential: An Uncommunicative Boss • New examples • New Let’s Get Real • New Skills Exercise: Developing Your Presentation Skills • New Working Together and My Turn to Be a Manager activities • New Case Application on performance feedback at Amazon Chapter 15 • New Leader Making a Difference: Carolyn McCall (easyJet) • New FYI features • New Watch It Pearson MyLab Management recommended video assignments • New Let’s Get Real • New Workplace Confidential: An Abusive Boss • New examples • New Ethics Dilemma • New Working Together and My Turn to Be a Manager activities • New Case Application on the Tencent Holdings, China Chapter 16 • New Leader Making a Difference: Dr. Delos “Toby” Cosgrove (Cleveland Clinic) • New FYI features • New Watch It Pearson MyLab Management recommended video assignments • New Workplace Confidential: A Micromanaging Boss A01_ROBB5839_14_GE_FM.indd 34 19/07/17 9:44 AM Preface 35 • New examples • New Let’s Get Real • New Working Together and My Turn to Be a Manager activities • New Case Application on PepsiCo’s Indra Nooyi imbibing qualities of an inspirational leader Chapter 17 • New Leader Making a Difference: Susan Wojcicki (YouTube) • New FYI features • New Workplace Confidential: Feelings of Unfair Pay • New examples • New Watch It Pearson MyLab Management recommended video assignments • New Let’s Get Real • Updated Skills Exercise, new Working Together and My Turn to Be a Manager activities • New Case Application on Hong Kong Disneyland’s HR programs to motivate employees • New Case Application on John Lewis Partnership balancing success and happiness Chapter 18 • New Future Vision: Real-time Feedback • New FYI features • New Watch It Pearson MyLab Management recommended video assignments • New Let’s Get Real • New Workplace Confidential: Responding to an Unfair Performance Review • New examples • New Ethics Dilemma • Updated Skills Exercise, new Working Together and My Turn to Be a Manager activities • New Case Applications on Chipotle’s food contamination problems and Bring Your Own Device programs For Students Taking a Management Course: What This Course Is About and Why It’s Important This course and this book are about management and managers. Managers are one thing that all organizations—no matter the size, kind, or location—need. And there’s no doubt that the world managers face has changed, is changing, and will continue to change. The dynamic nature of today’s organizations means both rewards and chal- lenges for the individuals who will be managing those organizations. Management is a dynamic subject, and a textbook on it should reflect those changes to help pre- pare you to manage under the current conditions. We’ve written this 14th edition of Management to provide you with the best possible understanding of what it means to be a manager confronting change and to best prepare you for that reality. But not every student aspires to a career in management. And even if you do, you may be five or ten years away from reaching a managerial position. So you might rightly feel that taking a course in management now may be getting ahead of the game. We hear you. In response to these concerns, we’ve added new material to this book that is important and relevant to everyone working in an organization—manager and non-manager alike. Our “Workplace Confidential” pages identify, analyze, and offer suggestions for dealing with the major challenges that surveys indicate frustrate employees the most. You should find these pages valuable for helping you survive and thrive in your workplace. Surprisingly, this topic has rarely been addressed in business programs. Inclusion in an introductory management course appeared to us to be a logical place to introduce these challenges and to provide guidance in handling them. A01_ROBB5839_14_GE_FM.indd 35 19/07/17 9:45 AM 36 Preface Instructor Resources At the Pearson’s catalog, https://www.pearsonglobaleditions.com/Robbins, instructors can easily register to gain access to a variety of instructor resources available with this text in downloadable format. If assistance is needed, our dedicated technical sup- port team is ready to help with the media supplements that accompany this text. Visit https://support.pearson.com/getsupport for answers to frequently asked questions and toll-free user support phone numbers. The following supplements are available with this text: • Instructor’s Resource Manual • Test Bank • TestGen® Computerized Test Bank • PowerPoint Presentation This title is available as an eBook and can be purchased at most eBook retailers. A01_ROBB5839_14_GE_FM.indd 36 11/07/17 9:33 AM https://www.pearsonglobaleditions.com/Robbins https://support.pearson.com/getsupport Every author relies on the comments of reviewers, and ours have been very helpful. We want to thank the following people for their insightful comments and suggestions: Michael Alleruzzo, St. Joseph University, PA Matthias Bollmus, Carroll University, WI Brione Burrows, Central Georgia Tech, GA M. Suzanne Clinton, University of Central Oklahoma, OK Dana J. Frederick, Missouri State University, MO Julia M. Fullick, Quinnipiac University, CT Karl Giulian, Atlantic Cape Community College, NJ Dan Morrell, Middle Tennessee State University, TN L. Renee Rogers, Forsyth Technical Community College, NC Acknowledgments Our team at Pearson has been amazing to work with, as always! This team of editors, production experts, technology gurus, designers, marketing specialists, sales representatives, and warehouse employees works hard to turn our files into a bound textbook and a digital textbook and sees that it gets to faculty and students. We couldn’t do this without all of you! Our sincere thanks to the people who made this book “ready to go,” including Stephanie Wall, Kris Ellis-Levy, Claudia Fernandes, Hannah Lamarre, and Nancy Moudry, as well as Kathy Smith and the team at Cenveo. All of you are consummate professionals who truly are committed to pub- lishing the best textbooks! We’re glad to have you on our team! Finally, Steve and Mary would like to thank Joe Martocchio at the University of Illinois and Lori Long at Baldwin Wallace University for helping with this revision. They were instrumental in updating the research, examples, boxes, skill exercises, and cases. This revision could never have been done without your assistance. We thank you so much! Global Edition Acknowledgments We want to thank the following people for their contributions: John Opute, London South Bank University Andrew Richardson, University of Leeds Marcello Russo, University of Bologna Jon and Diane Sutherland, Freelance Writers Ken Wong, Hong Kong Polytechnic University Yong Wooi Keong, Sunway University Marian B. Wood, Freelance Writer We would also like to thank the following people for re- viewing the Global Edition and sharing their insightful comments and suggestions: Caroline Akhras, Notre Dame University–Louaize Azim Khan Aminuddin, United Arab Emirates University Lindos Daou, Holy Spirit University of Kaslik Evangelos Dedousis, American University of Dubai Suresh George, Coventry University Richard Jefferies, The University of the West of Scotland J. C. Santora, International School of Management, Paris Vimala Venugopal, Taylor’s University Malaysia A01_ROBB5839_14_GE_FM.indd 37 11/07/17 9:33 AM It’s Your Career Part 1 Introduction to Management Chapter 1 Managers and You in the Workplace The ABC’s of Managing Your Time Are you BUSY? Do you always seem to have a lot to do and never seem to get it done, or done on time, or are things done at the last minute under a lot of pressure and stress? If you’re like most people, the answer to these questions is YES! Well, maybe in a management textbook we need to do something about that by focusing on one aspect of management that can be tremendously useful to you . . . TIME MANAGEMENT! Time is a unique resource and one of your most valuable resources. Time is also a limited resource. First, if it’s wasted, it can never be replaced. People talk about saving time, but time can never actually be saved. Second, unlike resources such as money or talent, which are distributed unequally in the world, time is an equal-opportunity resource. Each one of us gets exactly the same amount of time: 24 hours per day or 168 hours each week. But as you have undoubtedly observed, some people are a lot more efficient in using their allotment. It is not uncommon to hear others say that they need additional hours to get everything done, but that is simply wishful thinking. Commit to improving your ability to manage those 168 hours so you can be more efficient and effective—in your career and in your personal life! Here are some suggestions to help you better use your time: 1. Make and keep a list of all your current, upcoming, and routine goals. Know what needs to be done daily, weekly, and monthly. 2. Rank your goals according to importance. Not all goals are of equal importance. Given the limitations on your time, you want to make sure you give highest priority to the most important goals. 3. List the activities/tasks necessary to achieve your goals. What specific actions do you need to take to achieve your goals? 4. Divide these activities/tasks into categories using an A, B, and C classification. The A’s are important and urgent. B’s are either important or urgent, but not both. C’s are routine—not important nor urgent, but still need to be done. A key to success in management and in your career is having good time management skills. Source: valentint/Fotolia M01_ROBB5839_14_GE_C01.indd 38 07/06/17 5:37 pm 39 Learning Objectives 5. Schedule your activities/tasks according to the priorities you’ve set. Prepare a daily plan. Every morning, or at the end of the previous workday, make a list of the five or so most important things you want to do for the day. Then set priorities for the activities listed on the basis of importance and urgency. 6. Plan your to-do list each day so that it includes a mixture of A, B, and C activities/tasks. And it’s best to spread the three types of tasks throughout your day so you’re not lumping together all your demanding tasks. Also, be realistic about what you can achieve in a given time period. 7. Recognize that technology makes it too easy to stay connected. Just think for a moment how many phone calls, e-mails, texts, postings on social media, and unscheduled visitors you receive on a typical day. Some are essential to the tasks at hand, while others are distractions that do not require immediate attention. Prioritize the importance of this information. 8. Realize that priorities may change as your day or week proceeds. New information may change a task’s importance or urgency. As you get new information, reassess your list of priorities and respond accordingly. 9. Remember that your goal is to manage getting your work done as efficiently and effectively as you can. It’s not to become an expert at creating to-do lists. Find what works best for you and use it! Like many students, you’ve probably had a job (or two) at some time or another while working on your degree. And your work experiences, regardless of where you’ve worked, are likely to have been influenced by the skills and abilities of your manager. What are today’s successful managers like and what skills do they need in dealing with the problems and challenges of managing in the twenty-first century? This text is about the important work that managers do. The reality facing today’s managers—and that might include you in the near future—is that the world is changing. In workplaces of Pearson MyLab Management® Improve Your Grade! When you see this icon, visit www.mymanagementlab.com for activities that are applied, personalized, and offer immediate feedback. ● SKILL OUTCOMES 1.1 Tell who managers are and where they work. ● Know how to manage your time. 1.2 Explain why managers are important to organizations. 1.3 Describe the functions, roles, and skills of managers. ● Develop your skill at being politically aware. 1.4 Describe the factors that are reshaping and redefining the manager’s job. 1.5 Explain the value of studying management. M01_ROBB5839_14_GE_C01.indd 39 26/07/17 11:07 AM http://www.mymanagementlab.com 40 Part 1 Introduction to Management all types—offices, stores, labs, restaurants, factories, and the like—managers deal with changing expectations and new ways of managing employees and organizing work. In this chapter, we introduce you to managers and management by looking at (1) who managers are and where they work, (2) why managers are important, and (3) what man- agers do. Finally, we wrap up the chapter by (4) looking at the factors reshaping and re- defining the manager’s job and (5) discussing why it’s important to study management. WHO are managers and where do they work? Managers may not be who or what you might expect! Managers can range in age from 18 to 80+. They run large corporations, medium-sized businesses, and entrepreneurial start-ups. They’re also found in government departments, hospitals, not-for-profit agencies, museums, schools, and even nontraditional organizations such as political campaigns and music tours. Managers can also be found doing managerial work in every country on the globe. In addition, some manag- ers are top-level managers while others are first-line managers. And today, managers are just as likely to be women as they are men; however, the number of women in top-level manager positions remains low—only 24 (4%) women were CEOs of Fortune 500 companies in 2014.1 Similarly, only 20 (4%) were minorities. Even in government leadership roles, women are far outnumbered by men in the U.S. Senate and House of Repre- sentatives, representing approximately 20 percent of these total elected officials.2 But no matter where managers are found or what gender or race they are, managers have exciting and chal- lenging jobs! Who Is a Manager? It used to be fairly simple to define who managers were: They were the organizational members who told others what to do and how to do it. It was easy to differentiate man- agers from nonmanagerial employees. Now, it isn’t quite that simple. In many organiza- tions, the changing nature of work has blurred the distinction between managers and nonmanagerial employees. Many traditional nonmanagerial jobs now include mana- gerial activities.3 For example, the gaming company Valve does not award job titles, and there is little formal supervision. Virtually any employee is free to start a project as long as the employee obtains funding and assembles a project team.4 Or consider an organization like Morning Star Company, the world’s largest tomato processor, where no employees are called managers—just 400 full-time employees who do what needs to be done and who together “manage” issues such as job responsibilities, compensa- tion decisions, and budget decisions.5 Sounds crazy, doesn’t it? But it works—for this organization. (See Case Application 2 at the end of the chapter to see how another business—Zappos—has gone bossless!) So, how do we define who managers are? A manager is someone who coor- dinates and oversees the work of other people so organizational goals can be ac- complished. A manager’s job is not about personal achievement—it’s about helping others do their work. That may mean coordinating the work of a departmental group, or it might mean supervising a single person. It could involve coordinating the work activities of a team with people from different departments or even people outside the organization such as temporary employees or individuals who work for the organization’s suppliers. Keep in mind that managers may also have work duties not related to coordinating and overseeing others’ work. For example, an insurance claims supervisor might process claims in addition to coordinating the work activi- ties of other claims clerks. How can managers be classified in organizations? In traditionally structured organizations (often pictured as a pyramid because more employees are at lower LO1.1 manager Someone who coordinates and oversees the work of other people so organizational goals can be accomplished Carnival Corporation’s CEO Arnold Donald is the top manager of the world’s largest cruise line, with over 100,000 employees from different cultures and countries, 10 cruise line brands, and 100 ships. His challenging job involves making decisions and developing plans that help Carnival achieve its goal “to show our guests the kind of fun that memories are made of.” Source: Jason DeCrow/AP Images for Carnival Corporation M01_ROBB5839_14_GE_C01.indd 40 07/06/17 5:37 pm Chapter 1 Managers and You in the Workplace 41 organizational levels than at upper organizational levels), managers can be classi- fied as first-line, middle, or top. (See Exhibit 1-1.) At the lowest level of manage- ment, first-line (or frontline) managers manage the work of nonmanagerial employees who typically are involved with producing the organization’s products or servicing the organization’s customers. These managers often have titles such as supervisors or even shift managers, district managers, department managers, or office managers. Middle managers manage the work of first-line managers and can be found between the lowest and top levels of the organization. They may have titles such as regional manager, project leader, store manager, or division man- ager. Middle managers are mainly responsible for turning company strategy into action. At the upper levels of the organization are the top managers, who are responsible for making organization-wide decisions and establishing the plans and goals that affect the entire organization. These individuals typically have titles such as executive vice president, president, managing director, chief operating officer, or chief executive officer. Not all organizations are structured to get work done using a traditional pyra- midal form, however. Some organizations, for example, are more loosely configured, with work done by ever-changing teams of employees who move from one project to another as work demands arise. For instance, Atlassian, a global software company based in Australia, forms employee teams with the skills and experience needed for each work project. When a project is complete, the team disbands and its members join new teams. Because team members may be in separate buildings or even in sepa- rate countries, Atlassian emphasizes clear and constant communication.6 Although it’s not as easy to tell who the managers are in these organizations, we do know that someone must fulfill that role—that is, someone must coordinate and oversee the work of others, even if that “someone” changes as work tasks or projects change or that “someone” doesn’t necessarily have the title of manager. Where Do Managers Work? It’s obvious that managers work in organizations. But what is an organization? It’s a deliberate arrangement of people to accomplish some specific purpose. Your college or university is an organization; so are fraternities and sororities, government depart- ments, churches, Google, your neighborhood grocery store, the United Way, the St. Louis Cardinals baseball team, and the Mayo Clinic. All are considered organizations and have three common characteristics. (See Exhibit 1-2.) first-line (frontline) managers Managers at the lowest level of management who manage the work of nonmanagerial employees middle managers Managers between the lowest level and top levels of the organization who manage the work of first-line managers top managers Managers at or near the upper levels of the organization structure who are responsible for making organization-wide decisions and establishing the goals and plans that affect the entire organization organization A deliberate arrangement of people to accomplish some specific purpose Top Managers Middle Managers First-Line Managers Nonmanagerial Employees Exhibit 1-1 Levels of Management Deliberate Structure Distinct Purpose People Exhibit 1-2 Characteristics of Organizations M01_ROBB5839_14_GE_C01.indd 41 07/06/17 5:37 pm 42 Part 1 Introduction to Management First, an organization has a distinct purpose typically expressed through goals the organization hopes to accomplish. Second, each organization is composed of people. It takes people to perform the work that’s necessary for the organization to achieve its goals. Third, all organizations develop a deliberate structure within which members do their work. That structure may be open and flexible, with no specific job duties or strict adherence to explicit job arrangements. For instance, most big projects at Google (at any one time, hundreds of projects are in process simultaneously) are tackled by small, focused employee teams that set up in an instant and complete work just as quickly.8 Or the structure may be more tradi- tional—like that of Procter & Gamble or General Electric or any large corpora- tion—with clearly defined rules, regulations, job descriptions, and some members identified as “bosses” who have authority over other members. In the military, there is a well-defined hierarchy. In the U.S. Air Force, the General of the Air Force is the highest ranking officer and Second Lieutenant is the lowest ranking officer. Between the two are nine officer ranks. Many of today’s organizations are structured more like Google, with flexible work arrangements, employee work teams, open communication systems, and sup- plier alliances. In these organizations, work is defined in terms of tasks to be done. And workdays have no time boundaries since work can be—and is—done any- where, anytime. However, no matter what type of approach an organization uses, some deliberate structure is needed so work can get done, with managers overseeing and coordinating that work. FYI • Frontline managers directly supervise some 93 percent of all nonsupervisory employees. • 9.3 million managers and executives were in the U.S. workforce in 2014. • 6.9 million middle managers were in the U.S. workforce • 2.4 million top executives were in the U.S. workforce.7 While this text presents a fairly accurate description of today’s workplace, you’re going to spend most of your work life in the future. What will that work life look like? How will it be different from today? The workplace of tomorrow is likely to include workers that are faster, smarter, more responsible—and who just happen to be robots.9 Are you at all surprised by this statement? Although robots have been used in factory and indus- trial settings for a long time, it’s becoming more com- mon to find robots in the office, and it’s bringing about new ways of looking at how work is done and at what and how managers manage. So what would the man- ager’s job be like managing robots? And even more intriguing is how these “workers” might affect how human coworkers interact with them. As machines have become smarter, researchers have been looking at human-machine interaction and how people interact with the smart devices that are now such an integral part of our professional and per- sonal lives. One conclusion is that people find it easy to bond with a robot, even one that doesn’t look or sound anything like a real person. In a workplace setting, if a robot moves around in a “purposeful way,” people tend to view it, in some ways, as a coworker. People name their robots and can even describe the robot’s moods and tendencies. As telepresence robots become more common, the humanness becomes even more evident. Is It Still Managing When What You’re Managing Are Robots?F U T U R E V I S I O N For example, when Erwin Deininger, the electrical engi- neer at Reimers Electra Steam, a small company in Clear Brook, Virginia, moved to the Dominican Republic when his wife’s job transferred her there, he was able to still be “present” at the company via his VGo robot. Now “robot” Deininger moves easily around the office and the shop floor, allowing the “real” Deininger to do his job just as if he were there in person. The company’s presi- dent, satisfied with how the robot solution has worked out, has been surprised at how he acts around it, feeling at times that he’s interacting with Deininger himself. There’s no doubt that robot technology will con- tinue to be incorporated into organizational settings. The manager’s job will become even more exciting and challenging as humans and machines work together to accomplish an organization’s goals. If your professor has chosen to assign this, go to www.mymanagementlab.com to discuss the follow- ing questions. TALK ABOUT IT 1: What’s your response to the title of this box: Is it still managing when what you’re managing are robots? Discuss. TALK ABOUT IT 2: If you had to “manage” peo- ple and robots, how do you think your job as manager might be different than what the chapter describes? M01_ROBB5839_14_GE_C01.indd 42 07/06/17 5:37 pm http://www.mymanagementlab.com Chapter 1 Managers and You in the Workplace 43 WHY are managers important? What can a great boss do? • Inspire you professionally and personally • Energize you and your coworkers to accomplish things together that you couldn’t get done by yourself • Provide coaching and guidance with problems • Provide you feedback on how you’re doing • Help you to improve your performance • Keep you informed of organizational changes • Change your life10 If you’ve worked with a manager like this, consider yourself lucky. Such a manager can make going to work a lot more enjoyable and productive. However, even managers who don’t live up to such lofty ideals and expectations are important to organizations. Why? Let’s look at three reasons. The first reason why managers are important is because organizations need their mana- gerial skills and abilities more than ever in uncertain, complex, and chaotic times. As orga- nizations deal with today’s challenges—changing workforce dynamics, the worldwide eco- nomic climate, changing technology, ever-increasing globalization, and so forth—managers play an important role in identifying critical issues and crafting responses. For example, BlackBerry Limited introduced software for autonomous cars. The company’s vehicle-to- vehicle software will enable cars to communicate with each other to prevent collisions and improve traffic flow.11 Teams of talented scientists and engineers create the hardware and software to make this possible. But it takes more than that to be successful. There has to be a focus on commercial potential. For example, Virgin Galactic and Xcor Aerospace are work- ing toward creating a new industry—space tourism for civilians. These companies possess the technological and scientific know-how and resources to make this a reality; however, the fare for a suborbital flight around Earth is expected to be about $100,000 per passenger.12 Most people will not have the discretionary funds to take these flights. That’s why, behind the scenes, you’d also find a team of managers who scrutinize ideas and focus on the ques- tion: Is there a sustainable market? These managers realize what is critical to success. The opposite “types” have worked together and created a successful business.13 Another reason why managers are important to organizations is because they’re critical to getting things done. For instance, Philips has thousands of general managers who supervise the work of 113,000 employees worldwide.14 These managers deal with all kinds of issues as the company’s myriad tasks are carried out. They create and coordinate the workplace environment and work systems so that others can perform those tasks. Or, if work isn’t getting done or isn’t getting done as it should be, they’re the ones who find out why and get things back on track. And these managers are key players in leading the com- pany into the future. Finally, managers do matter to organizations! How do we know that? The Gallup Or- ganization, which has polled millions of employees and tens of thousands of managers, has found that the single most important variable in employee productivity and loyalty isn’t pay or benefits or workplace environment—it’s the quality of the relationship between employ- ees and their direct supervisors.15 In addition, global consulting firm Towers Watson found that the way a company manages and engages its people can significantly affect its financial performance.16 Companies that hire managers based on talent realize a 48 percent increase in profitability, a 22 percent increase in productivity, a 30 percent increase in employee en- gagement scores, a 17 percent increase in customer engagement scores, and a 19 percent decrease in turnover.17 That’s scary considering another study by the Gallup Organization found that leadership is the single largest influence on employee engagement.18 In yet anoth- er study by different researchers, 44 percent of the respondents said their supervisors strong- ly increased engagement.19 However, in this same study, 41 percent of respondents also said their supervisors strongly decreased engagement. And, a different study of organizational performance found that managerial ability was important in creating organizational value.20 So, as you can see, managers can and do have an impact—positive and negative. What can we conclude from such reports? Managers are important—and they do matter! LO1.2 M01_ROBB5839_14_GE_C01.indd 43 07/06/17 5:37 pm 44 Part 1 Introduction to Management WHAT do managers do? Simply speaking, management is what managers do. But that simple statement doesn’t tell us much, does it? Let’s look first at what manage- ment is before discussing more specifically what managers do. Management involves coordinating and overseeing the work activities of others so their activities are completed efficiently and effectively. We already know that coordinating and overseeing the work of others is what distinguishes a managerial position from a nonmanagerial one. However, this doesn’t mean that managers or their employees can do what they want anytime, anywhere, or in any way. Instead, manage- ment involves ensuring that work activities are completed efficiently and effectively by the people responsible for doing them, or at least that’s what managers should be doing. Efficiency refers to getting the most output from the least amount of inputs or resources. Managers deal with scarce resources—including people, money, and equip- ment—and want to use those resources efficiently. Efficiency is often referred to as “doing things right,” that is, not wasting resources. For instance, Southwest Airlines has achieved operating efficiency through a variety of practices, which include using one aircraft model (Boeing 737) throughout its fleet. Using one model simplifies scheduling, operations, and flight maintenance, and the training costs for pilots, ground crew, and mechanics are lower because there’s only a single aircraft to learn.21 These efficient work practices paid off, as Southwest has made a profit for 42 consecutive years!22 It’s not enough, however, just to be efficient. Management is also concerned with employee effectiveness. Effectiveness is often described as “doing the right things,” that is, doing those work activities that will result in achieving goals. Besides being efficient, Southwest Airlines’ mission is “dedication to the highest quality of Customer Service delivered with a sense of warmth, friendliness, individual pride, and Company Spirit.”23 Two of the many reasons cited for the airlines’ effectiveness are permitting two checked bags for free and permitting a change in itinerary without incurring a pen- alty.24 Whereas efficiency is concerned with the means of getting things done, effective- ness is concerned with the ends, or attainment of organizational goals (see Exhibit 1-3). In successful organizations, high efficiency and high effectiveness typically go hand in hand. Poor management (which leads to poor performance) usually involves being inefficient and ineffective or being effective but inefficient. LO1.3 management Coordinating and overseeing the work activities of others so their activities are completed efficiently and effectively efficiency Doing things right, or getting the most output from the least amount of inputs effectiveness Doing the right things, or doing those work activities that will result in achieving goals Goal Attainment Effectiveness (Ends) Resource Usage Management Strives for: Low Resource Waste (high efficiency) High Goal Attainment (high effectiveness) Efficiency (Means) Low Waste High Attainment Exhibit 1-3 Efficiency and Effectiveness in Management Time Management—If your instructor is using Pearson MyLab Management, log onto www.mymanagementlab.com and test your time management knowledge. Be sure to refer back to the chapter opener! Now let’s take a more detailed look at what managers do. Describing what manag- ers do isn’t easy. Just as no two organizations are alike, no two managers’ jobs are alike. In spite of this, management researchers have developed three approaches to describe what managers do: functions, roles, and skills. It’s Your Career M01_ROBB5839_14_GE_C01.indd 44 07/06/17 5:37 pm http://www.mymanagementlab.com Chapter 1 Managers and You in the Workplace 45 Management Functions According to the functions approach, managers perform certain activities or functions as they efficiently and effec- tively coordinate the work of others. What are these func- tions? Henri Fayol, a French businessman in the early part of the twentieth century, suggested that all managers per- form five functions: planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controlling.25 (See Management History Module for more information.) Today, we use four functions to describe a manager’s work: planning, organizing, leading, and controlling (see Exhibit 1-4). Let’s briefly look at each. If you have no particular destination in mind, then any road will do. However, if you have someplace in particular you want to go, you’ve got to plan the best way to get there. Because organizations exist to achieve some particular pur- pose, someone must define that purpose and the means for its achievement. Managers are that someone. As managers engage in planning, they set goals, establish strategies for achieving those goals, and develop plans to integrate and coordinate activities. Managers are also responsible for arranging and structuring work that employees do to accomplish the organization’s goals. We call this function organizing. When managers organize, they determine what tasks are to be done, who is to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports to whom, and where decisions are to be made. Every organization has people, and a manager’s job is to work with and through people to accomplish goals. This is the leading function. When managers motivate subordinates, help resolve work group conflicts, influence individuals or teams as they work, select the most effec- tive communication channel, or deal in any way with employee behavior issues, they’re leading. The final management function is controlling. After goals and plans are set (plan- ning), tasks and structural arrangements are put in place (organizing), and people are hired, trained, and motivated (leading), there has to be an evaluation of whether things are going as planned. To ensure goals are met and work is done as it should be, managers monitor and evaluate performance. Actual performance is compared with the set goals. If those goals aren’t achieved, it’s the manager’s job to get work back on track. This pro- cess of monitoring, comparing, and correcting is the controlling function. Just how well does the functions approach describe what managers do? Do manag- ers always plan, organize, lead, and then control? Not necessarily. What a manager does may not always happen in this sequence. However, regardless of the order in which these functions are performed, managers do plan, organize, lead, and control as they manage. planning Management function that involves setting goals, establishing strategies for achieving those goals, and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities organizing Management function that involves arranging and structuring work to accomplish the organization’s goals leading Management function that involves working with and through people to accomplish organizational goals controlling Management function that involves monitoring, comparing, and correcting work performance Leading is an important function of The Container Store manager Jaimie Moeller (left). She influences the behavior of employees by leading them in a team huddle before they begin their work day. Coaching employees to succeed in the store’s team-selling environment helps Moeller achieve the store’s sales performance and customer service goals. Source: ZUMA Press Inc/Alamy Planning Setting goals, establishing strategies, and developing plans to coordinate activities Organizing Determining what needs to be done, how it will be done, and who is to do it Leading Motivating, leading, and any other actions involved in dealing with people Controlling Monitoring activities to ensure that they are accomplished as planned Achieving the organization’s stated purposes Planning Setting goals, establishing strategies, and developing plans to coordinate activities Organizing Determining what needs to be done, how it will be done, and who is to do it Leading Motivating, leading, and any other actions involved in dealing with people Controlling Monitoring activities to ensure that they are accomplished as planned Achieving the organization’s stated purposes Exhibit 1-4 Four Functions of Management Although the functions approach is a popular way to describe what managers do, some have argued that it isn’t relevant.26 So let’s look at another perspective. If your professor has assigned this, go to www.mymanagementlab.com to complete the Simulation: What Is Management? and see how well you can apply the ideas of plan- ning, organizing, leading, and controlling. Try It 1! M01_ROBB5839_14_GE_C01.indd 45 07/06/17 5:37 pm http://www.mymanagementlab.com 46 Part 1 Introduction to Management REALlet’s get The Scenario: Micah, one of your best employees, was just promoted to a managerial position. You invited him to lunch to celebrate and to see what was on his mind about his new position. Waiting for your food to arrive, you asked him if he had any concerns or questions about being a manager. Looking straight at you, Micah said, “How is being a manager going to be different? What will I do as a manager?” How would you respond? Being a manager means that you have a greater responsibility to consider, and keep in mind big-picture organizational goals and how your work and that of your staff contribute to those goals. As a manager you also have a responsibility to think about development opportunities for any team members who may now report to you. How will you help to put them on a path toward growth and suc- cess? Maribel Lara Director, Account Management So ur ce : M ar ib el L ar a Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles and a Contemporary Model of Managing Henry Mintzberg, a well-known management researcher, studied actual managers at work. In his first comprehensive study, Mintzberg concluded that what managers do can best be described by looking at the managerial roles they engage in at work.27 The term managerial roles refers to specific actions or behaviors expected of and exhib- ited by a manager. (Think of the different roles you play—student, employee, student organization member, volunteer, sibling, and so forth—and the different things you’re expected to do in these roles.) When describing what managers do from a roles per- spective, we’re not looking at a specific person per se, but at the expectations and responsibilities associated with the person in that role—the role of a manager.28 As shown in Exhibit 1-5, these 10 roles are grouped around interpersonal relationships, the transfer of information, and decision making. The interpersonal roles involve people (subordinates and persons out- side the organization) and other ceremonial and symbolic duties. The three in- terpersonal roles include figurehead, leader, and liaison. The informational roles involve collecting, receiving, and disseminating information. The three in- formational roles include monitor, disseminator, and spokesperson. Finally, the decisional roles entail making decisions or choices and include entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, and negotiator. As managers perform these roles, Mintzberg proposed that their activities included both reflection (thinking) and action (doing).29 A number of follow-up studies have tested the validity of Mintzberg’s role catego- ries, and the evidence generally supports the idea that managers—regardless of the type of organization or level in the organization—perform similar roles.30 However, the emphasis that managers give to the various roles seems to change with organiza- tional level.31 At higher levels of the organization, the roles of disseminator, figure- head, negotiator, liaison, and spokesperson are more important; while the leader role (as Mintzberg defined it) is more important for lower-level managers than it is for either middle or top-level managers. managerial roles Specific actions or behaviors expected of and exhibited by a manager interpersonal roles Managerial roles that involve people and other duties that are ceremonial and symbolic in nature informational roles Managerial roles that involve collecting, receiving, and disseminating information decisional roles Managerial roles that revolve around making choices M01_ROBB5839_14_GE_C01.indd 46 07/06/17 5:37 pm Chapter 1 Managers and You in the Workplace 47 So which approach is better, managerial functions or Mintzberg’s propositions? Although each does a good job of depicting what managers do, the functions ap- proach still seems to be the generally accepted way of describing the manager’s job. “The classical functions provide clear and discrete methods of classifying the thousands of activities managers carry out and the techniques they use in terms of the functions they perform for the achievement of goals.”32 However, Mintzberg’s role approach and additional model of managing do offer us other insights into managers’ work. Management Skills UPS is a company that understands the importance of management skills.33 The com- pany’s new on-road supervisors are immersed in a new manager orientation where they learn people and time management skills. The company started an intensive eight-day offsite skills training program for first-line managers as a way to improve its operations. What have supervisors learned from the skills training? Some things they mentioned learning were how to communicate more effectively and important information about safety compliance and labor practices. What types of skills do managers need? Robert L. Katz proposed that managers need three critical skills in managing: technical, human, and conceptual.34 (Exhibit 1-6 shows the relationships of these skills to managerial levels.) Technical skills are the job-specific knowledge and techniques needed to proficiently per- form work tasks. These skills tend to be more important for first-line managers technical skills Job-specific knowledge and techniques needed to proficiently perform work tasks IN FO RM AT IO N A L R O LE S D E C IS IO N A L ROL ES IN TER PERSONAL ROL ES IN FO RM ATAA IO N A S N A L ROL ES INT ER ROL ES Figurehead Leader Liaison Disseminator SpokespersonNegotiator Resource Allocator Disturbance Handler Entrepreneur Monitor Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles Exhibit 1-5 Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles Source: Based on H. Mintzberg, The Nature of Managerial Work (New York: Prentice Hall, 1983). Top Managers Conceptual Human Technical Middle Managers Conceptual Human Technical Lower-Level Managers TechnicalHumanConceptual Exhibit 1-6 Skills Needed at Different Managerial Levels M01_ROBB5839_14_GE_C01.indd 47 19/07/17 9:51 AM 48 Part 1 Introduction to Management because they typically manage employees who use tools and techniques to pro- duce the organization’s products or service the organization’s customers. Often, employees with excellent technical skills get promoted to first-line manager. For example, Dean White, a production supervisor at Springfield Remanufacturing, started as a parts cleaner. Now, White manages 25 people in six departments. He noted that at first it was difficult to get people to listen, especially his former peers. “I learned I had to gain respect before I could lead,” White said. He credits men- tors—other supervisors whose examples he followed—with helping him become the type of manager he is today.35 Dean is a manager who has technical skills, but also recognizes the importance of interpersonal skills, which involve the ability to work well with other people both individually and in a group. Because all managers deal with people, these skills are equally important to all levels of management. Managers with good human skills get the best out of their people. They know how to communicate, motivate, lead, and inspire enthusiasm and trust. Finally, conceptual skills are the skills managers use to think and to conceptu- alize about abstract and complex situations. Using these skills, managers see the organization as a whole, understand the relationships among various subunits, and visualize how the organization fits into its broader environment. Managers then can effectively direct employees’ work. For example, Ian McAllister, general manager at Amazon, indicates that a successful general manager understands the whole business. With this understanding, managers can get everyone on the same page. In turn, employees will make a substantial number of decisions in support of the company’s vision.36 These skills are most important to top managers. Other important managerial skills that have been identified are listed in Exhibit 1-7. In today’s demanding and dynamic workplace, employees who want to be valuable assets must constantly upgrade their skills, and developing management skills can be particularly beneficial. We feel that understanding and developing management skills is so important that we’ve included a skills activity component for each chapter’s It’s Your Career opener. You’ll find that activity at www.mymanagementlab.com. In addi- tion, we’ve included a career skills feature at the end of each chapter. (The one in this chapter looks at developing your political skills.) Although completing skill-building exercises won’t make you an instant expert, they can provide you an introductory un- derstanding of some of the skills you’ll need to master to be a valuable employee and an effective manager. interpersonal skills The ability to work well with other people individually and in a group conceptual skills The ability to think and to conceptualize about abstract and complex situations If your professor has assigned this, go to mymanagementlab.com and complete the Writing Assignment MGMT 1: Management Skills. Managing human capital Inspiring commitment Managing change Structuring work and getting things done Facilitating the psychological and social contexts of work Using purposeful networking Managing decision-making processes Managing strategy and innovation Managing logistics and technology Exhibit 1-7 Important Managerial Skills Source: Based on Workforce Online; J. R. Ryan, Bloomberg BusinessWeek Online; In-Sue Oh and C. M. Berry; and R. S. Rubin and E. C. Dierdorff. Write It! M01_ROBB5839_14_GE_C01.indd 48 07/06/17 5:37 pm http://www.mymanagementlab.com Chapter 1 Managers and You in the Workplace 49 HOW is the manager’s job changing? In today’s world, managers are dealing with global economic and politi- cal uncertainties, changing workplaces, ethical issues, security threats, and changing technology. For example, as annual sales surge past 500,000 vehicles, a major challenge for Jaguar Land Rover is staffing its UK assembly plants to meet demand. The Halewood plant near Liverpool has tripled its workforce during the past six years and is always seeking qualified employees. To attract a large and diverse pool of job candidates, managers created apprenticeships for recent graduates. They also launched “Young Women in the Know,” a program in which Jaguar Land Rover’s women engineers and managers conducted factory tours to get girls and women interested in manufacturing. At the same time, these managers are facing decisions in an uncertain environment now that the United Kingdom has voted to exit the European Union.37 It’s likely that more managers will have to manage under such demanding circumstances, and the fact is that how managers manage is changing. Exhibit 1-8 shows some of the most important changes facing managers. Throughout the rest of this text, we’ll discuss these and other changes and how they affect the way managers plan, organize, lead, and control. We want to focus on six of these changes: customers, technology, social media, innovation, sustainability, and the employee. Focus on the Customer John Legere, CEO of T-Mobile, likes to listen to customers. “My business philosophy is listen to your employees, listen to your customers. Shut up and do what they tell you. And each of our Un-carrier moves and the way I run my company is completely aligned with that.”38 This manager understands the importance of customers and clearly be- lieves that focusing on customers is essential to success. Without them, most organiza- tions would cease to exist. Yet, focusing on the customer has long been thought to be the responsibility of marketing types. “Let the marketers worry about the customers” is LO1.4 REALlet’s get The Scenario: After three years as a lead customer service representative for an Internet-based clothing company, Jane is eager to apply for a team supervisor position. She has good relationships with the employees in her department, but she is not sure what skills she needs to have to be considered for the promotion. At her performance appraisal meeting with her manager, she asks, “What can I do to build my skills to prepare me to become a supervisor?” What advice can you give Jane on developing her skills? As you advance in your career, the biggest shift in your skill set will be going from the “doer” to the “delegator.” Instead of getting all the work done, you’ll become air traffic control and act as more of a guide for your employees. You can hone these leadership skills before ever actually getting the role. Try to approach each new project as if you were leading the team responsible for it. Think more strategically and consider the broader business objectives versus just the details of the tasks at hand. Your manager will start to notice this shift in your mindset and it will become clear that you’re ready to seamlessly take on the new responsibilities. Whitney Portman Senior Marketing Communications Manager So ur ce : W hi tn ey P or tm an M01_ROBB5839_14_GE_C01.indd 49 07/06/17 5:37 pm 50 Part 1 Introduction to Management how many managers felt. That sentiment is out of date. At Banana Republic, the cus- tomer experience manager position is responsible for ensuring that customers enjoy a high-quality in-store experience. This manager is also responsible for staffing and train- ing as well as supporting the implementation of product placement, marketing, and promotional strategies.39 We’re discovering, however, that employee attitudes and behaviors play a big role in customer satisfaction and a return on investment. The J.D. Power 2015 North American Airline Satisfaction Study supports this idea. According to J.D. Power’s global travel and hospitality practice leader, Rich Garelick, building customer satisfaction creates “better customer ad- vocates for the airline.”40 Successful airlines such as Alaska Airlines and Jet Blue Airways treat passengers well by putting forward friend- ly announcements to inform them on the ground or in the air about flight status and offering amenities such as in-flight entertainment. Today, the majority of employees in developed countries work in service jobs. For instance, almost 80 percent of the U.S. labor force is employed in service industries.41 In Australia, 75 percent work in service industries, and in Canada, 76 percent do. In the United Kingdom, Germany, and Japan, the percentages are 83, 74, and 71, respec- tively. Even in developing countries such as Colombia, Dominican Republic, Viet- nam, and Bangladesh, we find 62 percent, 65 percent, 31 percent, and 40 percent of the labor force employed in service jobs.42 Examples of service jobs include technical support representatives, food servers or fast-food counter workers, sales clerks, cus- todians and housekeepers, teachers, nurses, computer repair technicians, front-desk clerks, consultants, purchasing agents, credit representatives, financial planners, and Impact of Change Changing Technology (Digitization) Changing Security Threats Increased Emphasis on Organizational and Managerial Ethics Increased Competitiv eness Customer service Innovation Globalization Efficiency/productivity Redefined values Rebuilding trust Increased accountability Sustainability Risk management Uncertainty over future energy sources/prices Restructured workplace Discrimination concerns Globalization concerns Employee assistance Uncertainty over economic climate Shifting organizational boundaries Virtual workplaces More mobile workforce Flexible work arrangements Empowered employees Work life–personal life balance Social media challenges Change Exhibit 1-8 Changes Facing Managers With the growing popularity of tourism in the Dominican Republic, a large percentage of the labor force works in service jobs for resorts, attractions, and tourist-related activities such as the aerobics instructor shown here leading a class on the beach for tourists. To succeed in the service industry, managers must create a customer-responsive organization. Source: Ellen McKnight/Alamy M01_ROBB5839_14_GE_C01.indd 50 07/06/17 5:37 pm Chapter 1 Managers and You in the Workplace 51 bank tellers. The odds are pretty good that when you graduate, you’ll go to work for a company that’s in a service industry, not in manufacturing or agriculture. Managers are recognizing that delivering consistent, high-quality customer service is essential for survival and success in today’s competitive environment. Good cus- tomer care pays off. A recent study found that nearly all customers (92%) whose issue was resolved during first contact with customer service would likely continue using the company.43 That number drops to about half (51%) for customers whose issue was not resolved during first contact. Employees are an important part of that equation.44 The implication is clear: managers must create a customer-responsive organization where employees are friendly and courteous, accessible, knowledgeable, prompt in respond- ing to customer needs, and willing to do what’s necessary to please the customer.45 We’ll look at customer service management in other chapters. Focus on Technology Managers increasingly face challenges in their work because technology has been changing how things get done. Cloud computing, social media, and robotics are ex- amples of technology. Getting employees on board presents a challenge to many man- agers. Managers must work with employees to understand why new technology is an improvement over present ways of conducting business. According to Didier Bonnet, coauthor of Leading Challenge, “The job of a manager is to help people cross the bridge—to get them comfortable with the technology, to get them using it, and to help them understand how it makes their lives better.”46 It is a myth that social skills have become less important because there is more tech- nology in the workplace. Take robotic technology. Software programming can systemize human decision making and physical tasks, which can be carried out by machinery. How- ever, technological advances have fallen short of replicating human interactions and tech- nology falls short of substituting human judgment. Particularly in team settings, workers rely on each other’s expertise, and they are able to adapt to changing circumstances than is made possible by software.47 As a result, managers are continually challenged to over- see team building and problem solving. Management expert Henry Mintzberg, however, warns that “wonderful as they are in enhancing communication, [technological devices] can have a negative effect on collaboration unless they are carefully managed. An elec- tronic device puts us in touch with a keyboard, that’s all.”48 Therein lies a significant chal- lenge for managers. Social media technology adds further challenges to the mix. Focus on Social Media You probably can’t imagine a time when employees did their work without smart de- vices, e-mail, or Internet access. Yet, some 25 years ago, as these tools were becoming more common in workplaces, managers struggled with the challenges of providing guidelines for using the Internet and e-mail in their organizations. Today, the new fron- tier is social media, forms of electronic communication through which users create online communities to share ideas, information, personal messages, and other content. And employees don’t just use these on their personal time, but also for work purposes. That’s why managers need to understand and manage the power and peril of social media. For instance, all 143,000 workers in the Singapore Civil Service are being encouraged to use a workplace chat function provided by Facebook for internal conversations. The idea is to reduce reliance on email and instead enable real-time collaboration among employees.49 More businesses are turning to social media as a way to connect with customers. Increasingly, many companies encourage employees to use social media to become employee activists. For this purpose, employee activists draw visibility to their workplace, defend their employers from criticism, and serve as advocates, both online and off.50 social media Forms of electronic communication through which users create online communities to share ideas, information, personal messages, and other content If your professor has assigned this, go to www.mymanagementlab.com to watch a video titled Zane’s Cycles: The Management Environment and to respond to questions. Watch It 1! M01_ROBB5839_14_GE_C01.indd 51 30/06/17 11:41 am http://www.mymanagementlab.com 52 Part 1 Introduction to Management But the potential peril is in how it’s used. CEO of Berkshire Hathaway, Warren Buf- fet, has said that, “It takes 20 years to build a reputation and five minutes to ruin it.”51 Internally, social media also becomes problematic when it becomes a way for boastful em- ployees to brag about their accomplishments, for managers to publish one-way messages to employees, or for employees to argue or gripe about something or someone they don’t like at work—then it has lost its usefulness. To avoid this, managers need to remember that social media is a tool that needs to be managed to be beneficial. At SuperValu, about 9,000 store managers and assistant managers use the social media system. Although sources say it’s too early to draw any conclusions, it appears that managers who actively make use of the system are having better store sales revenues than those who don’t. In the remainder of the book, we’ll look at how social media is impacting how managers manage, especially in the areas of human resource management, commu- nication, teams, and strategy. For example, a particular question is whether human resource managers should use social media to screen potential employees. Ursula Burns is the first African American woman to lead a company the size of Xerox.52 Appointed to the CEO position in 2009, Burns is known for her cour- age to “tell the truth in ugly times.” Having grown up in the projects on the Lower East Side of New York, Burns understands what it takes to get through those uncertainties. With her aptitude for math, Burns went on to earn a mechanical engineering degree from Polytechnic Institute of New York. After a summer engineering internship at Xerox, she was hooked. At Xerox, Burns was mentored by individuals who saw her potential. Throughout her more than 30-year career at Xerox, Burns had a reputa- tion for being bold. As a mechanical engineer, she got noticed because she wasn’t afraid to speak up bluntly in a culture that’s known more for being polite, courteous, and discreet than for being outspoken. Al- though Burns is still radically honest and direct, she has become more of a listener, calling herself a “listener-in-chief.” What can you learn from this leader making a difference? LEADER making a DIFFERENCE So ur ce : J em al C ou nt es s/ Ge tty Im ag es En te rta in m en t/G et ty im ag es .c om If your professor has assigned this, go to www.mymanagementlab.com to watch a video titled CH2M Hill: Emotions and Moods and to respond to questions. Focus on Innovation Success in business today demands innovation. Innovation means exploring new terri- tory, taking risks, and doing things differently. And innovation isn’t just for high-tech or other technologically sophisticated organizations. Innovative efforts can be found in all types of organizations. For instance, the manager of the Best Buy store in Manchester, Connecticut, clearly understood the importance of being innovative, a task made par- ticularly challenging because the average Best Buy store is often staffed by young adults in their first or second jobs who aren’t always committed long term to a retail career. Yet, the increasingly sophisticated products carried by the store required a high level of em- ployee training. The store manager tackled this challenge by getting employees to sug- gest new ideas. One idea—a “team close,” in which employees scheduled to work at the store’s closing time closed the store together and walked out together as a team—had a remarkable impact on employee attitudes and commitment.53 As you’ll see throughout the book, innovation is critical throughout all levels and parts of an organization. It’s so critical to today’s organizations and managers that we also address this topic in other chapters. Focus on Sustainability Microsoft Corporation generated $93.6 bil- lion in software sales and $12.1 billion in profits, and it had a workforce of 118,000 in 2015. We all know Microsoft for its develop- ment and sales of software such as Windows, Skype, and Xbox Live. And Microsoft is probably the last company that you’d think about in a section describing sustainability. However, Microsoft invests in a variety of sustainability projects. Management funds these projects through taxes levied on its business units’ energy consumption that contributes to environmentally unfriendly carbon emissions. The responsibility for sav- ings falls on division managers. Microsoft’s efforts have paid off. In a recent three-year period, the company has reduced its emis- sions by 7.5 metric tons of carbon dioxide.54 According to the U.S. Environmental Watch It 2! M01_ROBB5839_14_GE_C01.indd 52 07/06/17 5:37 pm http://www.mymanagementlab.com Chapter 1 Managers and You in the Workplace 53 Protection Agency, this level of emissions is the equivalent of removing more than 1.5 million cars from the road for a year.”55 This corporate action affirms that sustainability and green management have become mainstream issues for managers. What’s emerging in the twenty-first century is the concept of managing in a sustainable way, which has had the effect of widening corporate responsibility not only to managing in an efficient and effective way, but also to responding strategically to a wide range of environ- mental and societal challenges.56 Although “sustainability” means different things to differ- ent people, the World Business Council for Sustainable Development describes a situation where all the earth’s inhabitants can live well with adequate resources.57 From a business perspective, sustainability has been described as a company’s ability to achieve its business goals and increase long-term shareholder value by integrating economic, environmental, and social opportunities into its business strategies.58 Sustainability issues are now moving up the agenda of business leaders and the boards of thousands of companies. We’ll exam- ine sustainability and its importance to managers in other places throughout the book. Focus on the Employee In 2015, more than 75 percent of organizations worldwide indicated that they would follow a strategy of building talent from within their organizations rather than recruit- ing talent from the external labor force.59 Also, progressive companies recognize the importance of treating employees well not only because it’s simply the right thing to do, but also because it is good business. Well-treated employees are more likely to go the extra mile when performing their jobs. Every year, Fortune magazine publishes the list titled Great Places to Work. In 2015, outdoor retailer L.L. Bean was among the top 10 retail companies, and it ranked first for an outdoor retailer. L.L. Bean president and CEO Chris McCormick maintains that L.L. Bean’s strong leadership makes it an employer of choice. According to McCormick, “It reflects the work our leadership has done to develop a culture that helps ensure employees feel trusted to do a good job, take pride in their work, and feel that their contributions are truly valued.”60 Successful managers regularly provide performance feedback that serves as an evaluation of an employee’s performance and provides the foundation for discuss- ing developmental opportunities. Effective performance appraisal outcomes depend on clearly communicating performance expectations and the resources available to help employees perform well and providing feedback on how well expectations were met. Also, conversations about an employee’s career aspirations in the context of past performance serve a developmental role that will motivate workers to strive for excel- lence. When performance appraisal works in these ways, the company stands to build a strong talent base. Developmental practices also can support a structure on which to base rewards. Effective managers strive to reward employees with competitive base wages or salary and pay raises that recognize past performance and future potential. Successful managers often embrace work-life practices and provide encouragement to employees who wish to use them. Such behavior expresses the value the manager and company leadership place on the well-being of employees. The company stands to benefit through higher employee satisfaction, talent retention, and higher employee engagement.61 WHY study management? You may be wondering why you need to study management. If you’re ma- joring in accounting or marketing or any field other than management, you may not understand how studying management is going to help your career. We can explain the value of studying management by looking at three things: the universality of management, the reality of work, and the rewards and challenges of being a manager. The Universality of Management Just how universal is the need for management in organizations? We can say with absolute certainty that management is needed in all types and sizes of organizations, at all organizational levels and in all organizational work areas, and in all organizations, no matter where they’re located. This is known as the universality of management. sustainability A company’s ability to achieve its business goals and increase long- term shareholder value by integrating economic, environmental, and social opportunities into its business strategies LO1.5 universality of management The reality that management is needed in all types and sizes of organizations, at all organizational levels, in all organizational areas, and in organizations no matter where located M01_ROBB5839_14_GE_C01.indd 53 07/06/17 5:37 pm 54 Part 1 Introduction to Management (See Exhibit 1-9.) In all these organizations, managers must plan, organize, lead, and control. However, that’s not to say that management is done the same way. What a su- pervisor in an applications testing group at Twitter does versus what the CEO of Twitter does is a matter of degree and emphasis, not function. Because both are managers, both will plan, organize, lead, and control. How much and how they do so will differ, however. Management is universally needed in all organizations, so we want to find ways to improve the way organizations are managed. Why? Because we interact with organi- zations every single day. Organizations that are well managed—and we’ll share many examples of these throughout the text—develop a loyal customer base, grow, and pros- per, even during challenging times. Those that are poorly managed find themselves los- ing customers and revenues. By studying management, you’ll be able to recognize poor management and work to get it corrected. In addition, you’ll be able to recognize and support good management, whether it’s in an organization with which you’re simply interacting or whether it’s in an organization in which you’re employed. All Sizes of Organizations Small Large All Types of Organizations Profit Not-for-Profit All Organization Levels Bottom Top All Organizational Areas Manufacturing—Marketing Human Resources—Accounting Information Systems—etc. Management Is Needed in... Exhibit 1-9 Universal Need for Management If your professor has assigned this, go to www.mymanagementlab.com to complete Simulation: Managing Your Career and get a feel for your career goals. The Reality of Work Another reason for studying management is the reality that for most of you, once you graduate from college and begin your career, you will either manage or be man- aged. For those who plan to be managers, an understanding of management forms the foundation upon which to build your management knowledge and skills. For those of you who don’t see yourself managing, you’re still likely to have to work with managers. Also, assuming that you’ll have to work for a living and recognizing that you’re very likely to work in an organization, you’ll probably have some managerial responsibili- ties even if you’re not a manager. Our experience tells us that you can gain a great deal of insight into the way your boss (and fellow employees) behave and how organiza- tions function by studying management. Our point is that you don’t have to aspire to be a manager to gain something valuable from a course in management. Rewards and Challenges of Being a Manager We can’t leave our discussion here without looking at the rewards and challenges of being a manager. (See Exhibit 1-10.) What does it mean to be a manager in today’s workplace? First, there are many challenges. It can be a tough and often thankless job. In addi- tion, a portion of a manager’s job (especially at lower organizational levels) may entail duties that are often more clerical (compiling and filing reports, dealing with bureau- cratic procedures, or doing paperwork) than managerial.62 Managers also spend signif- icant amounts of time in meetings and dealing with interruptions, which can be time Try It 2! M01_ROBB5839_14_GE_C01.indd 54 07/06/17 5:37 pm http://www.mymanagementlab.com Chapter 1 Managers and You in the Workplace 55 consuming and sometimes unproductive.63 Managers often have to deal with a variety of personalities and have to make do with limited resources. It can be a challenge to motivate workers in the face of uncertainty and chaos. And managers may find it difficult to suc- cessfully blend the knowledge, skills, ambitions, and experiences of a diverse work group. Finally, as a manager, you’re not in full control of your destiny. Your success typically is dependent on others’ work performance. Despite these challenges, being a manager can be rewarding. You’re responsible for creating a work environment in which organizational members can do their work to the best of their ability and thus help the organization achieve its goals. You help others find meaning and fulfillment in their work. You get to support, coach, and nurture oth- ers and help them make good decisions. In addition, as a manager, you often have the opportunity to think creatively and use your imagination. You’ll get to meet and work with a variety of people—both inside and outside the organization. Other rewards may include receiving recognition and status in your organization and in the community, playing a role in influencing organizational outcomes, and receiving attractive compen- sation in the form of salaries, bonuses, and stock options. Finally, as we said earlier in the chapter, organizations need good managers. It’s through the combined efforts of motivated and passionate people working together that organizations accomplish their goals. As a manager, you can be assured that your efforts, skills, and abilities are needed. Gaining Insights into Life at Work A good number of students regularly remind your authors that they are not planning a career in management. These students’ career goals are to be accountants or financial analysts or marketing researchers or computer programmers. They ask us: Why do I need to take a management course? Our answer is: Because understanding management concepts and how managers think will help you get better results at work and enhance your career. And who knows, you may become a manager someday. Oftentimes, suc- cessful employees are promoted to managerial roles. For example, you may begin your career as an auditor with a major accounting firm and find, a few years later, you’re overseeing an audit team or you’re a partner thrust into managing a regional office. For instance, throughout this book you’ll encounter pages that we call “Work- place Confidential.” This feature will introduce you to challenges you’re likely to face at work—like organizational politics, an uncommunicative boss, or an unfair perfor- mance review—and offer you specific suggestions on how to deal with these challenges. If you expect to work with others—whether it’s in a Fortune 100 corporation or in a three-person start-up—studying Management can pay demonstrable dividends. Exhibit 1-10 Rewards and Challenges of Being a Manager Rewards Challenges • Create a work environment in which organizational members can work to the best of their ability • Have opportunities to think creatively and use imagination • Help others find meaning and fulfillment in work • Support, coach, and nurture others • Work with a variety of people • Receive recognition and status in organization and community • Play a role in influencing organizational outcomes • Receive appropriate compensation in the form of salaries, bonuses, and stock options • Good managers are needed by organizations • Do hard work • May have duties that are more clerical than managerial • Have to deal with a variety of personalities • Often have to make do with limited resources • Motivate workers in chaotic and uncertain situations • Blend knowledge, skills, ambitions, and experiences of a diverse work group • Success depends on others’ work performance M01_ROBB5839_14_GE_C01.indd 55 07/06/17 5:37 pm 56 Part 1 Introduction to Management • Gain control of organizational resources. The control of organizational resources that are scarce and important is a source of influence. Knowledge and expertise are particu- larly effective resources to control. These resources make you more valuable to the organization and, therefore, more likely to gain security, advancement, and a receptive audi- ence for your ideas. • Make yourself appear indispensable. You don’t have to be indispensable as long as key people in your organization believe that you are. If the organization’s prime decision makers believe there is no ready substitute for what you bring to the organization, your job is likely safe and you’re likely to be treated well. • Be visible. If you have a job that brings your accomplish- ments to the attention of others, that’s great. However, if not—without creating the image of a braggart—you’ll want to let others know what you’re doing by giving progress reports to your boss and others, having satisfied custom- ers relay their appreciation to higher-ups, being seen at social functions, being active in your professional associa- tions, and developing powerful allies who can speak posi- tively about your accomplishments. • Develop powerful allies. It is often beneficial to have friends in high places. Network by cultivating contacts with potentially influential people above you, at your own level, and in the lower ranks. These allies often can provide you with information that’s otherwise not readily available and provide you with support if and when you need it. Having a mentor in the organization who is well respected is often a valuable asset. • Avoid “tainted” members. In almost every organization, there are fringe members whose status is questionable. Their performance and/or loyalty are suspect. Or they have strange personalities. Keep your distance from such indi- viduals. Given the reality that effectiveness has a large subjective component, your own effectiveness might be called into question if you’re perceived as being too closely associated with tainted members. • Support your boss. Your immediate future is in the hands of your current boss. Because that person evaluates your performance, you’ll typically want to do whatever is neces- sary to have your boss on your side. You should make every effort to help your boss succeed, make her look good, sup- port her if she is under siege, and spend the time to find out the criteria she will use to assess your effectiveness. Don’t undermine your boss. And don’t speak negatively of her to others. Based on D. Krackhardt, “Assessing the Political Landscape: Structure, Cog- nition, and Power in Organizations,” Administrative Science Quarterly, June 1990, pp. 342–369; G. R. Ferris, S. L. Davidson, and P.L. Perrewé, Political Skill at Work: Impact on Work Effectiveness (Mountain View, CA: Davies- Black Publishing, 2005); and J. Bolander, “How to Deal with Organizational Politics,” The Daily MBA, February 28, 2011. Dealing with Organizational PoliticsWORKPLACE CONFIDENTIAL In an ideal world, the good guys always win, everyone tells the truth, and job promotions and generous pay raises go to the most deserving candidate. Unfortunately, we don’t live in such an ideal world. The world we live in is a political one. Politics is a fact of life in organizations. People who ignore this fact do so at their own peril. But why, you may wonder, must politics exist? Isn’t it possible for an organiza- tion to be politics free? It’s possible, but most unlikely. Organizations are made up of individuals and groups with different values, goals, and interests. This sets up the poten- tial for conflict over resources. Departmental budgets, office allocations, project responsibilities, promotion choices, and salary adjustments are just a few examples of the resources about whose allocation organizational members will disagree. Resources in organizations are also limited, which turns potential conflict into real conflict. If resources were abun- dant, then all the various constituencies within the organiza- tion could satisfy their goals. But because they are limited, not everyone’s interests can be provided for. Furthermore, whether true or not, gains by one individual or group are often perceived as being at the expense of others within the organization. These forces create a competition among members for the organization’s limited resources. Maybe the most important factor leading to politics within organizations is the realization that most of the facts that are used to allocate the limited resources are open to interpretation. What, for instance, is good performance? What’s an adequate improvement? What constitutes an unsatisfactory job? One person’s team player is another’s “yes man.” So it is the large and ambiguous middle ground of organizational life—where the facts don’t speak for them- selves—that politics flourish. The above explains why some people in the workplace lie, misrepresent, conceal, backstab, play favorites, scheme, pass the buck, deny responsibility, form alliances, or engage in similar political actions. If you want to improve your political skills at work, we offer the following suggestions: • Frame arguments in terms of organizational goals. People whose actions appear to blatantly further their own interests at the expense of the organization are almost universally denounced, are likely to lose influence, and of- ten suffer the ultimate penalty of being expelled from the organization. Challenges to your actions are not likely to gain much support if your actions appear to be in the best interests of the organization. • Develop the right image. Make sure you understand what your organization wants and values from its employees— in terms of dress, associates to cultivate and those to avoid, whether to appear to be a risk taker or risk averse, the importance of getting along with others, and so forth. Because the assessment of your performance is rarely a fully objective process, you need to pay attention to style as well as substance. M01_ROBB5839_14_GE_C01.indd 56 07/06/17 5:37 pm Chapter 1 Managers and You in the Workplace 57 CHAPTER SUMMARY by Learning Objectives TELL who managers are and where they work. Managers coordinate and oversee the work of other people so that organizational goals can be accomplished. Nonmanagerial employees work directly on a job or task and have no one reporting to them. In traditionally structured organizations, manag- ers can be first-line, middle, or top. In other more loosely configured organizations, the managers may not be as readily identifiable, although someone must fulfill that role. Managers work in an organization, which is a deliberate arrangement of people to accomplish some specific purpose. Organizations have three characteristics: They have a distinctive purpose, they are composed of people, and they have a deliberate structure. Many of today’s organizations are structured to be more open, flexible, and responsive to changes. EXPLAIN why managers are important to organizations. Managers are important to organizations for three reasons. First, organizations need their managerial skills and abilities in uncertain, complex, and chaotic times. Second, managers are critical to getting things done in organizations. Finally, managers con- tribute to employee productivity and loyalty; the way employees are managed can af- fect the organization’s financial performance, and managerial ability has been shown to be important in creating organizational value. DESCRIBE the functions, roles, and skills of managers. Broadly speaking, management is what managers do and involves coordinating and overseeing the efficient and effective completion of others’ work activities. Efficiency means doing things right; effectiveness means doing the right things. The four functions of management include planning (defining goals, establishing strategies, and developing plans), organizing (arranging and structuring work), lead- ing (working with and through people), and controlling (monitoring, comparing, and correcting work performance). Mintzberg’s managerial roles include interpersonal, which involve people and oth- er ceremonial/symbolic duties (figurehead, leader, and liaison); informational, which involve collecting, receiving, and disseminating information (monitor, disseminator, and spokesperson); and decisional, which involve making choices (entrepreneur, dis- turbance handler, resource allocator, and negotiator). Katz’s managerial skills include technical (job-specific knowledge and techniques), interpersonal (ability to work well with people), and conceptual (ability to think and express ideas). Technical skills are most important for lower-level managers, while con- ceptual skills are most important for top managers. Interpersonal skills are equally important for all managers. Some other managerial skills identified include managing human capital, inspiring commitment, managing change, using purposeful network- ing, and so forth. DESCRIBE the factors that are reshaping and redefining the manager’s job. The changes impacting managers’ jobs include global economic and political uncertainties, changing workplaces, ethical issues, security threats, and changing tech- nology. Managers must focus on customer service because employee attitudes and behaviors play a big role in customer satisfaction. Managers must focus on technology LO1.1 LO1.2 LO1.3 LO1.4 Chapter 1 PREPARING FOR: Exams/Quizzes M01_ROBB5839_14_GE_C01.indd 57 07/06/17 5:37 pm 58 Part 1 Introduction to Management as it impacts how things get done in organizations. Managers must focus on social me- dia because these forms of communication are important and valuable tools in man- aging. Managers must focus on innovation because it is important for organizations to be competitive. Managers must also focus on sustainability as business goals are developed. And finally, managers must focus on employees in order for them to be more productive. EXPLAIN the value of studying management. It’s important to study management for three reasons: (1) the universality of manage- ment, which refers to the fact that managers are needed in all types and sizes of orga- nizations, at all organizational levels and work areas, and in all global locations; (2) the reality of work—that is, you will either manage or be managed; and (3) the awareness of the significant rewards (such as creating work environments to help people work to the best of their ability, supporting and encouraging others, helping others find meaning and fulfillment in work, etc.) and challenges (having to work hard, sometimes having more clerical than managerial duties, interacting with a variety of personalities, etc.) in being a manager. LO1.5 Pearson MyLab Management Go to mymanagementlab.com to complete the problems marked with this icon . REVIEW AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 1-1. What are the three main roles performed by a manager? 1-2. Why are managers important to organizations? What are their key responsibilities in an organization? 1-3. Mintzberg suggested that specific actions or behaviors expected of and exhibited by a manager comprise of three specific roles. Briefly explain them. 1-4. In your opinion, is management still relevant as a course of study today? Explain using relevant examples. 1-5. It is sometimes said that management is a tough and thankless job. Do you think this is true? 1-6. Is the task of seeking innovative processes really a manager’s job? 1-7. Discuss how managers define organizational purpose. How would the managerial functions help in achieving that purpose? 1-8. Henri Fayol suggested that all managers perform the five functions of planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controlling. Was he correct? Pearson MyLab Management If your professor has assigned these, go to mymanagementlab.com for the following Assisted-graded writing questions: 1-9. Is there one best “style” of management? Why or why not? 1-10. Christine Porath, together with the Harvard Business Review and Tony Schwartz, examined the views of 20,000 employees regarding commitment and engagement. The one thing that the employees could agree on was that they wanted respect from their leaders. Is management as simple as this? What other areas do you consider important? M01_ROBB5839_14_GE_C01.indd 58 07/06/17 5:37 pm Chapter 1 Managers and You in the Workplace 59 PERSONAL INVENTORY ASSESSMENTS P I A PERSONAL INVENTORY ASSESSMENT PREPARING FOR: My Career Time Management Assessment Take a look at how well you manage time. This PIA will help you determine how skillfully you do that. ETHICS DILEMMA Mintzberg suggests that managerial roles should encompass interpersonal, decisional, and informational roles. Clearly this is an idealized vision of the manager. They are encouraged to encompass all of these characteristics but this is an unattainable goal. A manager can never be all these things at once. 1-11. To what extent is it unethical to expect a manager to have such a broad base of skills and abilities? 1-12. Do managerial models like this reflect the reality of day-to-day management? Explain. SKILL EXERCISE Developing Your Political Skill About the Skill Research has shown that people differ in their political skills.64 Political skill can be defined as the ability to understand and influence others for the benefit of the individual or the organization.65 Those who are politically skilled are more effective in their use of influence tactics. Politically skilled individuals are able to exert their influence without others detecting it, which is important in being effective so that you’re not labeled political. A person’s political skill is determined by his or her networking ability, interpersonal influence, social astuteness, and apparent sincerity. Steps in Practicing the Skill • Develop your networking ability. A good network can be a powerful tool. You can begin building a network by getting to know important people in your work area and the organization and then developing relationships with individuals in positions of power. Volunteer for committees or offer your help on projects that will be noticed by those in positions of power. Attend important organizational functions so that you can be seen as a team player and someone who’s interested in the organization’s success. Utilize a professional networking site such as LinkedIn to connect with those you meet. Then, when you need advice on work, use your connections and network with others throughout the organization. • Work on gaining interpersonal influence. People will listen to you when they’re comfortable and feel at ease around you. Work on your communication skills so that you can communicate easily and effectively with others. Work on developing good rapport with people in all areas and at all levels of your organization. Be open, friendly, and willing to pitch in. The amount of interpersonal influence you have will be affected by how well people like you. • Develop your social astuteness. Some people have an innate ability to understand people and sense what they’re thinking. If you don’t have that ability, you’ll have to work at developing your social astuteness by doing things such as saying the right things at the right time, paying close attention to people’s facial expressions, and trying to determine whether others have hidden agendas. • Be sincere. Sincerity is important to getting people to want to associate with you. Be genuine in what you say and do. And show a genuine interest in others and their situations. Practicing the Skill Select each of the components of political skill and spend one week working on it. Write a brief set of notes describing your experiences—good and bad. Were you able to begin developing a network of people throughout the organization or did you work at developing your social astuteness, maybe by starting to recognize and interpret people’s facial expressions and the meaning behind those expressions? What could you have done differently to be more politically skilled? Once you begin to recognize what’s involved with political skills, you should find yourself becoming more connected and politically adept. M01_ROBB5839_14_GE_C01.indd 59 07/06/17 5:37 pm 60 Part 1 Introduction to Management WORKING TOGETHER Team Exercise All of us have an idealized view of the skills and characteristics that a manager should possess. Often managers excel in certain areas, but fail in others. They may be quick-witted and decisive; however, they may lack the communication skills to disseminate their decisions and ideas. The fact is that managers who have a good grasp of the full range of skills are rare. In some cases this will cause problems, either internally or externally, in an organization. Do you think managers should be fully rounded individuals? What skills might be less critical than others? Form small groups with 3–4 other class members and be prepared to share your lists with the rest of the class. Can you agree on a list of critical and non-critical skills? MY TURN TO BE A MANAGER • Use the most current Occupational Outlook Handbook (U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics) to research three different categories of managers. For each, prepare a bulleted list that describes the following: the nature of the work, training and other qualifications needed, earnings, and job outlook and projections data. • Get in the habit of reading at least one current business periodical (Wall Street Journal, Bloomberg BusinessWeek, Fortune, Fast Company, Forbes, etc.). Sign up to follow a few of these publications on Twitter. • Explore the social media presence of your favorite company. Like their Facebook page and follow them on Twitter, Instagram, and/or any other social media outlet the company uses. • Interview two different managers and ask them the following questions: What are the best and worst parts about being a manager? What’s the best management advice you ever received? Type up the questions and their answers to turn in to your professor. • Accountants and other professionals have certification programs to verify their skills, knowledge, and professionalism. What about managers? Two certification programs for managers include the Certified Manager (Institute of Certified Professional Managers) and the Certified Business Manager (Association of Professionals in Business Management). Research each of these programs. Prepare a bulleted list of what each involves. • If you have work experience, consider managers who you have encountered. Did you work with any good managers? Did you work with any bad managers? Based on your experience, create a list of traits or skills that good managers possess. The Power of Social MediaCASE APPLICATION 1 In the summer of 2014, the ALS Association (ALSA) learned first-hand about the power of social media.66 In just a little over a month, more than 17 million people dumped buckets of ice water over their heads, raising more than $115 million for the ALSA in what became known as the Ice Bucket Challenge. To put that number in per- spective, the organization raised just $23 million in the entire previous year. The ALSA is a nonprofit organization that supports the fight against amyo- trophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a disease that affects nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. Often referred to as Lou Gehrig’s disease, ALS affects about 20,000 people in the United States. As this number is far lower than other diseases such as cancer, ALS researchers do not receive as much federal funding, making ALSA’s fundraising piv- otal for the fight against the disease. In addition to supporting scientific research, the ALSA works to provide compassionate care for ALS patients and advocates for public policies that benefit people living with the disease. How did the ALSA convince so many people to get involved in this fundraising suc- cess? Surprisingly, the organization had very little to do with it. The Ice Bucket Challenge was initiated by Chris Kennedy, a professional golfer whose brother-in-law has ALS. The challenge took off after reaching Pete Frates, a former Boston College baseball player, and his friend Pat Quinn, who both suffer from ALS. From there, the challenge became a worldwide sensation and attracted millions of participants including influential people such as Bill Gates, Mark Zuckerberg, and even President Barack Obama. M01_ROBB5839_14_GE_C01.indd 60 07/06/17 5:37 pm Chapter 1 Managers and You in the Workplace 61 The Ice Bucket Challenge spread quickly due to the power of viral videos. Once challenged, individuals recorded themselves getting a bucket of ice water dumped on them and then challenged some friends to do the same. Videos were posted on Face- book and friends were tagged do the challenge. If challenged, you could donate to the ALSA, or get dumped on. However, many people ended up doing the challenge and still donating. Why were people so willing to engage in this unpleasant experience? Carrie Munk, an ALS spokesperson, asked this question of many participants and reported that most people said they did it because they were asked. Interestingly, many of those friends who were asking knew little about ALS. The movement went well beyond those who already were impacted by the disease. Barbara Newhouse, the CEO of ALSA, did admit the organization helped catalyze the move- ment with one e-mail to 60,000 on their mailing list, but otherwise it took off on its own. And thus the organization not only had its most successful fundraiser in history, but it also built international awareness of the disease. Can the Ice Bucket Challenge become a sustainable source of funding for the ALSA? The organization is hoping that it can, initiating a campaign in 2015 to make it an an- nual event. However, the attempt to repeat the challenge the following year did not see the same results, raising only about 500,000 dollars in the same time frame. This was not a big surprise for the organization. ALSA leadership knew that because of the nature of the giving, the funding would not be sustainable at the same level. Many gave with little awareness, and that does not usually lead to repeat donations. Brian Frederick, ALSA’s chief of staff, acknowledged they can’t recreate the phenomenon but suggested they can build on the momentum of the 2014 events by making it an annual event. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 1-13. Why is it important for the ALSA management team to understand the importance of social media in their work? 1-14. Do you think the ALSA can continue to rely on the Ice Bucket Challenge to support the organization’s fundraising efforts? Why or why not? 1-15. Do you think the Ice Bucket Challenge would have had the same success if the management at ALSA initiated the challenge? 1-16. What can the ALSA learn from this experience to help the organization take advantage of the power of social media in the future? Who Needs a Boss?CASE APPLICATION 2 “Holacracy.”67 That’s the word of the day at Zappos, the Nevada-based online shoe and apparel retailer. During a four-hour, year-end employee meeting in 2013, CEO Tony Hsieh announced that he was eliminating the company’s traditional managerial and structural hierarchy to implement a holacracy. What is a holacracy, you ask? In a nutshell, it’s an organizational system with no job titles, no managers, and no top-down hierarchy with upper, middle, or lower levels where decisions can get hung up. The idea behind this new type of arrangement is to focus on the work that needs to be done and not on some hierarchical structure where great ideas and suggestions can get lost in the channels of reporting. The holacracy concept was dreamed up by Brian Robertson, the founder of a Pennsylvania software start-up. Its name comes from the Greek word holos, a single, autonomous, self-sufficient unit that’s also dependent on a larger unit.68 A simple explanation of Robertson’s vision of a holacracy is workers as partners, job descriptions as roles, and partners organized into circles.69 (It might help in grasping M01_ROBB5839_14_GE_C01.indd 61 07/06/17 5:37 pm 62 Part 1 Introduction to Management this idea by thinking of these employee circles as types of overlapping employee groups but with more fluid membership and individual roles and responsibilities.) In these circles, employees can take on any number of roles, and the expectation is that each employee will help out wherever he or she can. Without titles or a hierarchy, anyone can initiate a project and implement innovative ideas. The hope is that circle members will pool ideas and watch out for each other. The goal is radical transparency and getting more people to take charge. Yet, trusting individuals who probably know the details of the job better than any manager to work conscientiously, creatively, and efficiently is good as long as there is a way to keep standards high. The last thing Zap- pos wants is for a slacker mentality to take hold. Hsieh has always approached leading his business in unique and radical ways. He strongly believes in the power of the individual and has created a highly successful organization (which is now part of Amazon) that’s known for its zany culture, where corporate values are matched with personal values and where “weirdness and humil- ity” are celebrated.70 However, as the company moves away from the traditional work model to this new system, it may face some challenges. Both Zappos and Robertson caution that while a holacracy might eliminate the traditional manager’s job, there is still structure and accountability. Poor performers will be obvious because they won’t have enough “roles” to fill their time, or a circle charged with monitoring the compa- ny’s culture may decide they’re not a good fit. Also, just because there are no traditional managers doesn’t mean that leaders won’t emerge. But it will be important to watch for dominant personalities emerging as authority figures, which could potentially cause other employees to be resentful or to rebel. Zappos says that it will not be leader- less. Some individuals will have a bigger role and scope of purpose, but leadership is also distributed and expected in each role. “Everybody is expected to lead and be an entrepreneur in their own roles, and holacracy empowers them to do so.”71 Also, there will be some structure arrangement where “the broadest circles can to some extent tell subgroups what they’re accountable for doing.”72 But accountability, rather than flow- ing only up, will flow throughout the organization in different paths. Other challenges they’re still trying to figure out include who has the ultimate authority to hire, fire, and decide pay. The hope is that eventually the authority for each of these roles will be done within the holacratic framework as well. So, if no one has a title and there are no bosses, is Tony Hsieh still the CEO? So far, he hasn’t publicly commented about how his own role is impacted. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 1-17. What is a holacracy? 1-18. What benefits do you see to an organization where there are no job titles, no managers, and no hierarchy? 1-19. What challenges does a holacratic approach have? 1-20. Discuss why you would or would not like to work in an organization like this. ENDNOTES 1. A. Swanson, “The Number of Fortune 500 Companies Led by Women Is at an All-Time High: 5 Percent,” The Washington Post online, washingtonpost.com, June 4, 2015. 2. Pew Research Center, “Women and Leadership,” www. pewsocialtrends.org/2015/01/14/women-and-leadership/, January 14, 2015. 3. D. J. Campbell, “The Proactive Employee: Managing Workplace Initiative,” Academy of Management Executive, August 2000, pp. 52–66. 4. J. Morgan, “The 5 Types of Organizational Structures: Part 3, Flat Organizations,” Forbes online, www.forbes.com, July 13, 2015. 5. “Interaction: First, Let’s Fire All the Managers,” Harvard Business Review, March 2012, pp. 20–21; and G. Hamel, “First, Let’s Fire All the Managers,” Harvard Business Review, December 2011, pp. 48–60. 6. Simon Thomsen, “The Atlassian CEOs Have a Detailed, Philosophical View on the Role of Teams in Humanity’s Progress,” Business Insider Australia, November 11, 2016, http://www.businessinsider.com.au/the-atlassian-ceos-have- a-detailed-philosophical-view-on-the-role-of-teams-in- humanitys-progress-2016-11; Adam Lashinsky, “What’s Atlassian’s Secret Sauce? Teamwork,” Fortune, December 11, 2015, http://fortune.com/2015/12/11/atlassians-secret-sauce/. M01_ROBB5839_14_GE_C01.indd 62 07/06/17 5:37 pm http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2015/01/14/women-and-leadership/ http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2015/01/14/women-and-leadership/ http://www.forbes.com http://www.businessinsider.com.au/the-atlassian-ceos-have-a-detailed-philosophical-view-on-the-role-of-teams-in-humanitys-progress-2016-11 http://www.businessinsider.com.au/the-atlassian-ceos-have-a-detailed-philosophical-view-on-the-role-of-teams-in-humanitys-progress-2016-11 http://www.businessinsider.com.au/the-atlassian-ceos-have-a-detailed-philosophical-view-on-the-role-of-teams-in-humanitys-progress-2016-11 http://fortune.com/2015/12/11/atlassians-secret-sauce/ 7. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates–May 2015,” (USDL-16-0661), March 30, 2016. 8. Q. Hardy, “Google Thinks Small,” Forbes, November 14, 2005, pp. 198–202. 9. Future Vision box based on M. Saltsman, “The Employee of the Month Has a Battery,” Wall Street Journal, January 30, 2014, p. A13; L. Weber, “Robots Need Supervisors Too,” Wall Street Journal, August 8, 2013, p. B5; S. Grobart, “Robot Workers: Coexistence Is Possible,” Bloomberg BusinessWeek Online, December 13, 2012; and D. Bennett, “I’ll Have My Robots Talk to Your Robots,” Bloomberg BusinessWeek, February 21–27, 2011, pp. 52–62. 10. J. Welch and S. Welch, “An Employee Bill of Rights,” Bloomberg BusinessWeek, March 16, 2009, p. 72. 11. B. Dummett, “BlackBerry Launches New Software for Driverless Cars,” Wall Street Journal online January 6, 2016. 12. T. Dinerman, “2016 Could Be the Year Space Tourism Takes Off,” Observer online, September 22, 2015. 13. R. Goffee and G. Jones, “Creating the Best Workplace on Earth,” Harvard Business Review, May 2013. 14. “Five-Year Overview 2015,” Philips Group Annual Report, https://www.annualreport.philips.com/#!/five-year-overview, November 21, 2016. 15. R. Beck and J. Harter, “Why Great Managers Are So Rare,” Gallup Business Journal, businessjournal.gallup.com, March 25, 2014; E. Frauenheim, “Managers Don’t Matter,” Workforce Management Online, April 2010; and K. A. Tucker and V. Allman, “Don’t Be a Cat-and-Mouse Manager,” The Gallup Organization, www.brain.gallup.com, September 9, 2004. 16. “Work USA 2008/2009 Report: Driving Business Results through Continuous Engagement,” Watson Wyatt Worldwide, Washington, DC. 17. A. Adkins, “Report: What Separates Great Managers from the Rest,” The Gallup Organization, May 12, 2015. 18. “The New Employment Deal: How Far, How Fast and How Enduring? Insights from the 2010 Global Workforce Study,” Towers Watson, Washington, DC. 19. R. R. Hastings, “Study: Supervisors Drive Employee Engagement,” HR Magazine, August 2011, p. 22. 20. T. R. Holcomb, R. M. Holmes, Jr., and B. L. Connelly, “Making the Most of What You Have: Managerial Ability as a Source of Resource Value Creation,” Strategic Management Journal, May 2009, pp. 457–485. 21. M. Srinivasan, “Southwest Airlines Operations—A Strategic Perspective,” Airline Industry Articles, http://airline-industry. malq.net/, September 11, 2014. 22. Southwest, “Southwest Corporate Fact Sheet,” http:// www.swamedia.com/channels/Corporate-Fact-Sheet/pages/ corporate-fact-sheet, January 10, 2016. 23. From “The Mission of Southwest Airlines,” January 5, 2016. https://www.southwest.com/html/about-southwest/index .html?clk=GFOOTER-ABOUT-ABOUT. Copyright (c) 2016 Southwest Airlines. 24. D. Landsel, “11 Reasons Why Southwest Is the Best Airline You’re Probably Not Flying,” Airfarewatchdog (website), www.airfarewatchdog.com, April 20, 2015. 25. H. Fayol, Industrial and General Administration (Paris: Dunod, 1916). 26. For a comprehensive review of this question, see C. P. Hales, “What Do Managers Do? A Critical Review of the Evidence,” Journal of Management, January 1986, pp. 88–115. 27. J. T. Straub, “Put on Your Manager’s Hat,” USA Today Online, www.usatoday.com, October 29, 2002; and H. Mintzberg, The Nature of Managerial Work (New York: Harper & Row, 1973). 28. E. C. Dierdorff, R. S. Rubin, and F. P. Morgeson, “The Milieu of Managerial Work: An Integrative Framework Linking Work Context to Role Requirements,” Journal of Applied Psychology, June 2009, pp. 972–988. 29. H. Mintzberg and J. Gosling, “Educating Managers Beyond Borders,” Academy of Management Learning and Education, September 2002, pp. 64–76. 30. See, for example, M. J. Martinko and W. L. Gardner, “Structured Observation of Managerial Work: A Replication and Synthesis,” Journal of Management Studies, May 1990, pp. 330–357; A. I. Kraut, P. R. Pedigo, D. D. McKenna, and M. D. Dunnette, “The Role of the Manager: What’s Really Important in Different Management Jobs,” Academy of Management Executive, November 1989, pp. 286–293; and C. M. Pavett and A. W. Lau, “Managerial Work: The Influence of Hierarchical Level and Functional Specialty,” Academy of Management Journal, March 1983, pp. 170–177. 31. Pavett and Lau, “Managerial Work.” 32. S. J. Carroll and D. J. Gillen, “Are the Classical Management Functions Useful in Describing Managerial Work?” Academy of Management Review, January 1987, p. 48. 33. K. Tyler, “Train Your Front Line,” HR Magazine, December 2013, pp. 43–45. 34. See, for example, J. G. Harris, D. W. DeLong, and A. Donnellon, “Do You Have What It Takes to Be an E-Manager?” Strategy and Leadership, August 2001, pp. 10–14; C. Fletcher and C. Baldry, “A Study of Individual Differences and Self-Awareness in the Context of Multi- Source Feedback,” Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, September 2000, pp. 303–319; and R. L. Katz, “Skills of an Effective Administrator,” Harvard Business Review, September/October 1974, pp. 90–102. 35. K. Fivecoat-Campbell, “Up the Corporate Ladder,” Springfield, Missouri, Business Journal, March 12–18, 2012, pp. 9+. 36. I. McAllister, “What Does It Take to Be a Great General Manager for a Web Company?” Forbes online, www.forbes .com, October 22, 2013. 37. Francesca Fitzsimmons, “Jaguar Land Rover Warns Potential New Brexit Taxes Could Be ‘Huge Challenge’,” Liverpool Echo, November 18, 2016, http://www.liverpoolecho.co.uk/news/ business/jaguar-land-rover-warns-potential-12194456; Tom Belger, “Look Inside Jaguar Land Rover’s Halewood Factory, Where a Car Is Rolled Out Every 80 Seconds,” Liverpool Echo, January 1, 2016, http://www.liverpoolecho.co.uk/news/liverpool- news/look-inside-jaguar-land-rovers-10673386; Tom Belger, “Fancy Working for Jaguar Land Rover? The Halewood Plant Is Looking for Apprentices,” Liverpool Echo, November 6, 2016, http://www.liverpoolecho.co.uk/news/liverpool-news/jlr-jaguar- halewood-work-jobs-12134930. 38. A. Stevenson, “T-Mobile CEO to Cramer: ‘Shut Up and Listen’,” CNBC.Com, April 28, 2015. 39. “Customer Experience Manager – Banana Republic Rockefeller Center,” https://www.linkedin.com/jobs/ view/161542983, accessed August 1, 2016. 40. J.D. Power and Associates, “Airlines: A Transportation or Hospitality Business?” jdpower.com, May 13, 2015. Chapter 1 Managers and You in the Workplace 63 M01_ROBB5839_14_GE_C01.indd 63 10/06/17 1:33 PM https://www.annualreport.philips.com/#!/five-year-overview http://www.brain.gallup.com http://www.airfarewatchdog.com http://www.usatoday.com http://www.liverpoolecho.co.uk/news/liverpool-news/jlr-jaguar-halewood-work-jobs-12134930 http://www.liverpoolecho.co.uk/news/liverpool-news/jlr-jaguar-halewood-work-jobs-12134930 http://airline-industry.malq.net/ http://airline-industry.malq.net/ http://www.swamedia.com/channels/Corporate-Fact-Sheet/pages/corporate-fact-sheet http://www.swamedia.com/channels/Corporate-Fact-Sheet/pages/corporate-fact-sheet http://www.swamedia.com/channels/Corporate-Fact-Sheet/pages/corporate-fact-sheet https://www.southwest.com/html/about-southwest/index.html?clk=GFOOTER-ABOUT-ABOUT https://www.southwest.com/html/about-southwest/index.html?clk=GFOOTER-ABOUT-ABOUT http://www.forbes.com http://www.forbes.com http://www.liverpoolecho.co.uk/news/business/jaguar-land-rover-warns-potential-12194456 http://www.liverpoolecho.co.uk/news/business/jaguar-land-rover-warns-potential-12194456 http://www.liverpoolecho.co.uk/news/liverpoolnews/look-inside-jaguar-land-rovers-10673386 http://www.liverpoolecho.co.uk/news/liverpoolnews/look-inside-jaguar-land-rovers-10673386 https://www.linkedin.com/jobs/view/161542983 https://www.linkedin.com/jobs/view/161542983 64 Part 1 Introduction to Management 41. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, “The Employment Situation— December 2015,” (USDL-16-0001), January 8, 2016. 42. Data from The World Factbook 2015, https://www.cia.gov/ library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/. 43. C. J. Grimm, “Good Customer Care Pays Off,” CX Act 2014 Touch Point Study, https://hbr.org/visual-library/2015/05/ good-customer-care-pays-off, May 19, 2015. 44. C. B. Blocker, D. J. Flint, M. B. Myers, and S. F. Slater, “Proactive Customer Orientation and Its Role for Creating Customer Value in Global Markets,” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, April 2011, pp. 216–233; D. Dougherty and A. Murthy, “What Service Customers Really Want,” Harvard Business Review, September 2009, p. 22; and K. A. Eddleston, D. L. Kidder, and B. E. Litzky, “Who’s the Boss? Contending with Competing Expectations from Customers and Management,” Academy of Management Executive, November 2002, pp. 85–95. 45. See, for instance, D. Meinert, “Aim to Serve,” HR Magazine, December 2011, p. 18; D. M. Mayer, M. G. Ehrhart, and B. Schneider, “Service Attribute Boundary Conditions of the Service Climate-Customer Satisfaction Link,” Academy of Management Journal, October 2009, pp. 1034–1050; M. Groth, T. Hennig-Thurau, and G. Walsh, “Customer Reactions to Emotional Labor: The Roles of Employee Acting Strategies and Customer Detection Accuracy,” Academy of Management Journal, October 2009, pp. 958–974; J. W. Grizzle, A. R. Zablah, T. J. Brown, J. C. Mowen, and J. M. Lee, “Employee Customer Orientation in Context: How the Environment Moderates the Influence of Customer Orientation on Performance Outcomes,” Journal of Applied Psychology, September 2009, pp. 1227–1242; B. A. Gutek, M. Groth, and B. Cherry, “Achieving Service Success through Relationships and Enhanced Encounters,” Academy of Management Executive, November 2002, pp. 132–144; Eddleston, Kidder, and Litzky, “Who’s the Boss? Contending with Competing Expectations from Customers and Management”; S. D. Pugh, J. Dietz, J. W. Wiley, and S. M. Brooks, “Driving Service Effectiveness through Employee-Customer Linkages,” Academy of Management Executives, November 2002, pp. 73–84; S. D. Pugh, “Service with a Smile: Emotional Contagion in the Service Encounter,” Academy of Management Journal, October 2001, pp. 1018–1027; W. C. Tsai, “Determinants and Consequences of Employee Displayed Positive Emotions,” Journal of Management, vol. 27, no. 4, 2001, pp. 497–512; Naumann and Jackson, Jr., “One More Time: How Do You Satisfy Customers?”; and M. D. Hartline and O. C. Ferrell, “The Management of Customer-Contact Service Employees: An Empirical Investigation,” Journal of Marketing, October 1996, pp. 52–70. 46. R. Knight, “Convincing Skeptical Employees to Adopt New Technology,” Harvard Business Review, online https://hbr.org, March 19, 2015. 47. I. Wladawsky-Berger, “The Growing Value of Social Skills in the Age of Automation,” (blog) The Wall Street Journal online, wsj.com, November 27, 2015. 48. H. Mintzberg, “We Need Both Networks and Communities,” Harvard Business Review online, https://hbr.org, October 5, 2015. 49. Eileen Yu, “Singapore civil servants to be on Facebook Workplace by March 2017,” ZDNet, November 10, 2016, http://www.zdnet.com/article/singapore-civil-servants-to-be- on-facebook-workplace-by-march-2017/. 50. K. Higginbottom, “Social Media Ignites Employee Activism,” Forbes online, www.forbes.com, April 14, 2014. 51. A. Goodman, “To 40 Buffet-isms: Inspiration to Become a Better Investor,” Forbes online, www.forbes.com, September 25, 2015. 52. Leader Making a Difference box based on C. Hymowitz, “Ursula Burns,” Bloomberg BusinessWeek, August 12–25, 2013, pp. 56–58; “What Do CEOs Admire?” Fortune, March 19, 2012, p. 143; N. Kolakowski, “Ursula Burns: Focused on the Core,” eWeek, February 13, 2012, pp. 10–13; E. McGert, “Fresh Copy,” Fast Company, December 2011/January 2012, pp. 132–138; and D. Mattioli, “Xerox Chief Looks Beyond Photocopiers Toward Services,” Wall Street Journal, June 13, 2011, p. B9. 53. R. Wagner, “One Store, One Team at Best Buy,” Gallup Brain, http://brain.gallup.com/content/, August 12, 2004. 54. D. Gelles, “Microsoft Leads Movement to Offset Emissions with Internal Carbon Tax,” The New York Times online, www .nyt.com, September 26, 2015. 55. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a Typical Passenger Vehicle,” EPA-420-F-14- 040a, May 2014. 56. KPMG Global Sustainability Services, Sustainability Insights, October 2007, www.kpmg.com. 57. WBCSD, Vision 2050 Report, Overview, www.wbcsd.org/ vision2050.aspx. 58. Symposium on Sustainability—Profiles in Leadership, New York, October 2001. 59. WorldatWork, “Companies Look to ‘Build From Within’ for Success,” Newsline online, December 28, 2015. 60. “L.L. Bean Named to the 2015 Fortune 100 Best Companies to Work for List,” Globe Newswire, March 5, 2015, http:// www.prweb.com/releases/2015/03/prweb12563945.htm. 61. WorldatWork Alliance for Work-Life Progress, “Flexibility in the Workplace Remains Flat, Managers Continue to Get on Board,” Newsline, October 6, 2015. 62. R. E. Silverman, “Where’s the Boss? Trapped in a Meeting,” Wall Street Journal, February 14, 2012, pp. B1+; and J. Sandberg, “Down over Moving Up: Some New Bosses Find They Hate Their Jobs,” Wall Street Journal, July 27, 2005, p. B1. 63. Silverman, “Where’s the Boss? Trapped in a Meeting.” 64. S. Y. Todd, K. J. Harris, R. B. Harris, and A. R. Wheeler, “Career Success Implications of Political Skill,” Journal of Social Psychology, June 2009, pp. 179–204; G. R. Ferris, D. C. Treadway, P. L. Perrewé, R. L. Brouer, C. Douglas, and S. Lux, “Political Skill in Organizations,” Journal of Management, June 2007, pp. 290–329; K. J. Harris, K. M. Kacmar, S. Zivnuska, and J. D. Shaw, “The Impact of Political Skill on Impression Management Effectiveness,” Journal of Applied Psychology, January 2007, pp. 278–285; and G. R. Ferris, D. C. Treadway, R. W. Kolodinsky, W. A. Hochwarter, C. J. Kacmar, C. Douglas, and D. D. Frink, “Development and Validation of the Political Skill Inventory,” Journal of Management, February 2005, pp. 126–152. 65. J. Leslie, “Why You Have to Be a Politician at Your Job,” Forbes online, www.forbes.com, May 26, 2010. 66. C. Zillman, “A Different #icebucketchallenge: How Will the ALS Association Spend All That Money?” Fortune online, www.fortune.com, August 22, 2014; M. Tirrell, “Ice Bucket M01_ROBB5839_14_GE_C01.indd 64 07/06/17 5:37 pm https://hbr.org/visual-library/2015/05/ https://hbr.org https://hbr.org http://www.zdnet.com/article/singapore-civil-servants-to-be-on-facebook-workplace-by-march-2017/ http://www.zdnet.com/article/singapore-civil-servants-to-be-on-facebook-workplace-by-march-2017/ http://www.forbes.com http://www.forbes.com http://brain.gallup.com/content/ http://www.kpmg.com http://www.wbcsd.org/ http://www.prweb.com/releases/2015/03/prweb12563945.htm http://www.prweb.com/releases/2015/03/prweb12563945.htm http://www.forbes.com http://www.fortune.com https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/ Chapter 1 Managers and You in the Workplace 65 Challenge: 6 Months Later,” www.cnbc.com, February 15, 2015; “How Will ALS Ice Bucket Challenge Money Be Spent,” PBS NewsHour interview by Judy Woodruff, www .pbs.org, August 22, 2014; Diamond, D., “OK, the ALS Ice Bucket Challenge Worked. Now Where Will the Dollars Go?,” Forbes online, www.forbes.com, August 18, 2014; E. Wolff-Mann, “Remember the Ice Bucket Challenge? Here’s What Happened to the Money,” Time Magazine—Money online, www.time.com/money, August 21, 2015; A. Nordrum, “Ice Bucket Challenge 2015: Can the ALS Association Turn Last Year’s Viral Phenomenon into an Annual Fundraiser?,” International Business Times online, www.ibtimes.com, August 26, 2015; www.alsa.org. 67. E. Kampf, “Can You Really Manage Engagement Without Managers?,” Gallup Business Journal, businessjournal.gallup. com, April 24, 2014; “Holacracy,” T&D, March 2014, p. 17; S. Helgesen, “An Extreme Take on Restructuring: No Job Titles, No Managers, No Politics,” Strategy + Business, www.strategy-business.com, February 11, 2014; R. Trikha, “Zappos Says Bye to Managers—What If You Had No Boss?,” www.cybercoders.com/insights/, January 7, 2014; G. Anders, “No More Bosses for Zappos (A Cautionary Tale),” jobs.aol.com/articles/, January 7, 2014; M. Wohlsen, “The Next Big Thing You Missed: Companies That Work Better without Bosses,” www.wired.com/business/, January 7, 2014; C. Sweeney and J. Gosfield, “No Managers Required: How Zappos Ditched the Old Corporate Structure for Something New,” www.fastcompany.com, January 6, 2014; J. McGregor, “Zappos Says Goodbye to Bosses,” (blog), www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/on- leadership/, January 3, 2014; J. Edwards, “Zappos Is Getting Rid of All Job Titles and Managers, But Some Bosses Will Still Decide Who Gets Paid What,” www.businessinsider. com/, January 2, 2014; A. Groth, “Zappos Is Going Holacratic: No Job Titles, No Managers, No Hierarchy,” qz.com/, December 30, 2013; R. E. Silverman, “Managers? Who Needs Those?” Wall Street Journal, August 7, 2013, pp. B1+; M. Shaer, “The Boss Stops Here,” nymag.com/ news/features/, June 16, 2013; S. Wagreich, “A Billion Dollar Company with No Bosses? Yes, It Exists,” www.inc.com/, March 14, 2013; R. E. Silverman, “Who’s the Boss? There Isn’t One,” Wall Street Journal, June 20, 2012, pp. B1+; G. Hamel, “First, Let’s Fire All the Managers”; and J. Badal, “Can a Company Be Run as a Democracy?,” Wall Street Journal, April 23, 2007, p. B1. 68. C. Sweeney and J. Gosfield, “No Managers Required: How Zappos Ditched the Old Corporate Structure for Something New.” 69. Ibid. 70. D. Richards, “At Zappos, Culture Pays,” www.strategy- business.com/article, August 24, 2010. 71. A. Groth, “Zappos is Going Holacratic: No Job Titles, No Managers, No Hierarchy,” qz.com, December 30, 2013. 72. G. Anders, “No More Bosses for Zappos (A Cautionary Tale),” jobs.aol.com/articles, January 7, 2014. M01_ROBB5839_14_GE_C01.indd 65 07/06/17 5:37 pm http://www.cnbc.com http://www.forbes.com http://www.time.com/money http://www.ibtimes.com http://www.alsa.org http://www.strategy-business.com http://www.cybercoders.com/insights/ http://www.wired.com/business/ http://www.fastcompany.com http://www.inc.com/ http://www.strategy-business.com/article http://www.strategy-business.com/article https://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/onleadership/ https://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/onleadership/ https://www.businessinsider.com/ https://www.businessinsider.com/ MH1.1 Describe some early management examples. MH1.2 Explain the various theories in the classical approach. MH1.3 Discuss the development and uses of the behavioral approach. MH1.4 Describe the quantitative approach. MH1.5 Explain various theories in the contemporary approach. Learning Objectives Henry Ford once said, “History is more or less bunk.” Well, he was wrong! History is important because it can put current activities in perspective. In this module, we’re going to take a trip back in time to see how the field of study called management has evolved. What you’re going to see is that today’s managers still use many elements of the historical approaches to management. Only through reflection can we fully appreciate the effects of the past on present thought and action. Use this knowledge to become effective managers by learning from past mistakes and successes. For now, focus on the following learning objectives as you read and study this module. EARLY Management Management has been practiced a long time. Organized endeavors directed by people responsible for planning, organizing, leading, and controlling activities have existed for thousands of years. Let’s look at some of the most interesting examples. The Egyptian pyramids and the Great Wall of China are proof that projects of tremendous scope, employing tens of thousands of people, were completed in ancient times.1 It took more than 100,000 workers some 20 years to construct a single pyramid. Who told each worker what to do? Who ensured there would be enough stones at the site to keep workers busy? The answer is managers. Someone had to plan what was to be done, organize people and materials to do it, make sure those workers got the work done, and impose some controls to ensure that everything was done as planned. Management History Module MH1.1 Source: Stephen Studd/The Image Bank/Getty Images 3000 BC – 1776 1911 – 1947 Late 1700s – 1950s 1940s – 1950s 1960s – present Early Management Classical Approach Behavioral Approach Quantitative Approach Contemporary Approaches M01A_ROBB5839_14_GE_C01A.indd 66 07/06/17 5:37 pm In 1776, Adam Smith published The Wealth of Nations, in which he argued the eco- nomic advantages that organizations and society would gain from the division of labor (or job specialization)—that is, breaking down jobs into narrow and repetitive tasks. Using the pin industry as an example, Smith claimed that 10 individuals, each doing a specialized task, could produce about 48,000 pins a day among them. How- ever, if each person worked alone performing each task separately, it would be quite an accomplishment to produce even 10 pins a day! Smith concluded that division of labor increased productivity by increasing each worker’s skill and dexterity, saving time lost in changing tasks and creating labor-saving inventions and machinery. Job specializa- tion continues to be popular. For example, think of the specialized tasks performed by members of a hospital surgery team, meal preparation tasks done by workers in restaurant kitchens, or positions played by players on a football team. Starting in the late eighteenth century when machine power was substituted for human power, a point in history known as the industrial revolution, it became more eco- nomical to manufacture goods in factories rather than at home. These large, efficient factories needed someone to forecast demand, ensure that enough material was on hand to make products, assign tasks to people, direct daily activities, and so forth. That “someone” was a manager. These managers would need formal theories to guide them in running these large organizations. It wasn’t until the early 1900s, however, that the first steps toward developing such theories were taken. In this module, we’ll look at four major approaches to management theory: classical, behavioral, quantitative, and contemporary. (See Exhibit MH-1.) Keep in mind that each approach is concerned with trying to explain management from the perspective of what was important at that time in history and the backgrounds and interests of the researchers. Each of the four approaches contributes to our overall understand- ing of management, but each is also a limited view of what it is and how to best practice it. Source: Fotosearch/Archive Photos/Getty Images Classical Approaches Behavioral Approach Quantitative Approach Contemporary Approaches Historical Background Scientific Management Early Examples of Management General AdministrativeAdam Smith Industrial Revolution Systems Approach Early Advocates Contingency Approach Hawthorne Studies Organizational Behavior Exhibit MH-1 Major Approaches to Management Source: Transcendental Graphics/Archive Photos/Getty Images division of labor (job specialization) The breakdown of jobs into narrow and repetitive tasks industrial revolution A period during the late eighteenth century when machine power was substituted for human power, making it more economical to manufacture goods in factories than at home Management History Module 67 M01A_ROBB5839_14_GE_C01A.indd 67 07/06/17 5:37 pm 68 Part 1 Introduction to Management CLASSICAL Approach Although we’ve seen how management has been used in organized efforts since early history, the formal study of management didn’t begin until early in the twentieth cen- tury. These first studies of management, often called the classical approach, empha- sized rationality and making organizations and workers as efficient as possible. Two major theories compose the classical approach: scientific management and general administrative theory. The two most important contributors to scientific management theory were Frederick W. Taylor and the husband-wife team of Frank and Lillian Gilbreth. The two most important contributors to general administrative theory were Henri Fayol and Max Weber. Let’s take a look at each of these important figures in management history. Scientific Management If you had to pinpoint when modern management theory was born, 1911 might be a good choice. That was when Frederick Winslow Taylor’s Principles of Scientific Man- agement was published. Its contents were widely embraced by managers around the world. Taylor’s book described the theory of scientific management: the use of scientific methods to define the “one best way” for a job to be done. Taylor worked at the Midvale and Bethlehem Steel Companies in Pennsylvania. As a mechanical engineer with a Quaker and Puritan background, he was continually appalled by workers’ inefficiencies. Employees used vastly different techniques to do the same job. They often “took it easy” on the job, and Taylor believed that worker output was only about one-third of what was possible. Virtually no work standards existed, and workers were placed in jobs with little or no concern for matching their abilities and aptitudes with the tasks they were required to do. Taylor set out to rem- edy that by applying the scientific method to shop-floor jobs. He spent more than two decades passionately pursuing the “one best way” for such jobs to be done. Taylor’s experiences at Midvale led him to define clear guidelines for improving production efficiency. He argued that these four principles of management (see Exhibit MH-2) would result in prosperity for both workers and managers.2 How did these scientific principles really work? Let’s look at an example. Probably the best known example of Taylor’s scientific management efforts was the pig iron experiment. Workers loaded “pigs” of iron (each weighing 92 lb.) onto rail cars. Their daily average output was 12.5 tons. However, Taylor believed that by scientifically analyzing the job to determine the “one best way” to load pig iron, out- put could be increased to 47 or 48 tons per day. After scientifically applying different combinations of procedures, techniques, and tools, Taylor succeeded in getting that level of productivity. How? By putting the right person on the job with the correct tools and equipment, having the worker follow his instructions exactly, and motivating MH1.2 3000 BC – 1776 1911 – 1947 Late 1700s – 1950s 1940s – 1950s 1960s – present Early Management Classical Approach Behavioral Approach Quantitative Approach Contemporary Approaches classical approach First studies of management, which emphasized rationality and making organizations and workers as efficient as possible scientific management An approach that involves using the scientific method to find the “one best way” for a job to be done Source: Jacques Boyer/The Image Works Exhibit MH-2 Taylor’s Scientific Management Principles  1. Develop a science for each element of an individual’s work to replace the old rule-of-thumb method. 2. Scientifically select and then train, teach, and develop the worker. 3. Heartily cooperate with the workers to ensure that all work is done in accordance with the principles of the science that has been developed. 4. Divide work and responsibility almost equally between management and workers. Management does all work for which it is better suited than the workers. Source: F. W. Taylor, Principles of Scientific Management (New York: Harper, 1911). M01A_ROBB5839_14_GE_C01A.indd 68 07/06/17 5:37 pm the worker with an economic incentive of a significantly higher daily wage. Using simi- lar approaches for other jobs, Taylor was able to define the “one best way” for doing each job. Overall, Taylor achieved consistent productivity improvements in the range of 200 percent or more. Based on his groundbreaking studies of manual work using scientific principles, Taylor became known as the “father” of scientific management. His ideas spread in the United States and to other countries and inspired others to study and develop methods of scientific management. His most prominent followers were Frank and Lillian Gilbreth. A construction contractor by trade, Frank Gilbreth gave up that career to study scientific management after hearing Taylor speak at a professional meeting. Frank and his wife Lillian, a psychologist, studied work to eliminate inefficient hand-and- body motions. The Gilbreths also experimented with the design and use of the proper tools and equipment for optimizing work performance.3 Also, as parents of 12 children, the Gilbreths ran their household using scientific management principles and tech- niques. In fact, two of their children wrote a book, Cheaper by the Dozen, which described life with the two masters of efficiency. Frank is probably best known for his bricklaying experiments. By carefully analyzing the bricklayer’s job, he reduced the number of motions in laying exterior brick from 18 to about 5, and in laying interior brick from 18 to 2. Using Gilbreth’s techniques, a bricklayer was more productive and less fatigued at the end of the day. The Gilbreths invented a device called a microchronometer that recorded a worker’s hand-and-body motions and the amount of time spent doing each motion. Wasted motions missed by the naked eye could be identified and eliminated. The Gilbreths also devised a classification scheme to label 17 basic hand motions (such as search, grasp, hold), which they called therbligs (Gilbreth spelled backward with the th transposed). This scheme gave the Gilbreths a more precise way of analyzing a worker’s exact hand movements. HOW TODAY’S MANAGERS USE SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT Many of the guidelines and techniques Taylor and the Gilbreths devised for improving produc- tion efficiency are still used in organizations today. When managers analyze the basic work tasks that must be performed, use time-and-motion study to eliminate wasted motions, hire the best-qualified workers for a job, or design incentive systems based on output, they’re using the principles of scientific management. Nowadays, adaptive robotics can help boost worker efficiency. By freeing workers from repetitive tasks, one study revealed that workers could complete essential tasks requiring manual dexterity 25 percent faster.4 At ABB, a Swiss energy and automation company, the use of adap- tive robots reduced workers’ idle time by 85 percent.5 General Administrative Theory General administrative theory focused more on what managers do and what con- stituted good management practice. We introduced Henri Fayol in Chapter 1 because he first identified five functions that managers perform: planning, organizing, com- manding, coordinating, and controlling.6 Fayol wrote during the same time period as Taylor. While Taylor was concerned with first-line managers and the scientific method, Fayol’s attention was directed at the activities of all managers. He wrote from his personal experience as the managing director of a large French coal-mining firm. Fayol described the practice of management as something distinct from account- ing, finance, production, distribution, and other typical business functions. His belief that management was an activity common to all business endeavors, government, and therbligs A classification scheme for labeling basic hand motions general administrative theory An approach to management that focuses on describing what managers do and what constitutes good management practice Source: Bettmann/Getty Images Source: Jacques Boyer/The Image Works Management History Module 69 M01A_ROBB5839_14_GE_C01A.indd 69 07/06/17 5:37 pm 70 Part 1 Introduction to Management even the home led him to develop 14 principles of management—fundamental rules of management that could be applied to all organizational situations and taught in schools. These principles are shown in Exhibit MH-3. Max Weber (pronounced VAY-ber) was a German sociologist who studied organiza- tions.7 Writing in the early 1900s, he developed a theory of authority structures and relations based on an ideal type of organization he called a bureaucracy—a form of organization characterized by division of labor, a clearly defined hierarchy, detailed rules and regulations, and impersonal relationships. (See Exhibit MH-4.) Weber recognized that this “ideal bureaucracy” didn’t exist in reality. Instead, he intended it as a basis for theorizing about how work could be done in large groups. His theory became the structural design for many of today’s large organizations. Bureaucracy, as described by Weber, is a lot like scientific management in its ideol- ogy. Both emphasized rationality, predictability, impersonality, technical competence, and authoritarianism. Although Weber’s ideas were less practical than Taylor’s, the fact that his “ideal type” still describes many contemporary organizations attests to their importance. HOW TODAY’S MANAGERS USE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE THEORY Several of our current management ideas and practices can be directly traced to the contributions of general administrative theory. For instance, the functional view of the manager’s job can be attributed to Fayol. In addition, his 14 principles serve as a frame of refer- ence from which many current management concepts—such as managerial authority, centralized decision making, reporting to only one boss, and so forth—have evolved. principles of management Fundamental rules of management that could be applied in all organizational situations and taught in schools bureaucracy A form of organization characterized by division of labor, a clearly defined hierarchy, detailed rules and regulations, and impersonal relationships Exhibit MH-3 Fayol’s 14 Principles of Management  1. Division of work. Specialization increases output by making employees more efficient. 2. Authority. Managers must be able to give orders, and authority gives them this right. 3. Discipline. Employees must obey and respect the rules that govern the organization. 4. Unity of command. Every employee should receive orders from only one superior. 5. Unity of direction. The organization should have a single plan of action to guide managers and workers. 6. Subordination of individual interests to the general interest. The interests of any one employee or group of employees should not take precedence over the interests of the organization as a whole. 7. Remuneration. Workers must be paid a fair wage for their services. 8. Centralization. This term refers to the degree to which subordinates are involved in decision making. 9. Scalar chain. The line of authority from top management to the lowest ranks is the scalar chain. 10. Order. People and materials should be in the right place at the right time. 11. Equity. Managers should be kind and fair to their subordinates. 12. Stability of tenure of personnel. Management should provide orderly personnel planning and ensure that replacements are available to fill vacancies. 13. Initiative. Employees allowed to originate and carry out plans will exert high levels of effort. 14. Esprit de corps. Promoting team spirit will build harmony and unity within the organization. Source: Based on Henri Fayol’s 1916 Principles of Management, “Administration Industrielle et Générale,” translated by C. Storrs, General and Industrial Management (London: Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, London, 1949). Source: Hulton Archive/Getty Images M01A_ROBB5839_14_GE_C01A.indd 70 07/06/17 5:37 pm Weber’s bureaucracy was an attempt to formulate an ideal prototype for organizations. Although many characteristics of Weber’s bureaucracy are still evident in large organiza- tions, his model isn’t as popular today as it was in the twentieth century. Many manag- ers feel that a bureaucratic structure hinders individual employees’ creativity and limits an organization’s ability to respond quickly to an increasingly dynamic environment. However, even in flexible organizations of creative professionals—such as Google, Samsung, General Electric, or Cisco Systems—bureaucratic mechanisms are necessary to ensure that resources are used efficiently and effectively. In some organizations, such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, bureaucracy has been a double-edged sword. Back in the 1960s, the FDA carefully scrutinized thalidomide, which was marketed to women in Europe for morning sickness. Thalidomide was not approved for this purpose because much evidence showed that it was causing profound birth defects. At times, the FDA’s bureaucracy may not serve the public interest. The FDA’s bureaucracy delayed the release of a vaccine for meningitis B for several months without explanation after a serious outbreak across college campuses. Source: Based on Essays in Sociology by Max Weber, translated, edited, and introduced by H. H. Gerth and C. Wright Mills (New York: Oxford University Press, 1946). A bureaucracy should have Division of Labor Formal Rules and Regulations Impersonality Career Orientation Formal Selection Authority Hierarchy Managers are career professionals, not owners of units they manage Uniform application of rules and controls, not according to personalities Positions organized in a hierarchy with a clear chain of command People selected for jobs based on technical qualifications Jobs broken down into simple, routine, and well-defined tasks System of written rules and standard operating procedures Exhibit MH-4 Characteristics of Weber’s Bureaucracy BEHAVIORAL Approach As we know, managers get things done by working with people. This explains why some writers have chosen to look at management by focusing on the organization’s people. The field of study that researches the actions (behavior) of people at work is called organizational behavior (OB). Much of what managers do today when man- aging people—motivating, leading, building trust, working with a team, managing conflict, and so forth—has come out of OB research. MH1.3 3000 BC – 1776 1911 – 1947 Late 1700s – 1950s 1940s – 1950s 1960s – present Early Management Classical Approach Behavioral Approach Quantitative Approach Contemporary Approaches organizational behavior (OB) The study of the actions of people at work Management History Module 71 M01A_ROBB5839_14_GE_C01A.indd 71 07/06/17 5:37 pm 72 Part 1 Introduction to Management Early Adv ocates of OB Robert Owen Late 1700s Mary Parker Follett Early 1900s Hugo Munsterberg Early 1900s Chester Barnard 1930s • • Pioneer in field of industrial psychology—scientific study of people at work Suggested using psychological tests for employee selection, learning theory concepts for employee training, and study of human behavior for employee motivation • • • Actual manager who thought organizations were social systems that required cooperation Believed manager’s job was to communicate and stimulate employees’ high levels of effort First to argue that organizations were open systems Concerned about deplorable working conditions Proposed idealistic workplace Argued that money spent improving labor was smart investment • • • One of the first to recognize that organizations could be viewed from perspective of individual and group behavior Proposed more people-oriented ideas than scientific manage- ment followers Thought organizations should be based on group ethic • • • Exhibit MH-5 Early OB Advocates Although a number of individuals in the early twentieth century recognized the importance of people to an organization’s success, four stand out as early advo- cates of the OB approach: Robert Owen, Hugo Munsterberg, Mary Parker Fol- lett, and Chester Barnard. Their contributions were varied and distinct, yet all believed that people were the most important asset of the organization and should be managed accordingly. Their ideas provided the foundation for such management practices as employee selection procedures, motivation programs, and work teams. Exhibit MH-5 summarizes each individual’s most important ideas. Without question, the most important contribution to the OB field came out of the Hawthorne Studies, a series of studies conducted at the Western Elec- tric Company Works in Cicero, Illinois. These studies, which started in 1924, were initially designed by Western Electric industrial engineers as a scientific management experiment. They wanted to examine the effect of various light- ing levels on worker productivity. Like any good scientific experiment, control and experimental groups were set up, with the experimental group exposed to various lighting intensities, and the control group working under a constant intensity. If you were the industrial engineers in charge of this experiment, what would you have expected to happen? It’s logical to think that individual output in the experimental group would be directly related to the intensity of the light. However, they found that as the level of light was increased in the experimental group, output for both groups increased. Then, much to the surprise of the engineers, as the light level was decreased in the experimental group, productivity continued to increase in both groups. In fact, a productivity decrease was observed in the experi- mental group only when the level of light was reduced to that of a moonlit night. What would explain these unexpected results? The engineers weren’t sure, but concluded that lighting intensity was not directly related to group productivity and that some- thing else must have contributed to the results. They weren’t able to pinpoint what that “something else” was, though. Hawthorne Studies A series of studies during the 1920s and 1930s that provided new insights into individual and group behavior Source: Hawthorne Works Museum of Morton College M01A_ROBB5839_14_GE_C01A.indd 72 07/06/17 5:37 pm In 1927, the Western Electric engineers asked Harvard professor Elton Mayo and his associates to join the study as consultants. Thus began a relationship that would last through 1932 and encompass numerous experiments in the redesign of jobs, changes in workday and workweek length, introduction of rest periods, and individual versus group wage plans.8 For example, one experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of a group piecework incentive pay system on group productivity. The results indicated that the incentive plan had less effect on a worker’s output than group pres- sure, acceptance, and security. The researchers concluded that social norms or group standards were the key determinants of individual work behavior. Scholars generally agree that the Hawthorne Studies had a game-changing impact on management beliefs about the role of people in organizations. Mayo concluded that people’s behavior and attitudes are closely related, that group factors significantly affect individual behavior, that group standards establish individual worker output, and that money is less a factor in determining output than group standards, group attitudes, and security. These conclusions led to a new emphasis on the human behav- ior factor in the management of organizations. HOW TODAY’S MANAGERS USE THE BEHAVIORAL APPROACH The behavioral approach has largely shaped how today’s organizations are managed. From the way managers design jobs to the way they work with employee teams to the way they com- municate, we see elements of the behavioral approach. Much of what the early OB advocates proposed and the conclusions from the Hawthorne Studies have provided the foundation for our current theories of motivation, leadership, group behavior and development, and numerous other behavioral approaches. It is important that man- agers embrace the lessons from the behavioral approach. The Gallup Organization’s survey on employee engagement revealed an alarming statistic—87 percent of global employees are disengaged.9 According to one CEO, “It’s no wonder most employees are disengaged. We isolate people and put them in standardized, uniform work settings that reinforce the idea that your unique wants and needs are not of importance to us.”10 QUANTITATIVE Approach Although passengers bumping into each other when trying to find their seats on an airplane can be a mild annoyance for them, it’s a bigger problem for airlines because lines get backed up, slowing down how quickly the plane can get back in the air. Based on research in space-time geometry, one airline innovated a unique boarding process called “reverse pyramid” that has saved at least two minutes in boarding time.11 This is an example of the quantitative approach, which is the use of quantitative techniques to improve decision making. This approach also is known as management science. The quantitative approach evolved from mathematical and statistical solutions devel- oped for military problems during World War II. After the war was over, many of these techniques used for military problems were applied to businesses. For example, one group of military officers, nicknamed the Whiz Kids, joined Ford Motor Company in the mid-1940s and immediately began using statistical methods and quantitative models to improve decision making. What exactly does the quantitative approach do? It involves applying statistics, opti- mization models, information models, computer simulations, and other quantitative tech- niques to management activities. Linear programming, for instance, is a technique that managers use to improve resource allocation decisions. Work scheduling can be more effi- cient as a result of critical-path scheduling analysis. The economic order quantity model 3000 BC – 1776 1911 – 1947 Late 1700s – 1950s 1940s – 1950s 1960s – present Early Management Classical Approach Behavioral Approach Quantitative Approach Contemporary Approaches MH1.4 quantitative approach The use of quantitative techniques to improve decision making Source: Bert Hardy/Hulton Archive/Getty Images Management History Module 73 M01A_ROBB5839_14_GE_C01A.indd 73 07/06/17 5:37 pm 74 Part 1 Introduction to Management helps managers determine optimum inventory levels. Each of these is an example of quantitative techniques being applied to improve managerial decision making. Another area where quantitative techniques are used frequently is in total quality management. A quality revolution swept through both the business and public sectors in the 1980s and 1990s.12 It was inspired by a small group of quality experts, the most famous being W. Edwards Deming (pictured at left) and Joseph M. Juran. The ideas and techniques they advocated in the 1950s had few supporters in the United States but were enthusi- astically embraced by Japanese organizations. As Japanese manufacturers began beat- ing U.S. competitors in quality comparisons, however, Western managers soon took a more serious look at Deming’s and Juran’s ideas, which became the basis for today’s quality management programs. Total quality management, or TQM, is a management philosophy devoted to continual improvement and responding to customer needs and expectations. (See Exhibit MH-6.) The term customer includes anyone who interacts with the organiza- tion’s product or services, internally or externally. It encompasses employees and suppli- ers, as well as the people who purchase the organization’s goods or services. Continual improvement isn’t possible without accurate measurements, which require statistical techniques that measure every critical variable in the organization’s work processes. These measurements are compared against standards to identify and correct problems. HOW TODAY’S MANAGERS USE THE QUANTITATIVE APPROACH No one likes long lines, especially residents of New York City. If they see a long checkout line, they often go somewhere else. However, at Whole Foods’ first gourmet supermarkets in Man- hattan, customers found something different—that is, the longer the line, the shorter the wait. When ready to check out, customers are guided into serpentine single lines that feed into numerous checkout lanes. Whole Foods, widely known for its organic food selec- tions, can charge premium prices, which allow it the luxury of staffing all those checkout lanes. And customers are finding that their wait times are shorter than expected.13 The science of keeping lines moving is known as queue management. And for Whole Foods, this quantitative technique has translated into strong sales at its Manhattan stores. The quantitative approach contributes directly to management decision making in the areas of planning and control. For instance, when managers make budgeting, queuing, scheduling, quality control, and similar decisions, they typically rely on quantitative techniques. Specialized software has made the use of these techniques less intimidating for managers, although many still feel anxious about using them. total quality management (TQM) A philosophy of management that is driven by continuous improvement and responsiveness to customer needs and expectations Source: Richard Drew/AP Images Exhibit MH-6 What Is Quality Management?  1. Intense focus on the customer. The customer includes outsiders who buy the organization’s products or services and internal customers who interact with and serve others in the organization. 2. Concern for continual improvement. Quality management is a commitment to never being satisfied. “Very good” is not good enough. Quality can always be improved. 3. Process focused. Quality management focuses on work processes as the quality of goods and services is continually improved. 4. Improvement in the quality of everything the organization does. This relates to the final product, how the organization handles deliveries, how rapidly it responds to complaints, how politely the phones are answered, and the like. 5. Accurate measurement. Quality management uses statistical techniques to measure every critical variable in the organization’s operations. These are compared against standards to identify problems, trace them to their roots, and eliminate their causes. 6. Empowerment of employees. Quality management involves the people on the line in the improvement process. Teams are widely used in quality management programs as empowerment vehicles for finding and solving problems. M01A_ROBB5839_14_GE_C01A.indd 74 07/06/17 5:37 pm Source: Frederic J. Brown/AFP/Getty Images/Newscom CONTEMPORARY Approaches As we’ve seen, many elements of the earlier approaches to management theory con- tinue to influence how managers manage. Most of these earlier approaches focused on managers’ concerns inside the organization. Starting in the 1960s, management researchers began to look at what was happening in the external environment outside the boundaries of the organization. Two contemporary management perspectives— systems and contingency—are part of this approach. Systems theory is a basic theory in the physical sciences, but had never been applied to organized human efforts. In 1938, Chester Barnard, a telephone company executive, first wrote in his book, The Functions of an Executive, that an organization functioned as a cooperative system. However, it wasn’t until the 1960s that management researchers began to look more carefully at systems theory and how it related to organizations. A system is a set of interrelated and interdependent parts arranged in a man- ner that produces a unified whole. The two basic types of systems are closed and open. Closed systems are not influenced by and do not interact with their environment. In contrast, open systems are influenced by and do inter- act with their environment. Today, when we describe organizations as systems, we mean open systems. Exhibit MH-7 shows a diagram of an organization from an open systems perspective. As you can see, an organization takes in inputs (resources) from the environment and transforms or processes these resources into outputs that are distributed into the environment. The organiza- tion is “open” to and interacts with its environment. How does the systems approach contribute to our understanding of management? Researchers imagined organizations as complex systems comprised of many compo- nents, including individuals, groups, structure, goals, status, and authority. What this means is that as managers coordinate work activities in the various parts of the orga- nization, they ensure that all these parts are working together so the organization’s goals can be achieved. For example, the systems approach recognizes that, no matter how efficient the production department, the marketing department must anticipate changes in customer tastes and work with the product development department in cre- ating products customers want—or the organization’s overall performance will suffer. In addition, the systems approach implies that decisions and actions in one organizational area will affect other areas. For example, if the purchasing department MH1.5 3000 BC – 1776 1911 – 1947 Late 1700s – 1950s 1940s – 1950s 1960s – present Early Management Classical Approach Behavioral Approach Quantitative Approach Contemporary Approaches system A set of interrelated and interdependent parts arranged in a manner that produces a unified whole closed systems Systems that are not influenced by and do not interact with their environment open systems Systems that interact with their environment Employees’ Work Activities Management Activities Technology and Operations Methods Transformation Process Organization Raw Materials Human Resources Capital Technology Information Inputs Products and Services Financial Results Information Human Results Outputs Environment Environment Feedback Exhibit MH-7 Organization as an Open System Management History Module 75 M01A_ROBB5839_14_GE_C01A.indd 75 07/06/17 5:37 pm 76 Part 1 Introduction to Management doesn’t acquire the right quantity and quality of inputs, the production department won’t be able to do its job. Finally, the systems approach recognizes that organizations are not self-contained. They rely on their environment for essential inputs and as outlets to absorb their outputs. No organization can survive for long if it ignores government regulations, supplier relations, or the varied external constituencies on which it depends. How relevant is the systems approach to management? Quite relevant. Consider, for example, a shift manager at a Starbucks restaurant who must coordinate the work of employees filling customer orders at the front counter and the drive-through windows, direct the delivery and unloading of food supplies, and address any cus- tomer concerns that come up. This manager “manages” all parts of the “system” so that the restaurant meets its daily sales goals. The early management theorists came up with management principles they generally assumed to be universally applicable. Later research found exceptions to many of these principles. For example, division of labor is valuable and widely used, but jobs can become too specialized. Bureau- cracy is desirable in many situations, but in other circumstances, other structural designs are more effective. Management is not (and cannot be) based on simplistic principles to be applied in all situations. Different and changing situations require managers to use different approaches and techniques. The contingency approach (sometimes called the situational approach) says that organizations are different, face different situations (contingencies), and require different ways of managing. A good way to describe contingency is “if, then.” If this is the way my situation is, then this is the best way for me to manage in this situation. It’s intuitively logi- cal because organizations and even units within the same organization differ—in size, goals, work activities, and the like. It would be surprising to find universally applicable management rules that would work in all situations. But, of course, it’s one thing to say that the way to manage “depends on the situation” and another to say what the sit- uation is. Management researchers continue working to identify these situational vari- ables. Exhibit MH-8 describes four popular contingency variables. Although the list is by no means comprehensive—more than 100 different variables have been identified— it represents those most widely used and gives you an idea of what we mean by the term contingency variable. The primary value of the contingency approach is that it stresses there are no simplistic or universal rules for managers to follow. So what do managers face today when managing? Although the dawn of the informa- tion age is said to have begun with Samuel Morse’s telegraph in 1837, dramatic changes in information technology that occurred in the latter part of the twentieth century and contingency approach A management approach that recognizes organizations as different, which means they face different situations (contingencies) and require different ways of managing Exhibit MH-8 Popular Contingency Variables  Organization Size. As size increases, so do the problems of coordination. For in- stance, the type of organization structure appropriate for an organization of 50,000 employees is likely to be inefficient for an organization of 50 employees. Routineness of Task Technology. To achieve its purpose, an organization uses technol- ogy. Routine technologies require organizational structures, leadership styles, and con- trol systems that differ from those required by customized or nonroutine technologies. Environmental Uncertainty. The degree of uncertainty caused by environmental changes influences the management process. What works best in a stable and pre- dictable environment may be totally inappropriate in a rapidly changing and unpre- dictable environment. Individual Differences. Individuals differ in terms of their desire for growth, autono- my, tolerance of ambiguity, and expectations. These and other individual differences are particularly important when managers select motivation techniques, leadership styles, and job designs. M01A_ROBB5839_14_GE_C01A.indd 76 07/06/17 5:37 pm continue through today directly affect the manager’s job. Managers now may manage employees who are working from home or working halfway around the world. An organization’s computing resources used to be mainframe com- puters locked away in temperature-controlled rooms and only accessed by the experts. Now, practically everyone in an organization is connected—wired or wireless—with devices no larger than the palm of the hand. Just like the impact of the industrial revolution in the 1700s on the emergence of management, the information age has brought dramatic changes that continue to influence the way organizations are managed. Source: Image Source/Getty Images Management History Module PREPARING FOR: Exams/Quizzes CHAPTER SUMMARY by Learning Objectives DESCRIBE some early management examples. Studying history is important because it helps us see the origins of today’s management practices and recognize what has and has not worked. We can see early examples of management practice in the construction of the Egyptian pyramids and the Great Wall of China. One important historical event was the publication of Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations, in which he argued the benefits of division of labor (job specialization). Another was the industrial revolution, where it became more economical to manufacture in factories than at home. Managers were needed to manage these factories, and these managers needed formal management theories to guide them. EXPLAIN the various theories in the classical approach. Frederick W. Taylor, known as the “father” of scientific management, studied manual work using scientific principles—that is, guidelines for improving production efficiency—to find the one best way to do those jobs. The Gilbreths’ primary contribution was finding efficient hand-and-body motions and designing proper tools and equipment for optimizing work performance. Fayol believed the functions of management were common to all business endeavors but also were distinct from other business functions. He developed 14 principles of management from which many current management concepts have evolved. Weber described an ideal type of organization he called a bureaucracy—characteristics that many of today’s large organizations still have. Today’s managers use the concepts of scientific management when they analyze basic work tasks to be performed, use time-and-motion study to eliminate wasted motions, hire the best qualified workers for a job, use adaptive robotics to boost worker efficiency, and design incentive systems based on output. They use general administrative theory when they perform the functions of management and structure their organizations so that resources are used efficiently and effectively. DISCUSS the development and uses of the behavioral approach. The early OB advocates (Robert Owen, Hugo Munsterberg, Mary Parker Follett, and Chester Barnard) contributed various ideas, but all believed that people were the most important asset of the organization and should be managed accordingly. The Hawthorne Studies dramatically affected management beliefs about the role of people in organizations, leading to a new emphasis on the human behavior factor in managing. The behavioral approach has largely shaped how today’s organizations are managed. Many current theories of motivation, leadership, group behavior and development, and other behavioral issues can be traced to the early OB advocates and the conclusions from the Hawthorne Studies. MH1.1 MH1.2 MH1.3 Management History Module 77 M01A_ROBB5839_14_GE_C01A.indd 77 07/06/17 5:37 pm 78 Part 1 Introduction to Management DESCRIBE the quantitative approach. The quantitative approach involves applications of statistics, optimization models, information models, and computer simulations to management activities. Today’s managers use the quantitative approach, especially when making decisions, as they plan and control work activities such as allocating resources, improving quality, scheduling work, or determining optimum inventory levels. Total quality management—a management philosophy devoted to continual improvement and responding to customer needs and expectations—also makes use of quantitative methods to meet its goals. EXPLAIN the various theories in the contemporary approach. The systems approach says that an organization takes in inputs (resources) from the environment and transforms or processes these resources into outputs that are distributed into the environment. This approach provides a framework to help managers understand how all the interdependent units work together to achieve the organization’s goals and that decisions and actions taken in one organizational area will affect others. In this way, managers can recognize that organizations are not self-contained, but instead rely on their environment for essential inputs and as outlets to absorb their outputs. The contingency approach says that organizations are different, face different situ- ations, and require different ways of managing. It helps us understand management because it stresses there are no simplistic or universal rules for managers to follow. Instead, managers must look at their situation and determine that if this is the way my situation is, then this is the best way for me to manage. MH1.4 MH1.5 Pearson MyLab Management Go to mymanagementlab.com to complete the problems marked with this icon . REVIEW AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS MH-1. Explain why studying management history is important. MH-2. What is the significance of the industrial revolution? MH-3. What is a bureaucracy? Do bureaucracies still exist today? MH-4. What did the early advocates of OB contribute to our understanding of management? MH-5. Why were the Hawthorne Studies so critical to management history? MH-6. Explain what the quantitative approach has contributed to the field of management. MH-7. Describe total quality management. MH-8. How has technology impacted how managers use the quantitative approach in today’s workplace? MH-9. How do systems theory and the contingency approach make managers better at what they do? MH-10. How do societal trends influence the practice of management? What are the implications for someone studying management? PREPARING FOR: My Career MY TURN TO BE A MANAGER • Conduct research and identify a new or emerging management theory. Do you think the new theory will have an impact on future management practices? • Can scientific management principles help you be more efficient? Choose a task you do regularly (such as laundry, fixing dinner, grocery shopping, studying for exams, etc.). M01A_ROBB5839_14_GE_C01A.indd 78 07/06/17 5:37 pm Analyze it by writing down the steps involved in completing that task. See if any activities could be combined or eliminated. Find the “one best way” to do this task. And the next time you have to do the task, try the scientifically managed way! See if you become more efficient (keeping in mind that changing habits isn’t easy to do). • How do business organizations survive for 100+ years? Obviously, they’ve seen a lot of historical events come and go. Choose one of these companies and research their history: Coca-Cola, Procter & Gamble, Avon, or General Electric. How has it changed over the years? From your research on this company, what did you learn that could help you be a better manager? • Pick one historical event from this century and do some research on it. Write a paper describing the impact this event might be having or has had on how workplaces are managed. • Come on, admit it, you multitask, don’t you? And if not, you probably know people who do. Multitasking is also common in the workplace. But does it make employees more efficient and effective? Pretend you’re the manager in charge of a loan-processing department. Describe how you would research this issue using each of the following management approaches or theories: scientific management, general administrative theory, quantitative approach, behavioral approach, systems theory, and contingency theory. 9. S. Crabtree, “Worldwide, 13% of Employees Are Engaged at Work,” Gallup online, http://www.gallup.com, October 8, 2013. 10. J. Keane, “Meaningful Work Should Be Every CEO’s Top Priority,” Harvard Business Review online, https://hbr.org, November 5, 2015. 11. N. Zamiska, “Plane Geometry: Scientists Help Speed Boarding of Aircraft,” Wall Street Journal, November 2, 2005, p. A1+. 12. See, for example, J. Jusko, “Tried and True,” IW, December 6, 1999, pp. 78–84; T. A. Stewart, “A Conversation with Joseph Juran,” Fortune, January 11, 1999, pp. 168–170; J. R. Hackman and R. Wageman, “Total Quality Management: Empirical, Conceptual, and Practical Issues,” Administrative Science Quarterly, June 1995, pp. 309–342; T. C. Powell, “Total Quality Management as Competitive Advantage: A Review and Empirical Study,” Strategic Management Journal, January 1995, pp. 15–37; R. K. Reger, L. T. Gustafson, S. M. Demarie, and J. V. Mullane, “Reframing the Organization: Why Implementing Total Quality Is Easier Said Than Done,” Academy of Management Review, July 1994, pp. 565–584; C. A. Reeves and D. A. Bednar, “Defining Quality: Alternatives and Implications,” Academy of Management Review, July 1994, pp. 419–445; J. W. Dean, Jr. and D. E. Bowen, “Management Theory and Total Quality: Improving Research and Practice through Theory Development,” Academy of Management Review, July 1994, pp. 392–418; B. Krone, “Total Quality Management: An American Odyssey,” The Bureaucrat, Fall 1990, pp. 35–38; and A. Gabor, The Man Who Discovered Quality (New York: Random House, 1990). 13. M. Barbaro, “A Long Line for a Shorter Wait at the Supermarket,” New York Times online, www.nyt.com, June 23, 2007. 1. C. S. George, Jr., The History of Management Thought, 2d ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1972), p. 4. 2. F. W. Taylor, Principles of Scientific Management (New York: Harper, 1911), p. 44. For other information on Taylor, see S. Wagner-Tsukamoto, “An Institutional Economic Reconstruction of Scientific Management: On the Lost Theoretical Logic of Taylorism,” Academy of Management Review, January 2007, pp. 105–117; R. Kanigel, The One Best Way: Frederick Winslow Taylor and the Enigma of Efficiency (New York: Viking, 1997); and M. Banta, Taylored Lives: Narrative Productions in the Age of Taylor, Veblen, and Ford (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993). 3. See, for example, F. B. Gilbreth, Motion Study (New York: Van Nostrand, 1911); and F. B. Gilbreth and L. M. Gilbreth, Fatigue Study (New York: Sturgis and Walton, 1916). 4. “Smarter, Smaller, Safer Robots,” Harvard Business Review online, https://hbr.org, November 2015. 5. W. Knight, “How Human-Robot Teamwork Will Upend Manufacturing,” MIT Technology Review online, http://www. technologyreview.com, September 16, 2015. 6. H. Fayol, Industrial and General Administration (Paris: Dunod, 1916). 7. M. Weber, The Theory of Social and Economic Organizations, ed. T. Parsons, trans. A. M. Henderson and T. Parsons (New York: Free Press, 1947); and M. Lounsbury and E. J. Carberry, “From King to Court Jester? Weber’s Fall from Grace in Organizational Theory,” Organization Studies, vol. 26, no. 4, 2005, pp. 501–525. 8. E. Mayo, The Human Problems of an Industrial Civilization (New York: Macmillan, 1933); and F. J. Roethlisberger and W. J. Dickson, Management and the Worker (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1939). ENDNOTES Management History Module 79 M01A_ROBB5839_14_GE_C01A.indd 79 07/06/17 5:37 pm http://www.gallup.com https://hbr.org http://www.nyt.com https://hbr.org http://www.technologyreview.com http://www.technologyreview.com It’s Your Career Chapter 2 Decision Making Problem Solving—Not A Problem Every day you’re faced with problems to solve— what class assignment should I focus on first? What am I going to eat for dinner? What’s the quickest way for me to get to work (or school) today since I’m running behind schedule? And when you’re done with school and employed by an organization, you are going to be expected to show that you’re a good problem solver. And having good problem-solving skills is important if you’re going to be successful in your career. What can you do to develop and improve your problem-solving skills? Let’s look at some suggestions. 1. Define the problem. This might seem self- evident but you’d be surprised at how many people try to jump in with a quick and easy solution without having spent time to first understand and then define the problem. When you do that, you might come up with a solution . . . to the wrong problem! Instead, spend some time in asking questions. Lots of questions! But don’t get so caught up in defining the problem that you ignore solving the problem. Another precautionary note when defining the problem is, as we describe in the chapter, making sure you don’t confuse problems with symptoms of problems. For instance, supposed you’ve applied for several jobs, but have not received any interview invites. The problem isn’t the lack of interview invites . . . that’s only a symptom of a problem. There’s some reason you’re not getting asked in for an interview. Before you can “solve” this situation, you need to define the problem. So, ask questions. Is it your résumé? Is it your cover letter? Are you applying for jobs you’re not suited for? 2. Look at the problem from different perspectives and generate multiple solutions. A good problem-solver (and a good decision-maker) Source: Zudy and Kysa/Shutterstock A key to success in management and in your career is knowing how to be an effective problem- solver. M02_ROBB5839_14_GE_C02.indd 80 08/07/17 10:41 AM 81 ● SKILL OUTCOMES 2.1 Describe the eight steps in the decision-making process. ● Develop your skill at being creative. 2.2 Explain the four ways managers make decisions. 2.3 Classify decisions and decision-making conditions. 2.4 Describe how biases affect decision making. ● Know how to recognize when you’re using decision-making errors and biases and what to do about it. 2.5 Identify effective decision-making techniques. Learning Objectives has an open mind and attempts to be as creative as possible in coming up with solutions to a problem. 3. Evaluate the ideas or possible solutions. Evaluate your ideas carefully and thoroughly by how they would impact the problem. But it’s also critical to look at the constraints of time and money. Can your solutions lead to successful results in the time frame and the budget constraints you face? 4. Implement your solution. A problem doesn’t get solved without implementing your solution. Think through the “how’s” of your solution. If you don’t execute this step well, the problem is likely to still be there or even get worse. 5. Re-examine your solution. Has the problem been resolved or at least gotten better? If not, you’ll have to determine if it is still the right solution or what additional actions might be needed. Decision making is the essence of management. It’s what managers do (or try to avoid). And all managers would like to make good decisions because they’re judged on the outcomes of those decisions. In this chapter, we examine the concept of decision making and how managers make decisions. THE decision-making process In 2016, actor Will Smith, director Spike Lee, and others publicly announced that they would boycott the Academy Awards ceremony. Their protest came on the heels of the announcement of the Oscar nominations, which did not include any African LO2.1 Pearson MyLab Management® Improve Your Grade! When you see this icon, visit www.mymanagementlab.com for activities that are applied, personalized, and offer immediate feedback. M02_ROBB5839_14_GE_C02.indd 81 08/07/17 10:41 AM http://www.mymanagementlab.com 82 Part 1 Introduction to Management American filmmakers or actors. Such protest would tarnish the reputation of the award’s sponsor, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Management promptly analyzed the root cause of the nomination process, which they determined to be a homogenous membership base, consisting primarily of older, white males. In response, the Academy’s management board decided to change the racial composition of the Academy by radically altering the Academy’s rules for membership—something that had not been done in the 90-year history of the organization. Although most decisions managers make don’t require radical changes, you can see that decisions—choices, judgments—play an important role in what an organiza- tion has to do or is able to do. Managers at all levels and in all areas of organizations make decisions. That is, they make choices. For instance, top-level managers make decisions about their orga- nization’s goals, where to locate manufacturing facilities, or what new markets to move into. Middle- and lower-level managers make decisions about production schedules, product quality problems, pay raises, and employee discipline. Our focus in this chap- ter is on how managers make decisions, but making decisions isn’t something that just managers do. All organizational members make decisions that affect their jobs and the organization they work for. Although decision making is typically described as choosing among alternatives, there’s more to it than that! Why? Because decision making is (and should be) a process, not just a simple act of choosing among alternatives.1 Even for something as straightforward as deciding where to go for lunch, you do more than just choose burgers or pizza or hot dogs. Granted, you may not spend a lot of time contem- plating your lunch decision, but you still go through the process when making that decision. Exhibit 2-1 shows the eight steps in the decision-making process. This pro- cess is as relevant to personal decisions as it is to corporate decisions. Let’s use an example—a manager deciding what laptop computers to purchase—to illustrate the steps in the process. Step 1: Identify a Problem Your team is dysfunctional, your customers are leaving, or your plans are no longer relevant.2 Every decision starts with a problem, a discrepancy between an existing and a desired condition.3 Let’s work through an example. Amanda is a sales manager whose reps need new laptops because their old ones are outdated and inadequate for doing their job. To make it simple, assume it’s not economical to add memory to the old com- puters and it’s the company’s policy to purchase, not lease. Now we have a problem—a disparity between the sales reps’ current computers (existing condition) and their need to have more efficient ones (desired condition). Amanda has a decision to make. How do managers identify problems? In the real world, most problems don’t come with neon signs flashing “problem.” When her reps started complaining about their computers, it was pretty clear to Amanda that something needed to be done, but few problems are that obvious. Managers also have to be cautious not to confuse problems with symptoms of the problem. Is a 5 percent drop in sales a problem? Or are declining sales merely a symptom of the real problem, such as poor-quality prod- ucts, high prices, bad advertising, or shifting consumer preferences?4 For example, McDonald’s Corporation has fallen on hard times in recent years as its sales have declined substantially.5 Also, keep in mind that problem identification is subjective. One possibility for McDonald’s sales decline is the different preferences of younger generations compared to the older generations who “grew up” eating McDonald’s hamburgers and french fries. One manager might consider this to be the problem, but another manager might not. In addition, a manager who resolves the wrong problem perfectly is likely to perform just as poorly as the manager who doesn’t even recognize a problem and does nothing. For instance, what if McDonald’s manage- ment were to attribute sales declines exclusively to its advertising campaign rather than to changing consumer preferences? As you can see, effectively identifying prob- lems is important, but not easy.6 decision A choice among two or more alternatives problem An obstacle that makes it difficult to achieve a desired goal or purpose M02_ROBB5839_14_GE_C02.indd 82 08/07/17 10:41 AM Chapter 2 Decision Making 83 Step 2: Identify Decision Criteria Once a manager has identified a problem, he or she must identify the decision criteria important or relevant to resolving the problem. Every decision maker has criteria guid- ing his or her decisions even if they’re not explicitly stated. In our example, Amanda decides after careful consideration that memory and storage capabilities, display quality, battery life, warranty, and carrying weight are the relevant criteria in her decision. Sometimes, decision criteria change. For instance, considering the demographics, interests, and preferences of consumers were essential criteria in making advertising decisions. Nowadays, many companies realize that those criteria in making advertis- ing choices are not sufficient because consumers are more multifaceted.7 We work, read books for pleasure, take vacations, enjoy eating out, and so forth. Understanding the psychology of consumers at different moments is shown to be more effective than rely- ing exclusively on demographics and interests.8 Mobile technology enables consumers to be influenced by companies with ease and when consumers need it most. For example, restaurants that want to attract travelers and locals who seek new eating experiences are signing up with mobile apps like RoundMenu. Based in the United Arab Emirates, RoundMenu understands that consumers routinely rely on apps for everyday needs like finding a restaurant. Therefore, the RoundMenu app makes it easy for users to browse restaurant listings and menus, reserve a table, or order meals for home delivery.9 decision criteria Criteria that define what’s important or relevant to resolving a problem Identifying a Problem "My sales reps need new computers!" Identifying Decision Criteria • Memory and storage • Display quality • Battery life • Warranty • Carrying weight Allocating Weights to the Criteria Memory and storage Battery life.................................................... Carrying weight........................................... Warranty....................................................... Display quality............................................. .................................10 8 6 4 3 Developing Alternatives HP ProBook Sony VAIO Lenovo IdeaPad Apple MacBook Toshiba Satellite Apple MacBook Air Dell Inspiron HP Pavilion Analyzing Alternatives Selecting an Alternative Implementing the Alternative Dell Inspiron Evaluating Decision Effectiveness HP ProBook Sony VAIO Lenovo IdeaPad Apple MacBook HP ProBook Sony VAIO Lenovo IdeaPad Apple MacBook Toshiba Satellite Apple MacBook Air Dell Inspiron HP Pavilion Toshiba Satellite Apple MacBook Air Dell Inspiron HP Pavilion Exhibit 2-1 Decision-Making Process M02_ROBB5839_14_GE_C02.indd 83 08/07/17 10:41 AM 84 Part 1 Introduction to Management Step 3: Allocate Weights to the Criteria If the relevant criteria aren’t equally important, the decision maker must weight the items in order to give them the correct priority in the decision. How? A simple way is to give the most important criterion a weight of 10 and then assign weights to the rest using that standard. Of course, you could use any num- ber as the highest weight. The weighted criteria for our example are shown in Exhibit 2-2. Step 4: Develop Alternatives The fourth step in the decision-making process requires the decision maker to list viable alternatives that could resolve the problem. In this step, a decision maker needs to be creative, and the alternatives are only listed—not evaluated just yet. Our sales manager, Amanda, identifies seven laptops as possible choices. (See Exhibit 2-3.) Step 5: Analyze Alternatives Once alternatives have been identified, a decision maker must evaluate each one. How? By using the criteria established in Step 2. Exhibit 2-3 shows the assessed values that Amanda gave each alternative after doing some research on them. Keep in mind that these data represent an assessment of the eight alternatives using the decision criteria, but not the weighting. When you multiply each alternative by the assigned weight, you get the weighted alternatives as shown in Exhibit 2-4. The total score for each alterna- tive, then, is the sum of its weighted criteria. Sometimes a decision maker might be able to skip this step. If one alternative scores highest on every criterion, you wouldn’t need to consider the weights because that alternative would already be the top choice. Or if the weights were all equal, you could evaluate an alternative merely by summing up the assessed values for each one. (Look again at Exhibit 2-3.) For example, the score for the HP ProBook would be 36, and the score for the Apple MacBook Air would be 35. The eight-step decision-making process begins with identifying a problem and ends with evaluating the result of the decision. After identifying the need to buy new laptop computers for her sales reps, the manager must identify relevant criteria such as price, display quality, and memory that will help guide her final decision. Source: Alex Segre/Alamy Stock Photo Exhibit 2-2 Important Decision Criteria Memory and storage 10 Battery life 8 Carrying weight 6 Warranty 4 Display quality 3 Exhibit 2-3 Possible Alternatives   Memory and Storage Battery Life Carrying Weight Warranty Display Quality HP ProBook 10 3 10 8 5 Lenovo IdeaPad 8 5 7 10 10 Apple MacBook 8 7 7 8 7 Toshiba Satellite 7 8 7 8 7 Apple MacBook Air 8 3 6 10 8 Dell Inspiron 10 7 8 6 7 HP Pavilion 4 10 4 8 10 M02_ROBB5839_14_GE_C02.indd 84 08/07/17 10:41 AM Chapter 2 Decision Making 85 Step 6: Select an Alternative The sixth step in the decision-making process is choosing the best alternative or the one that generated the highest total in Step 5. In our example (Exhibit 2-4), Amanda would choose the Dell Inspiron because it scored higher than all other alternatives (249 total). Step 7: Implement the Alternative In Step 7 in the decision-making process, you put the decision into action by convey- ing it to those affected and getting their commitment to it. We know that if the people who must implement a decision participate in the process, they’re more likely to sup- port it than if you just tell them what to do. Another thing managers may need to do during implementation is reassess the environment for any changes, especially if it’s a long-term decision. Are the criteria, alternatives, and choices still the best ones, or has the environment changed in such a way that we need to reevaluate? For instance, businesses that offer goods and services with an online component must secure private customer data, such as passwords and payment details. However, even companies that have taken steps to protect customer data are rethinking their criteria and alterna- tives because of a dramatic increase in cybercrime. VTech Holdings, a Hong Kong company that makes tech-enabled toys, is a case in point. After a VTech website for children was hacked, the company was criticized for being slow to confirm the breach and notify parents to change passwords. After investigating, VTech’s executives hired a cybersecurity consulting firm to strengthen online defenses. Later, they relaunched the website with updated terms of use disclosing the potential problems, saying no company can offer a 100 percent guarantee that it won’t be hacked.10 Step 8: Evaluate Decision Effectiveness The last step in the decision-making process involves evaluating the outcome or result of the decision to see whether the problem was resolved. If the evaluation shows that the problem still exists, then the manager needs to assess what went wrong. Was the problem incorrectly defined? Were errors made when evaluating alternatives? Was the right alternative selected but poorly implemented? For example, following BP’s cata- strophic Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, CEO Tony Hayward (now former) issued an apology to the public that was poorly conceived and executed. In re- sponse to the spill, Hayward said: “We are sorry for the massive disruption it’s caused their lives. There’s no one who wants this thing over more than I do. I’d like my life back.”11 Indeed, it was the right decision to issue an apology to the victims. But Hay- ward’s decision to include himself as a victim was poorly conceived. The answers to the questions asked as a result of evaluating the outcome might lead you to redo an earlier step or might even require starting the whole process over. In this particular case, Hay- ward did not have this opportunity because he resigned in the wake of public outcry. Exhibit 2-4 Evaluation of Alternatives   Memory and Storage Battery Life Carrying Weight Warranty Display Quality Total HP ProBook 100 24 60 32 15 231 Lenovo IdeaPad 80 40 42 40 30 232 Apple MacBook 80 56 42 32 21 231 Toshiba Satellite 70 64 42 32 21 229 Apple MacBook Air 80 24 36 40 24 204 Dell Inspiron 100 56 48 24 21 249 HP Pavilion 40 80 24 32 30 206 M02_ROBB5839_14_GE_C02.indd 85 08/07/17 10:41 AM 86 Part 1 Introduction to Management APPROACHES to decision making Although everyone in an organization makes decisions, decision making is particularly important to managers. As Exhibit 2-5 shows, it’s part of all four managerial functions. That’s why managers—when they plan, organize, lead, and control—are called decision makers. The fact that almost everything a manager does involves making decisions doesn’t mean that decisions are always time-consuming, complex, or evident to an outside observer. Most decision making is routine. For instance, every day of the year you make a decision about what to eat for dinner. It’s no big deal. You’ve made the deci- sion thousands of times before. It’s a pretty simple decision and can usually be handled quickly. It’s the type of decision you almost forget is a decision. And managers also make dozens of these routine decisions every day; for example, which employee will work what shift next week, what information should be included in a report, or how to resolve a customer’s complaint. Keep in mind that even though a decision seems easy or has been faced by a manager a number of times before, it still is a decision. Let’s look at four perspectives on how managers make decisions. Rationality We assume that managers will use rational decision making; that is, they’ll make logical and consistent choices to maximize value.13 After all, managers have all sorts of tools and techniques to help them be rational decision makers. What does it mean to be a “rational” decision maker? ASSUMPTIONS OF RATIONALITY A rational decision maker would be fully objec- tive and logical. The problem faced would be clear and unambiguous, and the deci- sion maker would have a clear and specific goal and know all possible alternatives and consequences. Finally, making decisions rationally would consistently lead to selecting LO2.2 rational decision making Describes choices that are logical and consistent and maximize value FYI • Decision making is the essence of management.12 Planning Organizing Leading Controlling What are the organization’s long-term objectives? What strategies will best achieve those objectives? What should the organization’s short-term objectives be? How difficult should individual goals be? How many employees should I have report directly to me? How much centralization should there be in an organization? How should jobs be designed? When should the organization implement a different structure? How do I handle employees who appear to be unmotivated? What is the most effective leadership style in a given situation? How will a specific change affect worker productivity? When is the right time to stimulate conflict? What activities in the organization need to be controlled? How should those activities be controlled? When is a performance deviation significant? What type of management information system should the organization have? Exhibit 2-5 Decisions Managers May Make M02_ROBB5839_14_GE_C02.indd 86 08/07/17 10:41 AM Chapter 2 Decision Making 87 the alternative that maximizes the likelihood of achieving that goal. These assump- tions apply to any decision—personal or managerial. However, for managerial decision making, we need to add one additional assumption—decisions are made in the best interests of the organization. These assumptions of rationality aren’t very realistic and managers don’t always act rationally, but the next concept can help explain how most decisions get made in organizations. Bounded Rationality Despite the unrealistic assumptions, managers are expected to be rational when mak- ing decisions.14 They understand that “good” decision makers are supposed to do certain things and exhibit good decision-making behaviors as they identify problems, consider alternatives, gather information, and act decisively but prudently. When they do so, they show others that they’re competent and that their decisions are the result of intelligent deliberation. However, a more realistic approach to describing how manag- ers make decisions is the concept of bounded rationality, which says that managers make decisions rationally, but are limited (bounded) by their ability to process infor- mation.15 Because they can’t possibly analyze all information on all alternatives, man- agers satisfice, rather than maximize. That is, they accept solutions that are “good enough.” They’re being rational within the limits (bounds) of their ability to process information. Let’s look at an example. Suppose you’re a finance major and upon graduation you want a job, preferably as a personal financial planner with a minimum salary of $55,000 and within 100 miles of your hometown. You accept a job offer as a business credit analyst—not exactly a personal financial planner but still in the finance field—at a bank 50 miles from home at a starting salary of $47,500. If you had done a more comprehensive job search, you would have discovered a job in personal financial planning at a trust company only 25 miles from your hometown and starting at a salary of $55,000. You weren’t a per- fectly rational decision maker because you didn’t maximize your decision by searching all possible alternatives and then choosing the best. But because the first job offer was satisfactory (or “good enough”), you behaved in a bounded-rationality manner by accepting it. Most decisions that managers make don’t fit the assumptions of perfect rational- ity, so they satisfice. However, keep in mind that their decision making is also likely influenced by the organization’s culture, internal politics, power considerations, and by a phenomenon called escalation of commitment, an increased commitment to a previous decision despite evidence that it may have been wrong.16 The Challenger space shuttle disaster is often used as an example of escalation of commitment. Decision mak- ers chose to launch the shuttle that day even though the de- cision was questioned by several individuals who believed it was a bad one. Why would decision makers escalate commit- ment to a bad decision? Because they don’t want to admit that their initial decision may have been flawed. Rather than search for new alternatives, they simply increase their com- mitment to the original solution. Intuition When managers at stapler-maker Swingline saw the com- pany’s market share declining, they used a logical scientific approach to address the issue. For three years, they exhaus- tively researched stapler users before deciding what new products to develop. However, at Accentra, Inc., founder Todd Moses used a more intuitive decision approach to come up with his line of unique PaperPro staplers.17 bounded rationality Decision making that’s rational, but limited (bounded) by an individual’s ability to process information satisfice Accept solutions that are “good enough” escalation of commitment An increased commitment to a previous decision despite evidence it may have been wrong Netflix CEO Reed Hastings relies on what he calls “informed intuition” in the development of original programming, which plays a major role in the company’s international growth. Although Netflix invests heavily in data analytics, Hastings says that intuition is as important as data in making final decisions. Source: Tobias Hase/picture alliance / dpa/ Newscom M02_ROBB5839_14_GE_C02.indd 87 08/07/17 10:41 AM 88 Part 1 Introduction to Management Like Todd Moses, managers often use their intuition to help their decision mak- ing. What is intuitive decision making? It’s making decisions on the basis of expe- rience, feelings, and accumulated judgment. Researchers studying managers’ use of intuitive decision making have identified five different aspects of intuition, which are described in Exhibit 2-6.18 How common is intuitive decision making? One survey found that almost half of the executives surveyed “used intuition more often than formal analysis to run their companies.”19 Intuitive decision making can complement both rational and bounded rational decision making.20 First of all, a manager who has had experience with a similar type of problem or situation often can act quickly with what appears to be limited infor- mation because of that past experience. In addition, a recent study found that indi- viduals who experienced intense feelings and emotions when making decisions actually achieved higher decision-making performance, especially when they understood their feelings as they were making decisions. The old belief that managers should ignore emotions when making decisions may not be the best advice.21 intuitive decision making Making decisions on the basis of experience, feelings, and accumulated judgment Intuition Experience-based decisions Subconscious mental processing Values or ethics- based decisions Cognitive-based decisions Affect-initiated decisions Managers make decisions based on ethical values or culture Managers use data from subconscious mind to help them make decisions Managers make decisions based on feelings or emotions Managers make decisions based on skills, knowledge, and training Managers make decisions based on their past experiences Exhibit 2-6 What Is Intuition? Source: Based on L. A. Burke and M. K. Miller, “Taking the Mystery Out of Intuitive Decision Making,” Academy of Management Executive, October 1999, pp. 91–99. Evidence-Based Management Sales associates at the cosmetics counter at department store Bon-Ton Stores, Inc. had the highest turnover of any store sales group. Using a data-driven decision approach, managers devised a more precise pre-employment assessment test. Now, not only do they have lower turnover, they actually have better hires.22 Suppose you were exhibiting some strange, puzzling physical symptoms. In order to make the best decisions about proper diagnosis and treatment, wouldn’t you want your doctor to base her decisions on the best available evidence? Now suppose you’re a manager faced with putting together an employee recognition program. Wouldn’t you want those decisions also to be based on the best available evidence? If your professor has assigned this, go to www.mymanagementlab.com to watch a video titled CH2MHill Decision Making and to respond to questions.Watch It 1! M02_ROBB5839_14_GE_C02.indd 88 08/07/17 10:41 AM http://www.mymanagementlab.com Chapter 2 Decision Making 89 “Any decision-making process is likely to be enhanced through the use of relevant and reliable evidence, whether it’s buying someone a birthday present or wondering which new washing machine to buy.”23 That’s the premise behind evidence-based management (EBMgt), the “systematic use of the best available evidence to improve management practice.”24 EBMgt is quite relevant to managerial decision making. The four essential elements of EBMgt are (1) the decision maker’s expertise and judgment; (2) external evidence that’s been evaluated by the decision maker; (3) opinions, preferences, and values of those who have a stake in the decision; and (4) relevant organizational (internal) factors such as context, circumstances, and organizational members. The strength or influence of each of these elements on a decision will vary with each decision. Some- times, the decision maker’s intuition (judgment) might be given greater emphasis in the decision; other times it might be the opinions of stakeholders; and at other times, it might be ethical considerations (organizational context). The key for managers is to recognize and understand the mindful, conscious choice as to which elements are most important and should be emphasized in making a decision. TYPES of decisions and decision-making conditions Restaurant managers in Portland make routine decisions weekly about purchasing food supplies and scheduling employee work shifts. It’s something they’ve done numerous times. But now they’re facing a different kind of decision—one they’ve never encountered: how to adapt to a new law requiring that nutritional information be posted. Types of Decisions Such situations aren’t all that unusual. Managers in all kinds of organizations face dif- ferent types of problems and decisions as they do their jobs. Depending on the nature of the problem, a manager can use one of two different types of decisions. evidence-based management (EBMgt) The systematic use of the best available evidence to improve management practice LO2.3 REALlet’s get The Scenario: Juan Hernandez is a successful business owner. His landscaping business is growing, and a few months ago he decided to bring in somebody to manage his office operations since he had little time to keep on top of that activity. However, this individual can’t seem to make a decision without agonizing about it over and over and on and on. What could Juan do to help this person become a better decision maker? Juan could give his office assistant a more complete picture of the tasks at hand for the day/week/month as well as timelines for each. It would force his decision to be made within a certain timeframe as well as give him a bigger-picture view of the workload. It would make him realize that there are many more tasks to accomplish. Prudence Rufus Business Owner/Photographer So ur ce : P ru de nc e Ru fu s FYI • The more trust employees have in their managers, the more likely the employees are to expect organizational outcomes to be favorable and the more likely they are to expect that the procedures used by authorities to plan and implement decisions will be fair.25 M02_ROBB5839_14_GE_C02.indd 89 08/07/17 10:41 AM 90 Part 1 Introduction to Management STRUCTURED PROBLEMS AND PROGRAMMED DECISIONS Some problems are straightforward. The decision maker’s goal is clear, the problem is familiar, and information about the problem is easily defined and complete. Examples might include when a customer returns a purchase to a store, when a supplier is late with an important delivery, a news team’s response to a fast-breaking event, or a college’s handling of a student wanting to drop a class. Such situations are called structured problems because they’re straightforward, familiar, and easily defined. For instance, a server spills a drink on a customer’s coat. The customer is upset and the manager needs to do something. Because it’s not an unusual occurrence, there’s probably some standardized routine for handling it. For example, the manager offers to have the coat cleaned at the restaurant’s expense. This is what we call a programmed decision, a repetitive decision that can be handled by a routine approach. Because the problem is structured, the manager doesn’t have to go to the trouble and expense of going through an involved decision process. The “develop-the-alternatives” stage of the decision-making process either doesn’t exist or is given little attention. Why? Because once the structured problem is defined, the solution is usually self-evident or at least reduced to a few alternatives that are familiar and have proved successful in the past. The spilled drink on the customer’s coat doesn’t require the restaurant manager to identify and weight decision criteria or to develop a long list of possible solutions. Instead, the manager relies on one of three types of programmed deci- sions: procedure, rule, or policy. A procedure is a series of sequential steps a manager uses to respond to a struc- tured problem. The only difficulty is identifying the problem. Once it’s clear, so is the procedure. For instance, a purchasing manager receives a request from a warehouse manager for 15 tablets for the inventory clerks. The purchasing manager knows how to make this decision by following the established purchasing procedure. A rule is an explicit statement that tells a manager what can or cannot be done. Rules are frequently used because they’re simple to follow and ensure consistency. For example, rules about lateness and absenteeism permit supervisors to make disciplinary decisions rapidly and fairly. The third type of programmed decisions is a policy, a guideline for making a decision. In contrast to a rule, a policy establishes general parameters for the decision maker rather than specifically stating what should or should not be done. Policies typi- cally contain an ambiguous term that leaves interpretation up to the decision maker. Here are some sample policy statements: • The customer always comes first and should always be satisfied. • We promote from within, whenever possible. • Employee wages shall be competitive within community standards. Notice that the terms satisfied, whenever possible, and competitive require interpreta- tion. For instance, the policy of paying competitive wages doesn’t tell a company’s human resources manager the exact amount he or she should pay, but it does guide the manager in making the decision. structured problems Straightforward, familiar, and easily defined problems programmed decision A repetitive decision that can be handled by a routine approach procedure A series of sequential steps used to respond to a well-structured problem rule An explicit statement that tells managers what can or cannot be done policy A guideline for making decisions It’s Your Career Decision Making, Part 1—If your instructor is using Pearson MyLab Management, log onto mymanagementlab.com and test your decision-making knowledge. Be sure to refer back to the chapter opener! UNSTRUCTURED PROBLEMS AND NONPROGRAMMED DECISIONS Not all the problems managers face can be solved using programmed decisions. Many organizational situations involve unstructured problems, new or unusual prob- lems for which information is ambiguous or incomplete. After more than 50 years of separation between the United States and Cuba, how the United States unstructured problems Problems that are new or unusual and for which information is ambiguous or incomplete M02_ROBB5839_14_GE_C02.indd 90 08/07/17 10:41 AM Chapter 2 Decision Making 91 government builds economic ties with Cuba is an example of an unstructured problem. So, too, is the problem facing American HR professionals who must decide how to modify their health insurance plans to comply with the Patient Pro- tection and Affordable Care Act. When problems are unstructured, managers must rely on nonprogrammed decision making in order to develop unique solutions. Nonprogrammed decisions are unique and nonrecurring and involve custom- made solutions. Exhibit 2-7 describes the differences between programmed and nonpro- grammed decisions. Lower-level managers mostly rely on programmed decisions (procedures, rules, and policies) because they confront familiar and repetitive problems. As managers move up the organizational hierarchy, the problems they confront become more unstructured. Why? Because lower-level managers handle the routine decisions and let upper-level managers deal with the unusual or difficult decisions. Also, upper-level managers delegate routine decisions to their subordi- nates so they can deal with more difficult issues.26 Thus, few managerial decisions in the real world are either fully programmed or nonprogrammed. Most fall some- where in between. nonprogrammed decisions Unique and nonrecurring decisions that require a custom-made solution Exhibit 2-7 Programmed Versus Nonprogrammed Decisions Characteristic Programmed Decisions Nonprogrammed Decisions Type of problem Structured Unstructured Managerial level Lower levels Upper levels Frequency Repetitive, routine New, unusual Information Readily available Ambiguous or incomplete Goals Clear, specific Vague Time frame for solution Short Relatively long Solution relies on . . . Procedures, rules, policies Judgment and creativity Decision-Making Conditions When making decisions, managers may face three different conditions: certainty, risk, and uncertainty. Let’s look at the characteristics of each. CERTAINTY The ideal situation for making decisions is one of certainty, a situation where a manager can make accurate decisions because the outcome of every alterna- tive is known. For example, entrepreneurs and business managers in Sweden can be certain they will receive prompt payment for goods and services when they decide to allow customers to make purchases through financial services apps like iZettle and Trustly. As you might expect, the outcomes of most managerial decisions are not as certain.27 RISK A far more common situation is one of risk, conditions in which the decision maker is able to estimate the likelihood of certain outcomes. Under risk, managers have historical data from past personal experiences or secondary information that lets them assign probabilities to different alternatives. Let’s do an example. Suppose you manage a Colorado ski resort, and you’re thinking about adding another lift. Obviously, your decision will be influenced by the additional revenue certainty A situation in which a manager can make accurate decisions because all outcomes are known risk A situation in which the decision maker is able to estimate the likelihood of certain outcomes If your professor has assigned this, go to www.mymanagementlab.com to complete the Writing Assignment MGMT 8: Decision Making. Write It! M02_ROBB5839_14_GE_C02.indd 91 08/07/17 10:41 AM http://www.mymanagementlab.com 92 Part 1 Introduction to Management that the new lift would generate, which depends on snowfall. You have fairly reli- able weather data from the last 10 years on snowfall levels in your area—three years of heavy snowfall, five years of normal snowfall, and two years of light snow. And you have good information on the amount of revenues generated during each level of snow. You can use this information to help you make your decision by calculating expected value—the expected return from each possible outcome—by multiplying expected revenues by snowfall probabilities. The result is the average revenue you can expect over time if the given probabilities hold. As Exhibit 2-8 shows, the expected revenue from adding a new ski lift is $687,500. Of course, whether that’s enough to justify a decision to build depends on the costs involved in generating that revenue. UNCERTAINTY The general manager and employees of the Fukushima Daini nuclear power plant in Japan faced a crisis because of the damage that resulted from an earthquake and tsunami. A strong possibility existed for a catastrophic nuclear meltdown and explosion at the power plant. Many possible factors could The Hershey Co. needs to find a way to keep their chocolates cool when shipping during the summer months or in warmer climates.28 To meet this chal- lenge, Hershey is turning to the crowd. Instead of look- ing for a solution within the company, management is using a crowdsourcing innovation competition to solve this supply chain management problem. Anyone can submit an idea, and the contest winner gets $25,000 in development funds and the opportunity to collaborate with Hershey to develop the proposed solution. Finding innovative solutions to problems is one of several uses of crowdsourcing in organizations. Crowd- sourcing can help managers gather insights from cus- tomers, employees, or other groups to help make deci- sions such as what products to develop, where they should invest, or even who to promote. Powered by the collective experiences and ideas of many, crowdsourc- ing can help managers make better informed decisions by getting input from the front line and beyond. Crowdsourcing is not new in the business world. One of the first examples of a business using crowd- sourcing occurred in 1916 when Planters Peanuts held a contest to create its logo. However, today’s Internet connectivity provides businesses quick and easy ac- cess to insights from customers and employees, ef- fectively tapping into their cumulative wisdom. This connectivity, coupled with new software applications that facilitate crowdsourcing, gives it the potential to significantly impact the future of organizational deci- sion making. Crowdsourcing DecisionsF U T U R E V I S I O N The ability of crowdsourcing to help organizations make decisions and solve problems will depend on management’s ability to effectively harness the power of the crowd. Harvard Business School Professor Karim Lakhani suggests that organizations must find the right people and create appropriate incentives to motivate them to contribute. Effective crowdsourcing must draw a diversity of opinions that are independent of one another. Organizations must also have a mechanism to aggregate individual responses into a collective opinion in order to support the use of crowdsourcing in deci- sion making. Crowdsourcing could be a game changer for making decisions in organizations if used strategi- cally. We could see a shift from the traditional model of decision making led from the top of the hierar- chy to more effective decisions driven by custom- ers, employees, or others. This revolution in the decision-making process could challenge conven- tional management practices, requiring new skills from managers. If your professor has chosen to assign this, go to www.mymanagementlab.com to discuss the follow- ing questions. TALK ABOUT IT 1: How can crowdsourcing help managers make better decisions? TALK ABOUT IT 2: What are some risks in using crowdsourcing to make decisions? M02_ROBB5839_14_GE_C02.indd 92 08/07/17 10:41 AM http://www.mymanagementlab.com Chapter 2 Decision Making 93 have led to these outcomes, including whether vital systems damaged in the quake could be repaired and whether aftershocks would further destabilize the nuclear reactors. What happens if you face a decision where you’re not certain about the outcomes and can’t even make reasonable probability estimates? We call this condi- tion uncertainty. Managers face decision-making situations of uncertainty. Under these conditions, the choice of alternatives is influenced by the limited amount of available information and by the psychological orientation of the decision maker. An optimistic manager will follow a maximax choice (maximizing the maximum possible payoff); a pessimist will follow a maximin choice (maximizing the mini- mum possible payoff); and a manager who desires to minimize his maximum “re- gret” will opt for a minimax choice. Let’s look at these different choice approaches using an example. A marketing manager at Visa has determined four possible strategies (S1, S2, S3, and S4) for promoting the Visa card throughout the West Coast region of the United States. The marketing manager also knows that major competitor MasterCard has three competitive actions (CA1, CA2, and CA3) it’s using to promote its card in the same region. For this example, we’ll assume that the Visa manager had no previous knowledge that would allow her to determine probabilities of success of any of the four strategies. She formulates the matrix shown in Exhibit 2-9 to show the various Visa strategies and the resulting profit, depending on the competitive action used by MasterCard. In this example, if our Visa manager is an optimist, she’ll choose strategy 4 (S4) because that could produce the largest possible gain: $28 million. Note that this choice maximizes the maximum possible gain (maximax choice). If our manager is a pessimist, she’ll assume that only the worst can occur. The worst outcome for each strategy is as follows: S1 = $11 million; S2 = $9 million; S3 = $15 million; S4 = $14 million. These are the most pessimistic outcomes from each strategy. Following the maximin choice, she would maximize the minimum payoff; in other words, she’d select S3 ($15 million is the largest of the minimum payoffs). In the third approach, managers recognize that once a decision is made, it will not necessarily result in the most profitable payoff. There may be a “regret” of profits given up—regret referring to the amount of money that could have uncertainty A situation in which a decision maker has neither certainty nor reasonable probability estimates available Exhibit 2-8 Expected ValueEvent Expected Revenues × Probability = Expected Value of Each Alternative Heavy snowfall $850,000   0.3   $255,000 Normal snowfall 725,000   0.5   362,500 Light snowfall 350,000   0.2   70,000           $687,500 Exhibit 2-9 Payoff MatrixVisa Marketing Strategy (in millions of dollars) MasterCard’s Competitive Action CA1 CA2 CA3 S1 13 14 11 S2 9 15 18 S3 24 21 15 S4 18 14 28 M02_ROBB5839_14_GE_C02.indd 93 08/07/17 10:41 AM 94 Part 1 Introduction to Management been made had a different strategy been used. Managers calculate regret by sub- tracting all possible payoffs in each cat- egory from the maximum possible payoff for each given event, in this case for each competitive action. For our Visa manager, the highest payoff—given that MasterCard engages in CA1, CA2, or CA3—is $24 mil- lion, $21 million, or $28 million, respec- tively (the highest number in each column). Subtracting the payoffs in Exhibit 2-9 from those figures produces the results shown in Exhibit 2-10. The maximum regrets are S1 = $17 mil- lion; S2 = $15 million; S3 = $13 million; and S4 = $7 million. The minimax choice mini- mizes the maximum regret, so our Visa man- ager would choose S4. By making this choice, she’ll never have a regret of profits given up of more than $7 million. This result con- trasts, for example, with a regret of $15 mil- lion had she chosen S2 and MasterCard had taken CA1. Although managers try to quantify a decision when possible by using payoff and regret matrices, uncertainty often forces them to rely more on intuition, creativity, hunches, and “gut feel.” He’s not your typical CEO. In fact, some might call him a little crazy, except for the fact that his track record at turning crazy ideas into profita- ble ventures is pretty good. We’re talking about Elon Musk.29 In 2002, he sold his second Inter- net startup, PayPal, to eBay for $1.5 billion. (His first company, a Web software firm, was acquired by Compaq.) Cur- rently, Musk is CEO of Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) and Tesla Motors, and chairman and largest shareholder of SolarCity, an energy technology company. SpaceX, which builds rockets for com- panies and countries to put satellites in space, was the first private company to deliver cargo to the International Space Station. It’s reig- niting interest in space exploration. Tesla Motors is the world’s most prominent maker of electric cars and is proving that electric cars can be green, sexy, and profitable. SolarCity is now the leading provider of domestic solar panels in the United States. Each of these ventures has transformed (or is transforming) an industry: PayPal—Internet pay- ments; Tesla—automobiles; SpaceX—aeronautics; and SolarCity— energy. As a decision maker, Musk deals mostly with unstructured problems in risky conditions. However, like other business innovators, Musk is comfortable with that and in pursuing what many might con- sider “crazy” idea territory. His genius has been compared to that of the late Steve Jobs. And Fortune magazine named him the 2013 Busi- nessperson of the Year. What can you learn from this leader making a difference? LEADER making a DIFFERENCE So ur ce : K ris to ffe r T rip pl aa r/ Si pa U SA (S ip a vi a AP Im ag es ) Exhibit 2-10 Regret Matrix Visa Marketing Strategy (in millions of dollars) MasterCard’s Competitive Action CA1 CA2 CA3 S1 11 7 17 S2 15 6 10 S3 0 0 13 S4 6 7 0 DECISION-MAKING biases and errors When managers make decisions, they may use “rules of thumb,” or heuristics, to simplify their decision making. Rules of thumb can be useful because they help make sense of complex, uncertain, and ambiguous infor- mation.30 Even though managers may use rules of thumb, that doesn’t mean those rules are reliable. Why? Because they may lead to errors and biases in processing and LO2.4 heuristics Rules of thumb that managers use to simplify decision making If your professor has assigned this, go to www.mymanagementlab.com to watch a video titled Gaviña Gourmet Coffee: Organizational Behavior and to respond to questions.Watch It 2! M02_ROBB5839_14_GE_C02.indd 94 08/07/17 10:41 AM http://www.mymanagementlab.com Chapter 2 Decision Making 95 evaluating information. Exhibit 2-11 identifies 12 common decision errors of manag- ers and biases they may have. Let’s look at each.31 When decision makers tend to think they know more than they do or hold unre- alistically positive views of themselves and their performance, they’re exhibiting the overconfidence bias. The immediate gratification bias describes decision makers who tend to want immediate rewards and to avoid immediate costs. For these individuals, decision choices that provide quick payoffs are more appealing than those with payoffs in the future. The anchoring effect describes how decision makers fixate on initial infor- mation as a starting point and then, once set, fail to adequately adjust for subsequent information. First impressions, ideas, prices, and estimates carry unwarranted weight relative to information received later. When decision makers selectively organize and interpret events based on their biased perceptions, they’re using the selective perception bias. This influences the information they pay attention to, the problems they iden- tify, and the alternatives they develop. Decision makers who seek out information that reaffirms their past choices and discounts information that contradicts past judgments exhibit the confirmation bias. These people tend to accept at face value information that confirms their preconceived views and are critical and skeptical of information that challenges these views. The framing bias occurs when decision makers select and highlight certain aspects of a situation while excluding others. By drawing attention to specific aspects of a situation and highlighting them, while at the same time downplay- ing or omitting other aspects, they distort what they see and create incorrect reference points. The availability bias happens when decision makers tend to remember events that are the most recent and vivid in their memory. The result? It distorts their ability to recall events in an objective manner and results in distorted judgments and prob- ability estimates. When decision makers assess the likelihood of an event based on how closely it resembles other events or sets of events, that’s the representation bias. Managers exhibiting this bias draw analogies and see identical situations where they don’t exist. The randomness bias describes the actions of decision makers who try to create meaning out of random events. They do this because most decision makers have difficulty dealing with chance even though random events happen to everyone, and there’s nothing that can be done to predict them. The sunk costs error occurs when decision makers forget that current choices can’t correct the past. They incorrectly fix- ate on past expenditures of time, money, or effort in assessing choices rather than on future consequences. Instead of ignoring sunk costs, they can’t forget them. Decision makers who are quick to take credit for their successes and to blame failure on outside factors are exhibiting the self-serving bias. Finally, the hindsight bias is the tendency Overconfidence Availability FramingRepresentation ConfirmationRandomness Selective PerceptionSunk Costs Anchoring EffectSelf-serving Immediate GratificationHindsight Decision-Making Errors and Biases Exhibit 2-11 Common Decision-Making Biases M02_ROBB5839_14_GE_C02.indd 95 08/07/17 10:41 AM 96 Part 1 Introduction to Management for decision makers to falsely believe that they would have accurately predicted the outcome of an event once that outcome is actually known. Managers avoid the negative effects of these decision errors and biases by being aware of them and then not using them! Fortunately, some research shows that train- ing can successfully engage employees to recognize particular decision-making biases and reduce subsequent biased decision making with a long-lasting effect.33 Beyond that, managers also should pay attention to “how” they make decisions and try to identify the heuristics they typically use and critically evaluate the appropriateness of those heuristics. Finally, managers might want to ask trusted individuals to help them identify weaknesses in their decision-making style and try to improve on those weaknesses. For example, Christopher Cabrera, founder and CEO of Xactly, did just that. “I had a seasoned boss who was a wonderful mentor, and he really helped me with hiring and understanding how to create diverse teams. The company was growing quickly, and hiring was a big part of my job.”34 FYI • When managers reduced the effects of bias in their decision making, their organizations’ performance returns were 7 percent higher.32 Overview of Managerial Decision Making Exhibit 2-12 provides an overview of managerial decision making. Because it’s in their best interests, managers want to make good decisions—that is, choose the “best” alternative, implement it, and determine whether it takes care of the problem, which is the reason the decision was needed in the first place. Their decision-making process is affected by four factors: the decision-making approach, the type of problem, decision- making conditions, and certain decision-making errors and biases. So whether a deci- sion involves addressing an employee’s habitual tardiness, resolving a product quality problem, or determining whether to enter a new market, it has been shaped by a number of factors. Decision • Choosing best alternative - maximizing - satisficing • Implementing • Evaluating Types of Problems and Decisions • Well structured—programmed • Unstructured—nonprogrammed Decision-Making Conditions • Certainty • Risk • Uncertainty Decision-Making Approach • Rationality • Bounded rationality • Intuition Decision Maker’s Style • Linear thinking style • Nonlinear thinking style Decision-Making Process Decision-Making Errors and Biases Exhibit 2-12 Overview of Managerial Decision Making Decision Making, Part 2—If your instructor is using Pearson MyLab Management, log onto mymanagementlab.com and test your decision-making knowledge. Be sure to refer back to the chapter opener! It’s Your Career M02_ROBB5839_14_GE_C02.indd 96 08/07/17 10:42 AM Making Good Decisions actually correct only about 50 percent of the time. And when they say they’re 100 percent sure, they tend to be only 70 percent to 85 percent correct. To reduce overconfidence, begin by recognizing this ten- dency, and expect it to most likely surface when your con- fidence is extremely high or when accurate judgments are difficult to make. Next, adjust your confidence awareness to reflect your level of expertise on an issue. You’re most likely to be overconfident when you’re considering issues outside your expertise. Finally, directly address this bias by chal- lenging yourself to look for reasons why your predictions or answers might be wrong. A lot of us suffer from the tendency to want to grab for immediate rewards and avoid immediate costs. If it feels good, we want to do it now; if it implies pain, we want to postpone it. This immediate gratification bias explains why it’s so hard to diet, quit smoking, avoid credit card debt, or save for retirement. Each comes with an immediate reward— tasty food, an enjoyable cigarette, an immediate purchase, or extra disposable money to spend. And each delays its costs to some nebulous future. If you see yourself as vulnerable to the immediate grati- fication bias, what can you do? First, set long-term goals and review them regularly. This can help you focus on the longer term and help you to justify making decisions whose payoff may be far into the future. If you don’t know where you want to be in 10 or 20 years, it’s easier to discount your future and live for the moment. Second, pay attention to both rewards and costs. Our natural tendency is to inflate immediate rewards and underplay future costs. For instance, think about what it would be like to be retired, having no savings and try- ing to live on a $1200-a-month Social Security check. Or look around for examples of people who didn’t plan for their future and now are suffering the consequences. Finally, the rational decision-making process assumes that we objectively gather information. But we don’t. We selectively gather information so it confirms our current beliefs, and we dismiss evidence that challenges those beliefs. We also tend to accept at face value information that confirms our preconceived views, while being critical and skeptical of information that challenges these views. Overcoming this confirmation bias begins by being hon- est about your motives. Are you seriously trying to get infor- mation to make an informed decision, or are you just looking for evidence to confirm what you’d like to do? If you’re seri- ous about this, then you need to purposely seek out contrary or disconfirming information. That means you have to be pre- pared to hear what you don’t want to hear. You’ll also need to practice skepticism until it becomes habitual. In the same way that a defense attorney seeks contradictory evidence to disprove a plaintiff’s case, you have to think of reasons why your beliefs might be wrong and then aggressively seek out evidence that might prove them to be so. Based on S. P Robbins, Decide & Conquer: The Ultimate Guide for Improving Your Decision Making, 2nd ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, 2015). WORKPLACE CONFIDENTIAL Life comes with tough decisions. And so do jobs. The tough decisions start with choosing whether to accept an initial job offer. They often continue with deciding who to befriend and trust at work, whether or not to join a new work team or ac- cept a promotion to a new city, how to respond to a situation that might compromise your ethics, or how to relay bad news to your boss. Let’s begin with the basic tenet that you can’t avoid tough decisions by ignoring them. The decision to do nothing is still a decision. It’s a decision to maintain the status quo. You can maintain the status quo by following either of two paths—one active and the other passive. You can rationally assess your current situation, identify your options, carefully review the strengths and weaknesses of these options, and conclude that no new alternative is superior to the path you’re currently taking. This active approach is fully consistent with rational decision making. Our concern here, however, is with the passive approach— where the current path is followed only because you fail to consider your other options. You don’t, for instance, want to find yourself regretting having spent 20 years in a go- nowhere job that you disliked because you avoided looking for other opportunities. How do you counter the nondecision decision? The first step is awareness. You can’t opt out of decisions by ignor- ing them. To do so is merely choosing to continue along the path you’re on. That path may be the one you want, but the astute decision maker recognizes that there are costs associ- ated with maintaining the status quo as well as with change. You also need to directly challenge the status quo. It’s not merely enough to know that doing nothing is a decision. You also need to occasionally justify why you shouldn’t pursue another path that’s different from the one you’re currently following. Why aren’t you looking for other job opportunities? Are the stocks, bonds, and mutual funds in your retirement plan properly aligned to recent changes in the economy? Finally, consider the costs of inaction. Too often we focus only on the risks associated with change. You’re less likely to get caught up in decision inaction if you also address the risks related to doing nothing. We should also take a look at arguably the three most critical errors you’re likely to make in your decision making: overconfidence, a short-term focus, and the confirmation bias. While each is briefly mentioned in this chapter, let’s take a closer look at them. Conquer these three and you’ll go a long way toward improving the quality of your decisions. It has been said that no problem in judgment and decision making is more prevalent and more potentially catastrophic than overconfidence. Almost all of us suffer from it. When we’re given factual questions and asked to judge the probability that our answers are correct, we tend to be far too optimistic. In general, we overestimate our knowledge, undervalue risk, and overestimate our ability to control events. Studies have found that when people say they’re 65 percent to 70 percent confident that they’re right, they’re Chapter 2 Decision Making 97 M02_ROBB5839_14_GE_C02.indd 97 08/07/17 10:42 AM 98 Part 1 Introduction to Management EFFECTIVE decision making in today’s world Per Carlsson, a product development manager at IKEA, “spends his days creating Volvo- style kitchens at Yugo prices.” His job is to take the “prob- lems” identified by the company’s product-strategy council (a group of globe-trotting senior managers that monitors consumer trends and establishes product priorities) and turn them into furniture that customers around the world want to buy. One “problem” identified by the council: the kitchen has replaced the living room as the social and entertaining center in the home. Customers are looking for kitchens that convey comfort and cleanliness while still allowing them to pursue their gourmet aspirations. Carlsson must take this information and make things hap- pen. There are a lot of decisions to make—programmed and nonprogrammed—and the fact that IKEA is a global company makes it even more challenging. Comfort in Asia means small, cozy appliances and spaces, while North American customers want oversized glassware and giant refrigerators. His ability to make good decisions quickly has significant implications for IKEA’s success.35 Similarly, hotel giant Hilton World- wide Holdings plans to diversify its portfolio by establishing a newly branded hotel. The brand, Tru by Hilton, is being established to meet the preferences of a millennial mind-set, regardless of age. CEO Christopher Nassetta is positioning the new brand to people who “are united by a millennial mind-set—a youthful energy, a zest for life and a desire for human connection.”36 Today’s business world revolves around making decisions, often risky ones, usually with incomplete or inadequate information and under intense time pressure. Making good business decisions in today’s rapid-paced and messy world isn’t easy. Things hap- pen too fast. Customers come and go in the click of a mouse or the swipe of a screen. Market landscapes can shift dramatically overnight along several dimensions. Com- petitors can enter a market and exit it just as quickly as they entered. Thriving and prospering under such conditions means managerial decision making must adapt to these realities. Most managers make one decision after another; and as if that weren’t challenging enough, more is at stake than ever before. Bad decisions can cost mil- lions. What do managers need to do to make effective decisions in today’s fast-moving world? First, let’s look at some suggested guidelines. Then, we’ll discuss an interesting new line of thinking that has implications for making effective decisions—especially for business types—called design thinking. LO2.5 Korean carmaker Hyundai decided to take the design thinking approach in testing the durability and quality of its i30 hatchback family car by letting a group of 40 safari park baboons examine it for 10 hours. Hyundai hopes that the lessons learned from the excessive wear-and-tear test of the car’s parts and interior can be applied to the research and development of future cars. Source: REX Features/AP Images Guidelines for Effective Decision Making Decision making is serious business. Your abilities and track record as an effective decision maker will determine how your organizational work performance is evaluated and whether you’ll be promoted to higher and higher positions of responsibility. Here are some additional guidelines to help you be a better decision maker. • Understand cultural differences. Managers everywhere want to make good decisions. However, is there only one “best” way worldwide to make decisions? Or does the “best way depend on the values, beliefs, attitudes, and behavioral patterns of the people involved?”37 Getting work done is less likely when individuals from one culture are tone deaf to cultural norms elsewhere. For example, L’Oréal’s decision-making culture encourages open debate, which management maintains If your professor has assigned this, go to www.mymanagementlab.com to complete the Simulation: Decision Making and see how well you can apply the ideas behind the decision-making process. Try It! M02_ROBB5839_14_GE_C02.indd 98 08/07/17 10:42 AM http://www.mymanagementlab.com Chapter 2 Decision Making 99 generates creativity.38 However, that style probably does not fit well with cultural differences in other countries. For example, the company’s confrontational approach is inconsistent with the cultural values in Southeast Asia, a region in which they conduct business. An Indonesian employee said, “To an Indonesian person, confrontation in a group setting is extremely negative because it makes the other person lose face. So it’s something that we try strongly to avoid in any open manner.”39 • Create standards for good decision making. Good decisions are forward-looking, use available information, consider all available and viable options, and do not create conflicts of interest.40 The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation expect employees not to engage in decision making that could create a conflict of interest. “Foundation employees are obligated to avoid and disclose ethical, legal, financial, or other conflicts of interest involving the foundation, and remove themselves from a position of decision-making authority with respect to any conflict situation involving the foundation.”41 • Know when it’s time to call it quits. When it’s evident that a decision isn’t working, don’t be afraid to pull the plug. For instance, only months after Steve Rowe became CEO of UK-based Marks & Spencer, he decided to close dozens of stores domestically and abroad in a major move to boost the retailer’s profitability. Although the previous CEO had reestablished large stores in and around Paris after a decade of not operating in France, Rowe reversed that decision as a way to significantly reduce costs.42 However, as we said earlier, many decision makers block or distort negative information because they don’t want to believe their decision was bad. They become so attached to a decision that they refuse to recognize when it’s time to move on. In today’s dynamic environment, this type of thinking simply won’t work. • Use an effective decision-making process. Experts say an effective decision- making process has these six characteristics: (1) it focuses on what’s important; (2) it’s logical and consistent; (3) it acknowledges both subjective and objective thinking and blends analytical with intuitive thinking; (4) it requires only as much information and analysis as is necessary to resolve a particular dilemma; (5) it encourages and guides the gathering of relevant information and informed opinion; and (6) it’s straightforward, reliable, easy to use, and flexible.43 • Develop your ability to think clearly so you can make better choices at work and in your life.44 Making good decisions doesn’t come naturally. You have to work at it. Read and study about decision making. Keep a journal of decisions in which you evaluate your decision-making successes and failures by looking at the process you used and the outcomes you got. Design Thinking and Decision Making The way managers approach decision making—using a rational and analytical mind- set in identifying problems, coming up with alternatives, evaluating alternatives, and choosing one of those alternatives—may not be the best, and is certainly not the only, choice in today’s environment. That’s where design thinking comes in. Design thinking has been described as “approaching management problems as designers approach design problems.”46 More organizations are beginning to recognize how design thinking can benefit them.47 PepsiCo embraces the importance of design think- ing. For example, the company designers created the Pepsi Spire, which is a high-tech beverage dispensing machine with a futuristic design. PepsiCo CEO Indra Nooyi had this to say about the company’s design approach: “Other companies with dispensing machines have focused on adding a few more buttons and combinations of flavors. Our design guys essentially said that we’re talking about a fundamentally different interaction between consumer and machine.”48 While many managers don’t deal specifically with product or process design deci- sions, they still make decisions about work issues that arise, and design thinking can help them be better decision makers. What can the design thinking approach teach design thinking Approaching management problems as designers approach design problems FYI • 77 percent of managers say the number of decisions they make during a typical day has increased.45 M02_ROBB5839_14_GE_C02.indd 99 08/07/17 10:42 AM 100 Part 1 Introduction to Management managers about making better decisions? Well, it begins with the first step of identify- ing problems. Design thinking says that managers should look at problem identifica- tion collaboratively and integratively, with the goal of gaining a deep understanding of the situation. They should look not only at the rational aspects, but also at the emotional elements. Then invariably, of course, design thinking would influence how managers identify and evaluate alternatives. “A traditional manager (educated in a business school, of course) would take the options that have been presented and ana- lyze them based on deductive reasoning and then select the one with the highest net present value. However, using design thinking, a manager would say, ‘What is some- thing completely new that would be lovely if it existed but doesn’t now?’ ”49 Design thinking means opening up your perspective and gaining insights by using observation and inquiry skills and not relying simply on rational analysis. We’re not saying that rational analysis isn’t needed; we are saying that there’s more needed in making effec- tive decisions, especially in today’s world. Just a heads up: Design thinking also has broad implications for managers in other areas, and we’ll be looking in future chapters at its impact on innovation and strategies. Big Data and Decision Making • China’s Alibaba, the world’s largest online retailer, profits from its technology to personalize customer offers and handle 175,000 purchases per second.50 • At Etihad Airways, based in Abu Dhabi, managers rely on extensive data analysis for a variety of business decisions. They considered the financial services and technological resources of 14 different banks before choosing two banks capable of providing the necessary data, in the necessary detail and software format, for key decisions about managing the airline’s money.51 • It’s not just businesses that are exploiting big data. Thanks to improved data collection and analysis techniques, including new software for modeling supply and demand, managers at the National Blood Authority in Australia can make better decisions about distributing blood products to medical facilities—saving a lot of lives and a lot of money.52 Yes, there’s a ton of information out there—100 petabytes here in the decade of the 2010s, according to experts. (In bytes, that translates to 1 plus 17 zeroes, in case you were wondering!)53 And businesses—and other organizations—are finally figuring out how to use it. So what is big data? It’s the vast amount of quantifiable information that can be analyzed by highly sophisticated data processing. One IT expert described big data with “3V’s: high volume, high velocity, and/or high variety information assets.”54 What does big data have to do with decision making? A lot, as you can imagine. With this type of data at hand, decision makers have very powerful tools to help them make decisions. However, experts caution that collecting and analyzing data for data’s sake is wasted effort. Goals are needed when collecting and using this type of information. As one individual said, “Big data is a descendant of Taylor’s ‘scientific management’ of more than a century ago.”55 While Taylor used a stopwatch to time and monitor a worker’s every movement, big data is using math modeling, predictive algorithms, and artificial intelligence software to measure and monitor people and machines like never before. But managers need to really examine and evaluate how big data might contrib- ute to their decision making before jumping in with both feet. Why? Because big data, no matter how comprehensive or well analyzed, needs to be tempered by good judg- ment. For instance, a recent government report states: “Companies should remember that while big data is very good at detecting correlations, it does not explain which correlations are meaningful.”56 Credit companies have generally established a corre- lation between credit score and repayment history (lower scores are associated with lower payment histories). However, it is certainly not the case that every person with a low credit score will fail to pay credit cards. When making decisions, it is important to remember that correlation does not equate with cause and effect. big data The vast amount of quantifiable information that can be analyzed by highly sophisticated data processing M02_ROBB5839_14_GE_C02.indd 100 08/07/17 10:42 AM Chapter 2 Decision Making 101 CHAPTER SUMMARY by Learning Objectives DESCRIBE the eight steps in the decision-making process. A decision is a choice. The decision-making process consists of eight steps: (1) identify the problem; (2) identify decision criteria; (3) weight the criteria; (4) develop alter- natives; (5) analyze alternatives; (6) select alternative; (7) implement alternative; and (8) evaluate decision effectiveness. EXPLAIN the four ways managers make decisions. The assumptions of rationality are as follows: the problem is clear and unambigu- ous; a single, well-defined goal is to be achieved; all alternatives and consequences are known; and the final choice will maximize the payoff. Bounded rationality says that managers make rational decisions but are bounded (limited) by their ability to process information. Satisficing happens when decision makers accept solutions that are good enough. With escalation of commitment, managers increase commitment to a decision even when they have evidence it may have been a wrong decision. Intuitive decision making means making decisions on the basis of experience, feelings, and accumulated judgment. Using evidence-based management, a manager makes decisions based on the best available evidence. CLASSIFY decisions and decision-making conditions. Programmed decisions are repetitive decisions that can be handled by a routine approach and are used when the problem being resolved is straightforward, familiar, and easily defined (structured). Nonprogrammed decisions are unique decisions that require a custom-made solution and are used when the problems are new or unusual (unstructured) and for which information is ambiguous or incomplete. Certainty is a situation in which a manager can make accurate decisions because all outcomes are known. Risk is a situation in which a manager can estimate the likelihood of certain outcomes. Uncertainty is a situation in which a manager is not certain about the out- comes and can’t even make reasonable probability estimates. When decision makers face uncertainty, their psychological orientation will determine whether they follow a maximax choice (maximizing the maximum possible payoff); a maximin choice (maxi- mizing the minimum possible payoff); or a minimax choice (minimizing the maximum regret—amount of money that could have been made if a different decision had been made). DESCRIBE how biases affect decision making. The 12 common decision-making errors and biases include overconfidence, immediate gratification, anchoring, selective perception, confirmation, framing, availabil- ity, representation, randomness, sunk costs, self-serving bias, and hindsight. The managerial decision-making model helps explain how the decision-making process is used to choose the best alternative(s), either through maximizing or satisficing and then implementing and evaluating the alternative. It also helps explain what factors affect the decision-making process, including the decision-making approach (rationality, bounded rationality, intuition), the types of problems and decisions (well structured and programmed or unstructured and nonprogrammed), and the decision- making conditions (certainty, risk, uncertainty). LO2.1 LO2.2 LO2.3 LO2.4 Chapter 2 PREPARING FOR: Exams/Quizzes M02_ROBB5839_14_GE_C02.indd 101 08/07/17 10:42 AM 102 Part 1 Introduction to Management IDENTIFY effective decision-making techniques. Managers can make effective decisions by understanding cultural differences in deci- sion making, creating standards for good decision making, knowing when it’s time to call it quits, using an effective decision-making process, and developing their ability to think clearly. An effective decision-making process (1) focuses on what’s important; (2) is logical and consistent; (3) acknowledges both subjective and objective think- ing and blends both analytical and intuitive approaches; (4) requires only “enough” information as is necessary to resolve a problem; (5) encourages and guides gathering relevant information and informed opinions; and (6) is straightforward, reliable, easy to use, and flexible. Design thinking is “approaching management problems as designers approach design problems.” It can be useful when identifying problems and when identifying and evaluating alternatives. Using big data, decision makers have power tools to help them make decisions. However, no matter how comprehensive or well analyzed the big data, it needs to be tempered by good judgment. LO2.5 Pearson MyLab Management Go to mymanagementlab.com to complete the problems marked with this icon . REVIEW AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 2-1. Explain how good decision making is a skill that can be learned and improved. 2-2. Where in the eight-step decision-making process are the likely problem areas for managers? 2-3. What role does intuition play in decision making? Discuss. 2-4. Is satisficing a desirable way of making managerial decisions? 2-5. Most managers adopt particular styles to simplify their decision making. This helps them make sense of information. Why do you think these styles are unreliable? 2-6. What should a good manager do if it becomes apparent that a decision that has already been made is clearly not working or solving the situation? 2-7. What do you understand by personalization technologies? How does big data fit into decision- making processes? Pearson MyLab Management If your professor has assigned these, go to www.mymanagementlab.com for the following Assisted-graded writing questions: 2-8. How might an organization’s culture influence the way managers make decisions? 2-9. Efe has looked at last year’s sales figures and incorporated a 20 percent growth for his year. He figures that his business can cut costs by at least 15 percent with little effort. Identify his biases and the mistakes he might be making. M02_ROBB5839_14_GE_C02.indd 102 08/07/17 10:42 AM http://www.mymanagementlab.com Chapter 2 Decision Making 103 PERSONAL INVENTORY ASSESSMENTS P I A PERSONAL INVENTORY ASSESSMENT PREPARING FOR: My Career Solving Problems Analytically and Creatively Making decisions is all about solving problems. Do this PIA and find out about your level of creativity and innovation in problem solving. ETHICS DILEMMA In the United Kingdom, the National Health Service employs 1.7 million people.57 It is the world’s largest publicly funded health service. There are cases when employees have found themselves “victimized” by management for one reason or another. A prime example is that of a senior consultant, around 50 years old, working for a London hospital. She was suspended on full pay for three years after raising concerns over staffing levels in her clinic. Shortly before her suspension, a major case of child abuse implicating the hospital hit the headlines. As the hospital had failed to pick up on these problems, the consultant became a whistle-blower and exposed staffing concerns. Deeply concerned, the hospital promptly offered her money with a gagging clause as part of the agreement. She turned it down. It took the support of hundreds of colleagues for her to eventually return to work. Petitions that received great support from former patients had added to the call. However, she would never work for that hospital again. Since the incident, the consultant has been instrumental in trying to bring about changes to the support and protection of whistle-blowers in service. 2-10. Was the hospital’s decision to suspend the consultant correct? Explain why or why not. 2-11. If you were the consultant’s line manager, how would you have dealt with the situation? SKILLS EXERCISE Developing Your Creativity Skill About the Skill Creativity is a frame of mind. You need to open your mind to new ideas. Every individual has the ability to be creative, but many people simply don’t try to develop that ability. Developing your creative skills can help you become a better problem-solver and contributor in the workplace. Dynamic environments and managerial chaos require that managers look for new and innovative ways to attain their goals as well as those of the organization.58 Steps in Practicing the Skill • Think of yourself as creative. Although it’s a simple suggestion, research shows that if you think you can’t be creative, you won’t be. Believing in yourself is the first step in becoming more creative. • Pay attention to your intuition. Every individual’s subconscious mind works well. Sometimes answers come to you when least expected. For example, when you are about to go to sleep, your relaxed mind sometimes whispers a solution to a problem you’re facing. Listen to that voice. In fact, most creative people keep a notepad near their bed and write down those great ideas when they occur. That way, they don’t forget them. • Move away from your comfort zone. Every individual has a comfort zone in which certainty exists. But creativity and the known often do not mix. To be creative, you need to move away from the status quo and focus your mind on something new. • Engage in activities that put you outside your comfort zone. You not only must think differently; you need to do things differently and thus challenge yourself. Learning to play a musical instrument or learning a foreign language, for example, opens your mind to a new challenge. M02_ROBB5839_14_GE_C02.indd 103 08/07/17 10:42 AM 104 Part 1 Introduction to Management • Seek a change of scenery. People are often creatures of habit. Creative people force themselves out of their habits by changing their scenery, which may mean going into a quiet and serene area where you can be alone with your thoughts. • Find several right answers. In the discussion of bounded rationality, we said that people seek solutions that are good enough. Being creative means continuing to look for other solutions even when you think you have solved the problem. A better, more creative solution just might be found. • Play your own devil’s advocate. Challenging yourself to defend your solutions helps you to develop confidence in your creative efforts. Second-guessing yourself may also help you find more creative solutions. • Believe in finding a workable solution. Like believing in yourself, you also need to believe in your ideas. If you don’t think you can find a solution, you probably won’t. • Brainstorm with others. Being creative is not a solitary activity. Bouncing ideas off others creates a synergistic effect. • Turn creative ideas into action. Coming up with ideas is only half the process. Once the ideas are generated, they must be implemented. Keeping great ideas in your mind or on paper that no one will read does little to expand your creative abilities. Practicing the Skill Developing your creative skills is similar to building your muscles through exercise; it requires effort over time. Every week pick a new activity to develop your creative skills. Try something new, take an art class, practice brainstorming, or spend some time with a new group of people. Keep a journal of creative ideas or insights. WORKING TOGETHER Team Exercise Just how do you make decisions? Researchers suggest that the way we make decisions greatly depends on our individual thinking style. It is all about the sources of information we use and how we process that information. The researchers have categorized the numerous ways of thinking into two distinct styles: linear and nonlinear. Create a group of three or four and discuss how you source and process information. Which of you are linear and which are nonlinear? Share your findings with the rest of the class. Can you arrive at an agreement as to whether one method is better, faster, or more accurate than the other? Is it possible to change from linear to nonlinear or vice versa? MY TURN TO BE A MANAGER • Consider a big decision that you have made. Write a description of the decision using the steps in the decision-making process as your guide. What could you have done differently in the process to improve your decision? • Write a procedure, a rule, and a policy for your instructor to use in your class. Be sure that each one is clear and understandable. And be sure to explain how it fits the characteristics of a procedure, a rule, or a policy. • Find three examples of managerial decisions described in any of the popular business periodicals (Wall Street Journal, BusinessWeek, Fortune, etc.). Write a paper describing each decision and any other information, such as what led to the decision, what happened as a result of the decision, etc. What did you learn about decision making from these examples? • Interview two managers and ask them for suggestions on what it takes to be a good decision maker. Write down their suggestions and be prepared to present them in class. • Do a Web search on the phrase “101 dumbest moments in business.” Get the most current version of this end-of- year list. Pick three of the examples and describe what happened. What’s your reaction to the examples? How could the managers have made better decisions? • Visit the Mindtools website (www.mindtools.com) and find the decision-making toolkit. Explore the decision- making tools suggested and select one tool to use the next time you need to make a decision. M02_ROBB5839_14_GE_C02.indd 104 08/07/17 10:42 AM http://www.mindtools.com Card Connection is one of the United Kingdom’s largest card publishers and a market leader in the franchise distribution of greeting cards in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland (ROI). Established in 1992, it is regarded as one of the Britain’s best-run franchise operations and has been a member of the British Franchise Asso- ciation since 1995. Its franchisees don’t operate under a standard retail format and, instead, act as in- termediaries in supplying cards to a range of retail outlets in allocated franchise areas. Typically, its franchise holders supply products to post offices, convenience stores, gas stations, and other retailers. Given this customer base, Card Connection’s manage- ment takes advantage of a business model that requires it to place its products in the outlets on a “consignment” basis—customers don’t buy the stock and only pay for what they sell. This proved to be a success. At the beginning of 2017, there were 63 franchises across Britain and around 12,000 retail outlets using its services in ROI. At any given time, the management of Card Connection looks for potential franchisees— a mix of new and unexplored territories and replacement franchisees. To decide which areas to allocate to which franchise holder, Card Connection analyzes several data sources. The primary data drivers are demographic, a combina- tion of raw population figures and number of households. The decision makers must also analyze the number of potential stockists, competitors in the area, the average income of the population, and other elements. While the initial process of dividing the United Kingdom and the ROI into equal portions is simple, as the franchises develop and with changes in demographics, regional and local economics, and other criteria, the value of each area changes. Each franchise holder has a discrete and exclusive territory that only they can sup- ply to. It is because of this that Card Connection’s decision-making process regarding territories often revolves around geography. In most cases, this is how franchise areas are determined and how territories derived. A major problem arises when a franchisee attracts business from a customer outside of its franchise area. The franchisor needs to be clear about these instances. Some franchise agreements allow the franchisor to change the territory, should the circumstance arise. This is an indicator of changes in the demographics within a territory, a development in technology, or a rise in the de- mand for the product or service being offered within the franchise system.59 DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 2-12. What ongoing decisions are necessary about the size of franchise areas? 2-13. What factors should you consider when deciding to acquire a franchise? 2-14. How might globalization impact the decision-making process for Card Connection? On The Cards: Decision MakingCASE APPLICATION 1 Manchester City: Football Big Data Champions2 CASE APPLICATION In most football teams, the minutes before the match are spent in the locker room where the coach provides last minute tips and delivers a motivational speech to the players. However, for Manchester City Football Club the ritual is a bit different. The team spends 15 minutes before each match meeting the club’s performance analyst team, discussing things they had done well or wrong in previous matches. For instance, Chapter 2 Decision Making 105 M02_ROBB5839_14_GE_C02.indd 105 08/07/17 10:42 AM 106 Part 1 Introduction to Management the defense examines several factors—the number of crosses, effective or ineffective tackles, balls lost or recovered, the relationship with midfield, and movements in pro- tecting their penalty area. The day after the match, the analysis team, headed by Gavin Fleig, gives each player a detailed and personalized report of all their movements during the match, thus, enabling each player to get an accurate feedback on improvements required. In a 2012 interview released to Forbes, Fleig declared that the goal of the performance analysis unit is both to help the club make smarter decisions by relying on objective and more informative data, and to enhance players’ performance by helping them to become more reflective and aware of their unique features, actions, and movements on the pitch. To illustrate how the performance analysis team helps better the team’s perfor- mance, let’s look at Manchester City’s performance and the set-piece goals scored in the 2010–11 season. According to the analyst team, City was underperforming more than any other club in Premier League with only one set-piece goal scored over 21 matches. To under- stand what led to the goals scored across several European leagues, the analyst team studied more than 500 corner kicks. The players were then presented with videos il- lustrating the best tactics and movements applied by other teams. This helped City to score 9 goals in the first 15 matches of the next season from corners, which represents a tremendous improvement in their performance. Data analysis is a critical decision-making support tool for Manchester City’s managers at all levels, including for youth teams. For example, future young play- ers are helped in understanding their strengths and weaknesses within the different formation plays and what aspects they need to focus on to develop their talent. It is important to note that big data is just a means to facilitate the achievement of Man- chester City’s strategic goals concerning youth team development, which is to integrate young homegrown-talents into the first team’s formation. The performance analysts have helped the team to become very successful—Manchester City got the best defen- sive records for two consecutive years since 2012, and it won the title in the seasons 2011–12 and 2013–14 after more than four decades of no wins. Of course, big data is not the only factor behind these successes, but it was very important. To continue being a leader in football big data, in 2016, Manchester City orga- nized a global Hackathon, with more than 400 applications received from all over the world, where data and football experts created algorithms and simulations using data from real players that have never before been available to external actors. The challenge was to create algorithms that could help identify new movements, passes, runs and pressure to be more effective on the pitch. The winning team, who received a cash prize of £7000 and the promise to collaborate with the performance analysis team, created a learning machine algorithm that tracks decision-making during games.60 DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 2-15. What types of decisions are made by football managers? Would you characterize these decisions as structured or unstructured problems? Explain. 2-16. Describe how big data can help football managers to make better decisions and how this has an effect on the decision-making process. 2-17. What type(s) of conditions are more likely to influence the performance analyst team’s work: certainty, uncertainty, or risks? Explain. 2-18. Do you think it is appropriate for football managers to use only quantitative information to evaluate their players’ performance during a season? Why or why not? 2-19. How can big data transform football decisions in the future? M02_ROBB5839_14_GE_C02.indd 106 08/07/17 10:42 AM Chapter 2 Decision Making 107 1. S. Minter, “The Season of Snap Judgments,” Industry Week, May 2010, p. 6; and D. A. Garvin and M. A. Roberto, “What You Don’t Know About Making Decisions,” Harvard Business Review, September 2001, pp. 108–116. 2. “A Bold Alternative to the Worst ‘Best’ Practices,” BusinessWeek Online, www.businessweek.com, September 15, 2009. 3. W. Pounds, “The Process of Problem Finding,” Industrial Management Review, Fall 1969, pp. 1–19. 4. J. Jargon, “McDonald’s Faces ‘Millennial’ Challenge,” The Wall Street Journal, www.wsj.com, August 24, 2014. 5. C. 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James Titcomb, “VTech Says It Is Not Responsible for Security after Hack Exposed Children’s Details,” The Telegraph (UK), February 10, 2016, http://www.telegraph .co.uk/technology/2016/02/10/vtech-says-it-is-not-responsible- for-security-after-hack-exposed/ (accessed December 7, 2016); Anjie Zheng, “Regulators to Tighten Cyberdefenses as Attacks in Asia Increase,” Wall Street Journal, June 14, 2016, http://www.wsj.com/articles/regulators-to-tighten- cyberdefenses-as-attacks-in-asia-increase-1465899792 (accessed December 7, 2016). 11. E. Shogren, “BP: A Textbook Example of How Not to Handle PR,” NPR, online, May 13, 2011. 12. T. A. Stewart, “Did You Ever Have to Make Up Your Mind?” Harvard Business Review, January 2006, p. 12; and E. Pooley, “Editor’s Desk,” Fortune, June 27, 2005, p. 16. 13. See A. Langley, “In Search of Rationality: The Purposes Behind the Use of Formal Analysis in Organizations,” Administrative Science Quarterly, December 1989, pp. 598–631; and H. A. Simon, “Rationality in Psychology and Economics,” Journal of Business, October 1986, pp. 209–224. 14. J. G. March, “Decision-Making Perspective: Decisions in Organizations and Theories of Choice,” in Perspectives on Organization Design and Behavior, ed. A. H. Van de Ven and W. F. Joyce (New York: Wiley-Interscience, 1981), pp. 232–233. 15. See P. Hemp, “Death by Information Overload,” Harvard Business Review, September 2009, pp. 82–89; D. Heath and C. Heath, “The Gripping Statistic,” Fast Company, September 2009, pp. 59–60; D. R. A. Skidd, “Revisiting Bounded Rationality,” Journal of Management Inquiry, December 1992, pp. 343–347; B. E. Kaufman, “A New Theory of Satisficing,” Journal of Behavioral Economics, Spring 1990, pp. 35–51; and N. M. Agnew and J. L. Brown, “Bounded Rationality: Fallible Decisions in Unbounded Decision Space,” Behavioral Science, July 1986, pp. 148–161. ENDNOTES 16. See, for example, G. McNamara, H. Moon, and P. Bromiley, “Banking on Commitment: Intended and Unintended Consequences of an Organization’s Attempt to Attenuate Escalation of Commitment,” Academy of Management Journal, April 2002, pp. 443–452; V. S. Rao and A. Monk, “The Effects of Individual Differences and Anonymity on Commitment to Decisions,” Journal of Social Psychology, August 1999, pp. 496–515; C. F. Camerer and R. A. Weber, “The Econometrics and Behavioral Economics of Escalation of Commitment: A Re-examination of Staw’s Theory,” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, May 1999, pp. 59–82; D. R. Bobocel and J. P. Meyer, “Escalating Commitment to a Failing Course of Action: Separating the Roles of Choice and Justification,” Journal of Applied Psychology, June 1994, pp. 360–363; and B. M. Staw, “The Escalation of Commitment to a Course of Action,” Academy of Management Review, October 1981, pp. 577–587. 17. W. Cole, “The Stapler Wars,” Time Inside Business, April 2005, p. A5. 18. See E. Dane and M. G. Pratt, “Exploring Intuition and Its Role in Managerial Decision Making,” Academy of Management Review, January 2007, pp. 33–54; M. H. Bazerman and D. Chugh, “Decisions Without Blinders,” Harvard Business Review, January 2006, pp. 88–97; C. C. Miller and R. D. Ireland, “Intuition in Strategic Decision Making: Friend or Foe in the Fast-Paced 21st Century,” Academy of Management Executive, February 2005, pp. 19– 30; E. Sadler-Smith and E. Shefy, “The Intuitive Executive: Understanding and Applying ‘Gut Feel’ in Decision Making,” Academy of Management Executive, November 2004, pp. 76– 91; and L. A. Burke and M. K. Miller, “Taking the Mystery Out of Intuitive Decision Making,” Academy of Management Executive, October 1999, pp. 91–99. 19. C. C. Miller and R. D. Ireland, “Intuition in Strategic Decision Making: Friend or Foe,” vol. 19 no. 1, February 1, 2005, p.20. 20. J. L. Risen and D. Nussbaum, “Believing What You Don’t Believe,” The New York Times online, www.nytimes.com, October 30, 2015; T. Chamorro-Premuzic, “The Intuitive Manager: A Threatened Species?,” Forbes online, www.forbes. com, April 24, 2014; and E. Sadler-Smith and E. Shefy, “Developing Intuitive Awareness in Management Education,” Academy of Management Learning & Education, June 2007, pp. 186–205. 21. M. G. Seo and L. Feldman Barrett, “Being Emotional During Decision Making—Good or Bad? An Empirical Investigation,” Academy of Management Journal, August 2007, pp. 923–940. 22. B. Roberts, “Hire Intelligence,” HR Magazine, May 2011, p. 63. 23. R. B. Briner, D. Denyer, and D. M. Rousseau, “Evidence- Based Management: Concept Cleanup Time?” Academy of Management Perspective, November 2009, p. 22. 24. J. Pfeffer and R. Sutton, “Trust the Evidence, Not Your Instincts,” New York Times online, www.nytimes.com, September 3, 2011; and T. Reay, W. Berta, and M. K. 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E. Meyer, “When Culture Doesn’t Translate,” Harvard Business Review, October 2015, p. 6. 39. Ibid. 40. D. Ariely, “Good Decisions. Bad Outcomes,” Harvard Business Review, December 2010, p. 40. 41. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, “Conflict of Interest Policy,” Revised April 8, 2015, http://www.gatesfoundation. org/Jobs/Conflict-of-Interest. 42. Harry Yorke, “The Full List of Marks & Spencer Stores Potentially Facing Closure,” The Telegraph (UK), November 14, 2016, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/business/2016/11/14/ the-full-list-of-marks--spencer-stores-potentially-facing-closur/ (accessed December 2, 2016); Zoe Wood, “M&S to Close 30 UK Stores and Cut Back on Clothing,” The Guardian (UK), November 8, 2016, https://www.theguardian.com/ business/2016/nov/08/m-and-s-marks-spencer-close-80-stores- major-overhaul (accessed December 2, 2016). 43. J. S. Hammond, R. L. Keeney, and H. Raiffa, Smart Choices: A Practical Guide to Making Better Decisions (Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 1999), p. 4. 44. R. Dobelli, The Art of Thinking Clearly (New York: HarperCollins), 2013; and Decisive: How to Make Better Choices in Life and Work (New York: Random House/Crown Business, 2013). 45. J. MacIntyre, “Bosses and Bureaucracy,” Springfield Business Journal, August 1–7, 2005, p. 29. 46. D. Dunne and R. Martin, “Design Thinking and How It Will Change Management Education: An Interview and Discussion,” Academy of Management Learning & Education, December 2006, p. 512. 47. M. Korn and R. E. Silverman, “Forget B-School, D-School Is Hot,” Wall Street Journal, June 7, 2012, pp. B1+; R. Martin and J. Euchner, “Design Thinking,” Research Technology Management, May/June 2012, pp. 10– 14; T. Larsen and T. Fisher, “Design Thinking: A Solution to Fracture-Critical Systems,” DMI News & Views, May 2012, p. 31; T. Berno, “Design Thinking versus Creative Intelligence,” DMI News & Views, May 2012, p. 28; J. Liedtka and Tim Ogilvie, “Helping Business Managers Discover Their Appetite for Design Thinking,” Design Management Review, no. 1, 2012, pp. 6–13; and T. Brown, “Strategy by Design,” Fast Company, June 2005, pp. 52–54. 48. A. Ignatius, “How Indra Nooyi Turned Design Thinking into Strategy,” Harvard Business Review, September 2015, p. 4. 49. D. Dunne and R. Martin, “Design Thinking and How It Will Change Management Education,” p. 514. 50. Declan Kearney, “Alibaba Set to Break Records Again for 11.11 with $5bn in Sales in First Two Hours,” The Drum (UK), November 11, 2016, http://www.thedrum.com/ opinion/2016/11/11/alibaba-set-break-records-again-1111-with- 5bn-sales-first-two-hours (accessed December 2, 2016); Glenda Korporaal, “Alibaba Extends Global Cloud Push, Opens Arm in Australia,” The Australian, November 28, 2016, http://www .theaustralian.com.au/business/technology/alibaba-extends- global-cloud-push-opens-arm-in-australia/news-story/987f7092 a5c49fed9d32b6edf55340bf (accessed December 2, 2016). 51. “How Etihad Airways Selected Its Transactional Banking Partners,” Treasury Today, March 2016, http://treasurytoday 25. M. Seifert, J. Brockner, E. C. Bianchi, and H. Moon, “How Workplace Fairness Affects Employee Commitment,” Sloan Management Review online, Winter 2016. 26. K. R. Brousseau, M. J. Driver, G. Hourihan, and R. Larsson, “The Seasoned Executive’s Decision-Making Style,” Harvard Business Review, February 2006, pp. 111–121. 27. Eeva Haaramo, “Disrupting IT in the Nordics, from Banks to Taxis,” ComputerWeekly, April 28, 2016, http://www .computerweekly.com/news/450294201/Disrupting-IT-in-the- Nordics-from-banks-to-taxis (accessed December 7, 2016). 28. Future Vision box based on B. Power, “Improve Decision- making with Help from the Crowd,” Harvard Business Review online, www.hbr.org, April 8, 2014; “The Biggest Challenge to the Future of Crowdsourcing in Business,” Harvard Business School Digital Initiative, www.digital. hbs.edu, September 17, 2015; P. Galagan, “Headstrong,” TD Magazine, November, 2015, pp. 22–25; D. Lacombe, “Crowdsourcing Taps Public for Work, Ideas,” www. crowdsourcing.org, May 5, 2012; and “Hershey Launches Innovative Technology Contest to Solve Summertime Shipping Dilemma,” Business Wire, www.businesswire.com, January 14, 2016. 29. Leader Making a Difference box based on J. Weisenthal, “Here’s Why Elon Musk Built Tesla Even Though He Thought It Was Probably Going to Fail,” www. businessinsider.com, March 30, 2014; M. Adamo and C. Leahey, “The List: 2013’s Top People in Business,” Fortune, December 9, 2013, pp. 90–91; A. Vandermey, “Businessperson of the Year,” Fortune, December 9, 2013, pp. 98–108; T. Hessman, “The World According to Elon Musk,” Industry Week, October 2013, pp. 12–17; and A. Vance, “Electric Company,” Bloomberg BusinessWeek, July 22, 2013, pp. 48–52. 30. P. Johnson, “Avoiding Decision Paralysis in the Face of Uncertainty,” Harvard Business Review online, https://hbr.org, March 11, 2015; E. Teach, “Avoiding Decision Traps,” CFO, June 2004, pp. 97–99; and D. Kahneman and A. Tversky, “Judgment Under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases,” Science 185 (1974), pp. 1124–1131. 31. Information for this section taken from D. Kahneman, D. Lovallo, and O. Sibony, “Before You Make That Decision . . .,” Harvard Business Review, June 2011, pp. 50–60; and S. P. Robbins, Decide & Conquer (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Financial Times/Prentice Hall), 2004. 32. D. Kahneman, D. Lovallo, and O. Siboney, “Before You Make That Big Decision,” Harvard Business Review, June 2011, pp. 50–60. 33. C. K. Morewedge, “How a Video Game Helped People Make Better Decisions,” Harvard Business Review online, https://hbr. org, October 13, 2015. 34. A. Bryant, “Christopher Cabrera of Xactly: Learning to Stay Above the Drama,” The New York Times online, www. nytimes.com, January 9, 2016. 35. L. Margonelli, “How IKEA Designs Its Sexy Price Tags,” Business 2.0, October 2002, p. 108. 36. A. Steele, “Hilton to Offer Value Brand Aimed at Younger Guests,” The Wall Street Journal online, www.wsj.com, January 25, 2016. 37. P. C. Chu, E. E. Spires, and T. Sueyoshi, “Cross-Cultural Differences in Choice Behavior and Use of Decision Aids: A Comparison of Japan and the United States,” Organizational M02_ROBB5839_14_GE_C02.indd 108 19/07/17 9:59 AM http://www.thedrum.com/ http://treasurytoday http://www.hbr.org http://www.crowdsourcing.org http://www.crowdsourcing.org http://www.businesswire.com http://www.businessinsider.com http://www.businessinsider.com https://hbr.org http://www.nytimes.com http://www.nytimes.com http://www.wsj.com http://www.computerweekly.com/news/450294201/Disrupting-IT-in-the-Nordics-from-banks-to-taxis http://www.computerweekly.com/news/450294201/Disrupting-IT-in-the-Nordics-from-banks-to-taxis http://www.computerweekly.com/news/450294201/Disrupting-IT-in-the-Nordics-from-banks-to-taxis http://www.digital.hbs.edu http://www.digital.hbs.edu https://hbr.org https://hbr.org http://www.gatesfoundation.org/Jobs/Conflict-of-Interest http://www.gatesfoundation.org/Jobs/Conflict-of-Interest http://www.telegraph.co.uk/business/2016/11/14/the-full-list-of-marks--spencer-stores-potentially-facing-closur/ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/business/2016/11/14/the-full-list-of-marks--spencer-stores-potentially-facing-closur/ https://www.theguardian.com/business/2016/nov/08/m-and-s-marks-spencer-close-80-storesmajor-overhaul https://www.theguardian.com/business/2016/nov/08/m-and-s-marks-spencer-close-80-storesmajor-overhaul https://www.theguardian.com/business/2016/nov/08/m-and-s-marks-spencer-close-80-storesmajor-overhaul http://www.theaustralian.com.au/business/technology/alibaba-extendsglobal-cloud-push-opens-arm-in-australia/news-story/987f7092a5c49fed9d32b6edf55340bf http://www.theaustralian.com.au/business/technology/alibaba-extendsglobal-cloud-push-opens-arm-in-australia/news-story/987f7092a5c49fed9d32b6edf55340bf http://www.theaustralian.com.au/business/technology/alibaba-extendsglobal-cloud-push-opens-arm-in-australia/news-story/987f7092a5c49fed9d32b6edf55340bf http://www.theaustralian.com.au/business/technology/alibaba-extendsglobal-cloud-push-opens-arm-in-australia/news-story/987f7092a5c49fed9d32b6edf55340bf Chapter 2 Decision Making 109 .com/2016/03/how-etihad-airways-selected-its-transactional- banking-partners-ttti (accessed December 2, 2016). 52. David Braue, “How Data Saves Lives in Australia’s Hospitals,” Computer Weekly, June 10, 2016, http://www .computerweekly.com/news/450298093/How-data-saves-lives- in-Australias-hospitals (accessed December 2, 2016). 53. M. Kassel, “From a Molehill to a Mountain,” Wall Street Journal, March 11, 2013, p. R1. 54. D. Laney, “The Importance of ’Big Data’: A Definition,” www.gartner.com/it-glossary/big-data/, March 22, 2013. 55. S. Lohr, “Sure, Big Data Is Great. But So Is Intuition,” New York Times online, www.nytimes.com, December 29, 2012. 56. U.S. Federal Trade Commission, “Big Data: A Tool for Inclusion or Exclusion,” January 2016, p. 29. 57. Patrick Butler, “Great Ormond Street Hospital Issues Apology to Baby P Whistleblower,” The Guardian, June 14, 2011; James Meikle, “NHS Whistleblowers are Being Gagged, says Consultant Pediatrician,” The Guardian, December 13, 2011, www.ajustnhs.com/case-histories-of-victimised- nhs-staff/. 58. Developing Your Creative Skill exercise based on S. P. Robbins, Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 8th ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2004); C. W. Wang and R. Y. Horng, “The Effects of Creative Problem Solving Training on Creativity, Cognitive Type, and R & D Performance,” R&D Management (January 2002), pp. 35–46; S. Caudron, “Creativity 101,” Workforce (March 2002), pp. 20, 24; and T. M. Amabile, “Motivating Creativity in Organizations,” California Management Review (Fall 1997), pp. 42–52. 59. “About Card Connection-The UK’s Leading Greeting Card Franchise,” Card Connection, http://card-connection .co.uk (accessed on February 3, 2017); Lucy Smith, “Card Connection: Robin Brisbourne,” Startups online, http:// startups.co.uk (accessed November 29, 2012); and “Card Connection Franchisee Grows Business by 18%,” Irish Franchise Association, http://www.irishfranchiseassociation. com/card-connection-1 (accessed May 16, 2016). 60. Andy Hunter, “Manchester City to Open the Archive on Player Data and Statistics,” The Guardian, www .theguardian.com (accessed August 16, 2012); Zach Slaton, “The Analyst Behind Manchester City’s Rapid Rise,” Forbes, August 16, 2012, www.forbes.com; “Set- piece Marking,” BBC News, http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/ hi/football/rules_and_equipment/4685580.stm; and B. Curtis, “Manchester City’s First Football Data Hackathon A Roaring Success,” SportTechie, https://www.sporttechie .com/manchester-citys-first-football-data-hackathon-a- roaring-success/ (accessed August 1, 2016). M02_ROBB5839_14_GE_C02.indd 109 08/07/17 10:42 AM http://www.gartner.com/it-glossary/big-data/ http://www.nytimes.com http://www.ajustnhs.com/case-histories-of-victimised-nhs-staff/ http://www.ajustnhs.com/case-histories-of-victimised-nhs-staff/ http://startups.co.uk http://startups.co.uk http://www.forbes.com http://www.computerweekly.com/news/450298093/How-data-saves-livesin-Australias-hospitals http://www.computerweekly.com/news/450298093/How-data-saves-livesin-Australias-hospitals http://www.computerweekly.com/news/450298093/How-data-saves-livesin-Australias-hospitals http://card-connection.co.uk http://card-connection.co.uk http://www.irishfranchiseassociation.com/card-connection-1 http://www.irishfranchiseassociation.com/card-connection-1 http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/football/rules_and_equipment/4685580.stm http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/football/rules_and_equipment/4685580.stm https://www.sporttechie.com/manchester-citys-first-football-data-hackathon-aroaring-success/ https://www.sporttechie.com/manchester-citys-first-football-data-hackathon-aroaring-success/ https://www.sporttechie.com/manchester-citys-first-football-data-hackathon-aroaring-success/ 110 Part 1 Introduction to Management A Manager’s Dilemma Selina Lo loves her job as the manager of a toy store in San Francisco. She loves the chaos and the excitement of kids as they wander around the store searching for their favorite toys. Teddy bears pulled off the shelves and toy trucks left on the floor are part and parcel of managing a toy store. Yet, her biggest challenge, which is a problem faced by many retailers, is employee turnover. Many of her employees leave after just a few months on the job because of hectic schedules and long work hours. Selina is always looking for new ways to keep her employees committed to their jobs. She also takes care of customers’ requests and complaints and tries to address them satisfactorily. This is what Selina’s life as a manager is like. However, retailers are finding that people with Selina’s skills and enthusiasm for store management are few and far between. Managing a retail store is not the career that most college graduates aspire to. Attracting and keeping talented managers continues to be a challenge for all kinds of retailers. Suppose you’re a recruiter for a large retail chain and want to get college graduates to consider store manage- ment as a career option. Using what you learned in Part 1, how would you do that? Global Sense Who holds more managerial positions worldwide: women or men? Statistics tell an interesting story. In the United States, women held 50 percent of all managerial positions and 15 percent were members of the senior leadership team, but only 4 percent of the Fortune 500 CEO spots. In the United Kingdom, only 1.8 percent of the FTSE 500 companies’ top positions are held by women. In Germany, women hold 35.6 percent of all management positions, but only 3 percent of women are executive board members. Asian countries have a much higher percentage of women in CEO positions. In Thailand, 30 percent of female managers hold the title of CEO, as do 18 percent in Taiwan. In China, 19 percent of the female workforce are CEOs. Even in Japan, 8 percent of senior managers are women. A census of Australia’s top 200 companies listed on the Australian Stock Exchange showed that 11 percent of company executive managers were women. Finally, in Arab countries, the percentage of women in management positions is less than 10 percent. As you can see, companies across the globe have a large gender gap in leadership. Men far outnumber women in senior business leadership positions. These circumstances exist despite efforts and campaigns to improve equality in the workplace. The situation may be slowly changing in Europe. Many countries there require corporations to allo- cate a specified percentage of board seats to women. For ex- ample, 100 of the largest German corporations award at least 30 percent of board seats to women. The remaining Ger- man companies were required to establish quotas sometime in 2016. One company—Deutsche Telekom—has chosen to aggressively tackle the problem head-on. It says it intends to “more than double the number of women who are managers within five years.” One action the company is taking is to im- prove and increase the recruiting of female university gradu- ates. The company’s goal: to have at least 30 percent of the places in executive development programs held by women. Other steps taken by the company revolve around the work en- vironment and work-family issues. Deutsche’s chief executive René Obermann said, “Taking on more women in manage- ment positions is not about the enforcement of misconstrued egalitarianism. Having a greater number of women at the top will quite simply enable us to operate better.” Discuss the following questions in light of what you learned in Part 1: • What issues might Deutsche Telekom face in recruiting female university graduates? • How could it address those issues? • What issues might it face in introducing changes in work-family programs, and how could it address those issues? • What do you think of Obermann’s statement that hav- ing a greater number of women at the top will enable the company to operate better? • What could other organizations around the globe learn from Deutsche Telekom? Sources: P. Dwyer, “German Boards Need Women, Not Quotas,” Bloomberg View online, www.bloombergview.com, March 10, 2015; M. Egan, “Still Missing: Female Business Leaders,” money.cnn.com, March 24, 2015; A. Swanson, “The Number of Fortune 500 Companies Led by Women Is at an All-Time High: 5 Percent, The Wash- ington Post online, washingtonpost.com, June 4, 2015; “Nearly 20 percent of Female Chinese Managers Are CEOs,” www.fastcompany.com, March 8, 2011; S. Doughty, “Cracking the Glass Ceiling: Female Staff Have the Same Chance as Men of Reach- ing the Top, Figures Reveal,” www.dailymail.co.uk, March 4, 2011; G. Toegel, “Dis- appointing Statistics, Positive Outlook,” Forbes.com, February 18, 2011; E. Butler, “Wanted: Female Bosses for Germany,” www.bbc.co.uk, February 10, 2011; S. P. Robbins, M. Coulter, Y. Sidani, and D. Jamali, Management: Arab World Edition (London: Pearson Education Limited, 2011), p. 5; “Proportion of Executive Managers and Board Directors of ASX 200 Companies Who Are Women,” Australian Bureau of Statistics, www.abs.gov.au, September 15, 2010; Stevens and J. Espinoza, “Deutsche Telekom Sets Women-Manager Quota,” Wall Street Journal online, www.wsj.com, March 22, 2010; J. Blaue, “Deutsche Telekom Launches Quota for Top Women Man- agers,” www.german-info.com/business_shownews; and N. Clark, “Goal at Deutsche Telekom: More Women as Managers,” New York Times online, www.nytimes.com, March 15, 2010. Continuing Case Starbucks—Introduction Community. Connection. Caring. Committed. Coffee. Five Cs that describe the essence of Starbucks Corporation— what it stands for and what it wants to be as a business. PART 1 Management Practice M02A_ROBB5839_14_GE_C02A.indd 110 07/06/17 5:38 pm http://www.bloombergview.com http://www.fastcompany.com http://www.dailymail.co.uk http://www.bbc.co.uk http://www.abs.gov.au http://www.wsj.com http://www.german-info.com/business_shownews http://www.nytimes.com Part 1 Management Practice 111 would clash with the existing culture. But Schultz was quite persuasive and was able to allay the owners’ fears. They asked him to join the company as director of retail opera- tions and marketing, which he enthusiastically did. Schul- tz’s passion for the coffee business was obvious. Although some of the company’s employees resented the fact that he was an “outsider,” Schultz had found his niche and he had lots of ideas for the company. As he says, “I wanted to make a positive impact.” About a year after joining the company, while on a busi- ness trip to Milan, Schultz walked into an espresso bar and right away knew that this concept could be successful in the United States. He said, “There was nothing like this in America. It was an extension of people’s front porch. It was an emotional experience. I believed intuitively we could do it. I felt it in my bones.” Schultz recognized that although Starbucks treated coffee as produce, something to be bagged and sent home with the groceries, the Italian coffee bars were more like an experience—a warm, community experi- ence. That’s what Schultz wanted to recreate in the United States. However, Starbucks’ owners weren’t really interested in making Starbucks big and didn’t really want to give the idea a try. So Schultz left the company in 1985 to start his own small chain of espresso bars in Seattle and Vancouver called Il Giornale. Two years later when Starbucks’ owners finally wanted to sell, Schultz raised $3.8 million from local investors to buy them out. That small investment has made him a very wealthy person indeed! Company Facts Starbucks’ main product is coffee—more than 30 blends and single-origin coffees. In addition to fresh-brewed coffee, here’s a sampling of other products the company also offers: • Handcrafted beverages: Hot and iced espresso beverages, coffee and noncoffee blended beverages, Tazo® teas, and smoothies • Merchandise: Home espresso machines, coffee brewers and grinders, premium chocolates, coffee mugs and coffee accessories, compact discs, and other assorted items • Fresh food: Baked pastries, sandwiches, salads, hot breakfast items, and yogurt parfaits • Global consumer products: Starbucks Frappuccino® coffee drinks, Starbucks Iced Coffee drinks, Starbucks Liqueurs, and a line of super-premium ice creams • Starbucks card and My Starbucks Rewards® program: A reloadable stored-value card and a consumer rewards program • Brand portfolio: Starbucks Entertainment, Ethos™ Water, Seattle’s Best Coffee, and Tazo® Tea At the end of 2015, the company had more than 235,000 full- and part-time partners (employees) around the world. Howard Schultz is the chair, president, and CEO of Starbucks. Some of the other “interesting” execu- tive positions include chief operating officer; global chief With more than 31,000 stores in 70 countries, Starbucks is the world’s number one specialty coffee retailer. The com- pany also owns Seattle’s Best Coffee, Teavana, Tazo Tea, Starbucks VIA, Starbucks Refreshers, Evolution Fresh, La Boulange, and Verismo brands. It’s a company that truly epitomizes the challenges facing managers in today’s globally competitive environment. To help you better understand these challenges, we’re going to take an in-depth look at Starbucks through these continuing cases, which you’ll find at the end of every part in the textbook. Each of these six part-ending continuing cases will look at Star- bucks from the perspective of the material presented in that part. Although each case “stands alone,” you’ll be able to see the progression of the management process as you work through each one. The Beginning “We aren’t in the coffee business, serving people. We’re in the people business, serving coffee.” That’s the philosophy of Howard Schultz, chief executive officer of Starbucks. It’s a philosophy that has shaped—and continues to shape— the company. The first Starbucks, which opened in Seattle’s famous Pike Place Market in 1971, was founded by Gordon Bowker, Jerry Baldwin, and Zev Siegl. The company was named for the coffee-loving first mate in the book Moby Dick, which also influenced the design of Starbucks’ distinctive two- tailed siren logo. Schultz, a successful New York City busi- nessperson, first walked into Starbucks in 1981 as a sales representative for a Swedish kitchenware manufacturer. He was hooked immediately. He knew that he wanted to work for this company, but it took almost a year before he could persuade the owners to hire him. After all, he was from New York and he hadn’t grown up with the values of the com- pany. The owners thought Schultz’s style and high energy Beginning in 1971 as a coffee shop in Seattle’s Pike’s Place Market, Starbucks has grown to become the world’s top specialty coffee retailer with shops in more than 62 countries and an expanded product line including merchandise, beverages and fresh food, global consumer products, and a Starbucks card and consumer rewards program. Starbucks’ first store, shown here today, retains its original look with signs and other items bearing the company’s first logo. Source: ZUMA Press, Inc./Alamy M02A_ROBB5839_14_GE_C02A.indd 111 07/06/17 5:38 pm 112 Part 1 Introduction to Management he felt doing so was absolutely necessary and critical. And rather than gathering together in Seattle, where Starbucks is headquartered, Schultz chose New Orleans as the site for the conference. Here was a city still recovering from Hur- ricane Katrina, which had totally devastated it five years earlier in 2005. Talk about a logistical nightmare—and it was. But the decision was a symbolic choice. New Orleans was in the process of rebuilding itself and succeeding, and Starbucks was in the process of rebuilding itself and could succeed, too. While there, Starbucks partners volunteered some 50,000 hours of time, reinforcing to Schultz and to all the managers that despite all the problems, Starbucks had not lost its values. Other decisions, like closing 800 stores and laying off 4,000 partners, were more difficult. Since that transition time, Schultz has made lots of deci- sions. Starbucks has again come back even stronger in what it stands for, achieving in 2015 phenomenal record financial results, and it is on track to continue those record results. So we’re beginning to see how Starbucks epitomizes the five Cs—community, connection, caring, committed, and coffee. In this Continuing Case in the Management Prac- tice section at the end of Parts 2–6, you’ll discover more about Starbucks’ unique and successful ways of managing. As you work on these remaining continuing cases, keep in mind that there may be information included in this intro- duction you might want to review. Discussion Questions P1-1. What management skills do you think would be most important for Howard Schultz to have? Why? What skills do you think would be most important for a Starbucks store manager to have? Why? P1-2. How might the following management theories/ approaches be useful to Starbucks: scientific management, organizational behavior, quantitative approach, systems approach? P1-3. Choose three of the current trends and issues facing managers and explain how Starbucks might be impacted. What might be the implications for first- line managers? Middle managers? Top managers? P1-4. Give examples of how Howard Schultz might perform the interpersonal roles, the informational roles, and the decisional roles. P1-5. Look at Howard Schultz’s philosophy of Starbucks. How will this affect the way the company is managed? P1-6. Go to the company’s website, www.starbucks.com, and find the list of senior officers. Pick one of those positions and describe what you think that job might involve. Try to envision what types of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling this person would have to do. P1-7. Look up the company’s mission and guiding principles at the company’s website. What do you think of the mission and guiding principles? marketing officer; chief creative officer; executive vice presi- dent of partner resources and chief community officer; ex- ecutive vice president, global supply chain; executive vice president, global coffee; learning business partner; and in- ternational partner resource coordinator. Decisions, Decisions One thing you may not realize is that after running the show for 15 years at Starbucks, Howard Schultz, at age 46, stepped out of the CEO job in 2000 (he remained as chairman of the company) because he was “a bit bored.” By stepping down as CEO—which he had planned to do, had prepared for, and had no intention of returning to—essentially he was saying that he agreed to trust the decisions of others. At first the company thrived, but then the perils of rapid mass-market expansion began to set in and customer traf- fic began to fall for the first time ever. As he watched what was happening, there were times when he felt the decisions being made were not good ones. Schultz couldn’t shake his gut feeling that Starbucks had lost its way. In fact, in a memo dubbed the “espresso shot heard round the world,” he wrote to his top managers explaining in detail how the company’s unprecedented growth had led to many minor compromises that when added up led to a “watering down of the Starbucks experience.” Among his complaints: sterile “cookie cutter” store layouts, automatic espresso machines that robbed the “barista theater” of roasting and brewing a cup of coffee, and flavor-locked packaging that didn’t allow customers to inhale and savor that distinctive coffee aroma. Starbucks had lost its “cool” factor, and Schultz’s criticism of the state of the company’s stores was blunt and bold. There was no longer a focus on coffee but only on mak- ing the cash register ring. Within a year of the memo (and eight years after he left the CEO gig), Schultz was back in charge and working to restore the Starbucks experience. His goals were to fix the troubled stores, to reawaken the emotional attachment with customers, and to make long- term changes like reorganizing the company and revamp- ing the supply chain. The first thing he did, however, was to apologize to the staff for the decisions that had brought the company to this point. In fact, his intention to restore quality control led him to a decision to close all (at that time) 7,100 U.S. stores for one evening to retrain 135,000 baristas on the coffee experience … what it meant, what it was. It was a bold decision, and one that many “experts” felt would be a public relations and financial disaster. But Schultz felt doing so was absolutely necessary to revive and reenergize Starbucks. Another controversial decision was to hold a leadership conference with all store managers (some 8,000 of them) and 2,000 other partners—all at one time and all in one location. Why? To energize and galva- nize these employees around what Starbucks stands for and what needed to be done for the company to survive and prosper. Schultz was unsure about how Wall Street would react to the cost, which was around $30 million total (air- fare, meals, hotels, etc.), but again he didn’t care because M02A_ROBB5839_14_GE_C02A.indd 112 07/06/17 5:38 pm http://www.starbucks.com Part 1 Management Practice 113 Describe how these would influence how a barista at a local Starbucks store does his or her job. Describe how these would influence how one of the company’s top executives does his or her job. P1-8. Starbucks has some pretty specific goals it wants to achieve (look ahead to Part 3 on p. 379 for these company goals). Given this, do you think managers would be more likely to make rational decisions, bounded rationality decisions, or intuitive decisions? Explain. P1-9. Give examples of decisions that Starbucks managers might make under conditions of certainty. Under conditions of risk. Under conditions of uncertainty. P1-10. What kind of decision maker does Howard Schultz appear to be? Explain your answer. P1-11. How might biases and errors affect the decision making done by Starbucks executives? By Starbucks store managers? By Starbucks partners? P1-12. How might design thinking be important to a company like Starbucks? Do you see any indication that Starbucks uses design thinking? Explain. Notes for the Part 1 Continuing Case Information from company website, www.starbucks.com, including 2015 Annual Report; “Starbucks on the Forbes World’s Most Innovative Companies List,” Forbes online, www.forbes.com, August 19, 2015; H. Schultz (with J. Gor- don), Onward: How Starbucks Fought for Its Life Without Los- ing Its Soul (New York: Rodale, 2011); J. Cummings, “Legis- lative Grind,” Wall Street Journal, April 12, 2005, pp. A1+; A. Serwer and K. Bonamici, “Hot Starbucks to Go,” Fortune, January 26, 2004, pp. 60–74; R. Gulati, Sarah Huffman, and G. Neilson, “The Barista Principle,” Strategy and Business, Third Quarter 2002, pp. 58–69; B. Horovitz, “Starbucks Nation,” USA Today, May 29–31, 2006, pp. A1+; and H. Schultz and D. Jones Yang, Pour Your Heart into It: How Starbucks Built a Company One Cup at a Time (New York: Hyperion, 1997). M02A_ROBB5839_14_GE_C02A.indd 113 07/06/17 5:38 pm http://www.starbucks.com http://www.forbes.com It’s Your Career Chapter 3 Global Management Developing Your Global Perspective—Working with People from Other Cultures • Nearly 70 percent of executives and management professionals say that developing global compe- tencies is very important or extremely important to the future success of their companies.1 • The five most important attitudes, knowledge, skills, and abilities for effective global leadership include: Multicultural sensitivity/awareness Communicates effectively Strategic thinking Leadership, influences others Respect for differences 2 You can be certain that during your career you will work with individuals who were born in a different country than you were. Their first language is likely to be different from yours. And they will probably exhibit habits and customs that differ significantly from those familiar to you. You may find it hard to understand some of those people’s behaviors, and you may find your differences make it difficult to communicate and work together. Welcome to the twenty-first century! That’s why it’s important for you to develop your global perspective—especially your cultural intelligence! As you develop your global competence, start with the perspective that “I am different from the rest,” rather than “They are different from me.” So what can you do to increase your ability to work with people from different cultures?3 1. Become aware of your own level of openness to and confidence in cross-cultural experiences. Some people just aren’t as open to and comfortable with new and different experiences as others are. For instance, do you try new foods with unfamiliar or exotic ingredients? Are you comfortable with class project teams that have individuals from other countries? Do you dread having to communicate with individuals who don’t speak your native language? If you’re one of those who isn’t comfortable with new and different experiences, try to overcome your fear and reluctance by A key to success in management and in your career is becoming comfortable with cultural differences and recognizing how to be more culturally aware so you can learn to respond appropriately in different situations. Know that becoming culturally competent is a process during which time you will likely make mistakes. Remember that to err is human. Develop a forgiveness strategy and show others that you are sincere in your desire and efforts to learn. Source: Irina Nartova/Shutterstock Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace M03_ROBB5839_14_GE_C03.indd 114 10/07/17 4:51 PM 115 starting small. Practice listening closely to those who struggle with your language. Maybe try a new and unusual menu item or get to know individuals in your classes who are from other cultures. Your goal should be expanding your comfort zone. 2. Assume differences until similarity is proven. Most of us have a tendency to assume peo- ple are like us until proven otherwise. Try to think the reverse. Assume that individuals from different cultures will interpret communication or behaviors differently. Carefully observe how individuals from other cultures relate to each other and how those interactions differ from how people within your culture relate. Then, you can try interacting with individuals with those observations in mind. This approach will help avoid embarrassing situations. 3. Emphasize description rather than inter- pretation or evaluation. Delay making judgments until you have observed and interpreted the situation from the perspectives of all cultures involved. Description emphasizes observation. Some customs may be different from what you’re used to, but different doesn’t make them wrong or inferior. 4. Show empathy. When trying to under- stand the words, motives, and actions of a person from another culture, try to interpret them from the perspective of that culture rather than your own. This will also encourage you to read up on various cultures to learn their customs and practices. 5. Treat your initial interpretations as working hypotheses. Check with people from other cultures to make sure that your evaluation of a behavior is accurate if you’re in doubt. Treat your first interpre- tations as working hypotheses rather than facts, and pay careful attention to feedback in order to avoid serious miscommunications and resulting problems. Pearson MyLab Management® Improve Your Grade! When you see this icon, visit www.mymanagementlab.com for activities that are applied, personalized, and offer immediate feedback. ● SKILL OUTCOMES 3.1 Contrast ethnocentric, polycentric, and geocentric attitudes toward global business. ● Develop your skill at collaborating in cross-cultural settings. 3.2 Discuss the importance of regional trading alliances and global trade mechanisms. 3.3 Describe the structures and techniques organizations use as they go international. 3.4 Explain the relevance of the political/legal, economic, and cultural environments to global business. ● Know how to be culturally aware. Learning Objectives M03_ROBB5839_14_GE_C03.indd 115 10/07/17 4:51 PM http://www.mymanagementlab.com 116 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace WHO owns what? One way to see how global the marketplace has become is to consider the country of origin for some familiar products. You might be surprised to find that many products you thought were made by U.S. companies aren’t! Take the following quiz7 and then check your answers at the end of the chapter on page 140. 1. Tombstone and DiGiorno frozen pizzas are products of a company based in: a. Italy b. United States c. Canada d. Switzerland 2. Transportation network company Uber Technologies is a company based in: a. Poland b. United Kingdom c. United States d. Germany 3. Rajah spices are products of a company based in: a. United States b. Brazil c. India d. Switzerland 4. Dos Equis, Tecate, and Sol beer products are owned by a company based in: a. The Netherlands b. Mexico c. United States d. Colombia 5. The America’s Got Talent show is a part of a franchise based in: a. United States b. United Kingdom c. Italy d. Spain 6. Chobani Greek yogurt is owned by a company based in: a. Japan b. France c. United States d. India 7. The manufacturer of the Swatch watch is based in: a. Germany b. United States c. Switzerland d. Brazil 6. Educate yourself on cross-cultural issues and approaches. Although we trust that you’re learning a great deal in your classes (and from your textbooks!) about cross-cultural norms, practices, and behaviors, you can learn even more in at least three additional ways! How? First, get international experience through traveling. Invest in short-term study trips abroad. Maybe do an entire semester abroad where you can immerse yourself in a differ- ent culture and perhaps even get some overseas work experience, depending on your semester- abroad program. You could also participate in international volunteer programs. If the expense of these kinds of trips is an insurmountable obsta- cle, you’re not off the hook! Second, right where you are, take the initiative to get to know other international students and learn about their coun- tries. Consider attending one or more cultural or multicultural events, which are typically hosted by a single cultural (maybe, Latin American) or multicul- tural student organization. Third, take advantage of online tools to learn more about cross-cultural dif- ferences. (See the My Turn to Be a Manager section on page 137 for information about Kwintessential.) And at the very least, you can start paying attention to global news stories. 7. Make a good first impression. Greetings differ among cultures. In the United States, the handshake is used while hugs and cheek-kisses are commonly demonstrated in some other countries in Europe and South America. In Japan, present your business card with two hands. Going global is something that most organizations want to do. A study of U.S. manu- facturing firms found that companies operating in multiple countries had twice the sales growth and significantly higher profitability than strictly domestic firms.4 There are many contributing factors to success. Among them is an innate global bias. That is, some American companies with strong performance in international markets are led by executives who are foreign-born or first generation American.5 For example, Facebook’s Eduardo Saverin is Brazilian. Other research has found additional evi- dence that multinational business increases the value of U.S. companies.6 However, if managers don’t closely monitor changes in the global environment or don’t consider specific location characteristics as they plan, organize, lead, and control, they may find limited global success. In this chapter, we’re going to discuss the issues managers face as they manage in a global environment. M03_ROBB5839_14_GE_C03.indd 116 10/07/17 4:51 PM Chapter 3 Global Management 117 8. The British newspaper the Independent is owned by a company based in: a. Russia b. United Kingdom c. South Africa d. Canada 9. Spotify is owned by a company located in: a. Sweden b. United Kingdom c. United States d. Canada 10. The Candy Crush Saga mobile video game was developed by a company based in: a. United States b. Sweden c. France d. Japan How well did you do on the quiz? Were you aware of how many products we use every day that are made by companies not based in the United States? Probably not! Most of us don’t fully appreciate the truly global nature of today’s marketplace. WHAT’S your global perspective? It’s not unusual for Germans, Italians, or Indonesians to speak three or four languages. In China, a large majority of children learns English in school. On the other hand, most U.S. children study only English in school—only a small percentage are studying Chinese.8 At schools—elementary through college— large numbers of students will not have the opportunity to study a foreign language as courses and programs are reduced or cut. For decades, there has been a steady decline in the availability of foreign language courses, and many colleges and universities have eliminated completion of one or more courses as a degree requirement altogether.9 Not surprisingly, experts note that there is a “foreign language deficit” in the United States,10 including a U.S. Secretary of Education who lamented that “The United States is a long way from being the multilingual society that so many of our economic competitors are.”11 Americans tend to think of English as the only international busi- ness language and don’t see a need to study other languages. This could lead to future problems, as a major research report commissioned by the British Council says that relying only on English hurts the future competitive abilities of both Britain and the United States.12 Foreign language proficiency is essential for successful business trans- actions. For instance, many languages such as Italian, French, and Spanish include two versions of the word you—one is considered to be formal and the other informal. In Italy, it is appropriate to use the formal lei when conducting business discussions and the informal tu when holding conversations with friends. Monolingualism is one sign that a nation suffers from parochialism—viewing the world solely through one’s own eyes and perspectives.14 People with a parochial attitude do not recognize that others have different ways of living and working. They ignore others’ values and customs and rigidly apply an attitude of “ours is better than theirs” to foreign cultures. This type of narrow, restricted attitude is one approach that managers might take, but it isn’t the only one.15 In fact, there are three possible global attitudes. Let’s look at each more closely. First, an ethnocentric attitude is the parochial belief that the best work approaches and practices are those of the home country (the country in which the company’s headquarters are located). Managers with an ethnocentric attitude believe that people in foreign countries don’t have the needed skills, expertise, knowledge, or experience to make business decisions as well as people in the home country do. They don’t trust foreign employees with key decisions or technology. Next, a polycentric attitude is the view that employees in the host country (the foreign country in which the organization is doing business) know the best work approaches and practices for running their business. Managers with this attitude view every foreign operation as different and hard to understand. Thus, they’re likely to let employees in those locations figure out how best to do things. The final type of global attitude managers might have is a geocentric attitude, a world-oriented view that focuses on using the best approaches and people from around the globe. Managers with this type of attitude have a global view and look for the best approaches and people regardless of origin. For instance, Carlos Ghosn, CEO of Nissan and Renault, was born in Brazil to Lebanese parents, educated in France, and LO3.1 FYI • Between 18 and 27 percent of Americans say they can converse in more than one language.13 ethnocentric attitude The parochial belief that the best work approaches and practices are those of the home country polycentric attitude The view that the managers in the host country know the best work approaches and practices for running their business geocentric attitude A world-oriented view that focuses on using the best approaches and people from around the globe parochialism Viewing the world solely through your own perspectives, leading to an inability to recognize differences between people M03_ROBB5839_14_GE_C03.indd 117 10/07/17 4:51 PM 118 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace speaks four languages fluently. He could very well be the “model of the modern major corporate leader in a globalized world bestraddled by multinational companies.”16 Ghosn’s background and perspective have given him a much broader understanding of what it takes to manage in a global environment—something characteristic of the geocentric attitude. Another Renault management veteran in the geocentric mold is Carlos Tavares, who was recently named CEO of PSA Peugeot Citroen.17 He also speaks four languages and has run auto operations in Japan, Europe, North America, and South America. A geocentric attitude requires eliminating parochial attitudes and developing an understanding of cross-cultural differences. That’s the type of approach successful managers will need in today’s global environment.18 UNDERSTANDING the global trade environment One important feature of today’s global environment is global trade, which, if you remember history class, isn’t new. Countries and organiza- tions have been trading with each other for centuries.20 And it continues strong today, as we saw in the chapter-opening quiz. Global trade today is shaped by two forces: region- al trading alliances and trade mechanisms that ensure that global trade can happen. Regional Trading Alliances Global competition once was considered country against country—the United States versus Japan, France versus Germany, Mexico versus Canada, and so on. Now, global competition and the global economy are shaped by regional trading agree- ments, including the European Union (EU), North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), which we review here. A comprehensive list of trading alliances is available on the U.S. fed- eral government’s International Trade Administration website (www.trade.gov). More than 200 countries participate in at least one regional trade agreement.21 The United States alone has agreements with 75 countries.22 Countries enter into regional trading alliances for a variety of political and national security reasons. Mainly, countries choose to participate with the goal of stimulating economic growth. Reducing trade barriers such as tariffs or taxes imposed upon imported goods opens new markets for companies in participating countries. For example, U.S. automobile manufacturers Ford and General Motors have benefited tremendously from participation in a variety of regional trade blocs. NAFTA, which we describe later in this chapter, has provided an economic boost to U.S. automobile manufacturers, including Ford and General Motors. These companies have been able to establish manufacturing facilities in Mexico where labor costs are lower than in the United States. The NAFTA agreement also permits the companies to sell those vehicles in the United States without restrictive tariffs. THE EUROPEAN UNION The European Union (EU) is an economic and politi- cal partnership of 28 democratic European countries. (See Exhibit 3-1.) Five countries (Albania, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Turkey, Montenegro, and Ser- bia) are candidates to join the EU. Two countries are potential candidates to join the EU (Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo).23 Before they are allowed to join, however, the countries must meet the criteria, which include democracy, rule of law, a market economy, and adherence to the EU’s goals of political and economic union. When the 12 original members formed the EU in 1992, the primary motivation was to reas- sert the region’s economic position against the United States and Japan. Before then, each European nation had border controls, taxes, and subsidies; nationalistic policies; and protected industries. These barriers to travel, employment, investment, and trade prevented European companies from developing economic efficiencies. Now, with these barriers removed, the economic power represented by the EU is considerable. Its current membership covers a population base of more than half a billion people (7 percent of the world population)24 and accounts for approximately 16 percent of the LO3.2 European Union (EU) A union of 28 European nations created as a unified economic and trade entity FYI • Ranked no. 1 on a list of three skills every twenty-first-century manager needs: GLOBAL MIND SET.19 M03_ROBB5839_14_GE_C03.indd 118 10/07/17 4:51 PM http://www.trade.gov Chapter 3 Global Management 119 world’s global exports and imports.25 In June 2016, the citizens of the United King- dom (U.K.) voted to remove themselves from the EU because they felt that their needs and interests were being shifted to the greater EU. Conflicts have arisen over immigra- tion, legal, and economic policies. The U.K. decided that its interests would be better served as an independent entity. While the U.K.’s transition will take a few years to complete, this vote holds significance for both the U.K. and other EU countries. The fact that the U.K. will no longer be part of the EU opens the door for other countries to vote themselves out, which could eventually lead to the demise of the EU. Another step toward full unification occurred when the common European cur- rency, the euro, was adopted. The euro is currently in use in 18 of the 28 member states, and all new member countries must adopt the euro. Only Denmark, the United Kingdom, and Sweden have been allowed to opt out of using the euro.26 Another push in unification has been attempts to develop a unified European constitution. EU lead- ers struggled for nearly a decade to enact a treaty designed to strengthen the EU and give it a full-time president. The so-called Lisbon Treaty (or Reform Treaty), which was ratified by all 28 member states, provides the EU with a common legal frame- work and the tools to meet the challenges of a changing world, including climatic and demographic changes, globalization, security, and energy. And backers feel the new structure will help strengthen the EU’s common foreign policy. Many believe that a more unified Europe could have more power and say in the global arena. As the former Italian prime minister and European Commission president said, “Europe has lost and lost and lost weight in the world.”27 The last couple of years were difficult economically for the EU and its members, as they were for many global regions. However, things are looking up. The economic recovery, which began mid-2013, is expected to continue spreading across countries and gaining strength. Europe’s economies are benefiting from many factors. Oil prices remain relatively low, global growth is steady, and the euro has continued to depreciate.28 euro A single common European currency 0 0 250 500 Miles 250 500 Kilometers European Union Countries Applied for Membership M e d i t e r r a n e a n S e a Portugal Spain Andorra Switzerland France Luxembourg Belgium Ireland United Kingdom Netherlands Germany Austria Iceland Norway Sweden Finland R u s s i a Ukraine Belarus Poland Russia Lithuania Estonia Denmark Czech Rep. Slovakia Hungary RomaniaSlovenia Croatia Bosnia- Herzegovina Serbia MontenegroItaly Albania Malta Macedonia Bulgaria Greece Cyprus Turkey Moldova Latvia N o r t h A t l a n t i c O c e a n Black Sea North Sea Ionian Sea Aegean Sea Tyrrhenian Sea Bay of Biscay English Channel B a l t i c S e a Adriatic Sea Exhibit 3-1 European Union Map Source: Data based on: “EU Member Countries on the Road to EU Membership”, www.europa.eu M03_ROBB5839_14_GE_C03.indd 119 10/07/17 4:51 PM http://www.europa.eu 120 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace The euro zone is a larger economic unit than the United States or China and is a major source of world demand for goods and services. The importance of this regional trading alliance will continue to evolve as EU members work together to resolve the region’s economic issues and once again assert their economic power, with successful European businesses continuing to play a crucial role in the global economy. NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT (NAFTA) AND OTHER LATIN AMERICAN AGREEMENTS When agreements in key issues covered by the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) were reached by the Mexican, Canadian, and U.S. governments in 1992, a vast economic agreement was created. It’s the second- largest trade alliance in the world in terms of combined gross domestic product (GDP) of its members.29 Between 1994, when NAFTA went into effect, and 2014, imports from Can- ada and Mexico to the United States increased 212 percent and 637 percent, respectively. The rise in export activity from the United States to Canada and Mexico was 211 percent and 478 percent, respectively.30 Put into numbers, that translates to some $1.1 trillion ex- changed among NAFTA partners in 2014 alone. Eliminating the barriers to free trade (tariffs, import licensing requirements, customs user fees) has strengthened the economic power of all three countries. Even though immigration to the United States continued to rise through about 2005, structural improvements within Mexico raised the standard of living.31 After 2005, substantially positive effects of NAFTA became evident through new export industries such as automobile manufacturing, which has helped narrow the wage gap between the United States and Mexico. As the gap decreases, there is less incentive for Mexicans to leave their country.32 Despite early criticisms of the trade agreement, the North American trading agreement remains a powerful force in today’s global economy.33 Other Latin American nations have also become part of free trade agreements. Colom- bia, Mexico, and Venezuela led the way when all three signed an economic pact in 1994 eliminating import duties and tariffs. Another agreement, the U.S.–Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR), promotes trade liberalization between the United States and five Central American countries: Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua as well as the Dominican Republic. The CAFTA-DR region was the third- largest export market in Latin America behind Mexico and Brazil, as well as the thirteenth largest in the world.34 The United States also signed a trade deal with Colombia that is said to be the “largest Washington has concluded with a Latin American country since sign- ing” NAFTA.35 Upon the U.S.–Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement (TPA) going into effect in 2012, over 80 percent of U.S. industrial goods exports to Colombia became duty-free.36 Another free trade agreement of 10 South American countries known as the Southern Common Market or Mercosur already exists. Some South Americans see Mercosur as an effective way to combine resources to better compete against other global economic powers, especially the EU and NAFTA. ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHEAST ASIAN NATIONS (ASEAN) The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a trading alliance of 10 Southeast Asian nations. (See Exhibit 3-2.) The ASEAN region has a population of more than 625 million with a combined GDP of US $2.4 tril- lion.37 In addition to these 10 nations, leaders from a group dubbed ASEAN+3, which include China, Japan, and South Korea, have met to discuss trade issues. Also, leaders from India, Australia, and New Zealand have participated in trade talks with ASEAN+3 as well. The main issue with creating a trade agreement of all 16 nations has been the lack of any push toward regional integration. Despite the Asian culture’s emphasis on consensus building, “ASEAN’s biggest problem is that individual members haven’t been willing to sacrifice for the common good.”38 Although Southeast Asian leaders agree that closer regional integration would help economic growth, the large differences in wealth among ASEAN members have made it “difficult to create North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) An agreement among the Mexican, Canadian, and U.S. governments in which barriers to trade have been eliminated Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) A trading alliance of 10 Southeast Asian nations NAFTA has made it easier for Mexican-based commercial baking company Grupo Bimbo to operate throughout the United States. Since NAFTA, Grupo’s subsidiary Bimbo Bakeries USA has grown to become the largest U.S. baking company with 22,000 employees, 11,000 sales distribution routes, and more than 60 bakeries, including the tortilla plant shown here. Source: Owen Brewer/ZUMA Press/Newscom M03_ROBB5839_14_GE_C03.indd 120 10/07/17 4:51 PM Chapter 3 Global Management 121 common standards because national standards remain so far apart.”39 However, the challenges brought on by the recent worldwide recession, which adversely affected many countries in this region, triggered greater interest in pushing for integration. In fact, on January 1, 2010, China and ASEAN launched an ambitious free trade agreement, mak- ing it the world’s third-largest trade agreement.40 Despite the barriers and challenges, progress toward regional integration contin- ues. This fast-growing region means ASEAN and other Asian trade alliances will be increasingly important globally with an impact that eventually could rival that of both NAFTA and the EU. OTHER TRADE ALLIANCES Other regions around the world have also developed regional trading alliances. For instance, the 54-nation African Union (AU), which came into existence in 2002, seeks to “build an integrated, prosperous and peaceful Africa, an Africa driven and managed by its own citizens and representing a dynamic force in the international arena.”41 Members of this alliance have created an econom- ic development plan to achieve greater unity among Africa’s nations. Like members of other trade alliances, these countries hope to gain economic, social, cultural, and trade benefits from their association. Such cooperation couldn’t be more important as Africa’s economic output is booming like never before, and trade relations with China have been particularly robust.42 GDP growth rates have been averaging 4.8 percent, the highest rate outside Asia, with most of that growth coming domestically. In addition, Africa has been experiencing a “virtually unprecedented period of political stability with governments steadily deregulating industries and developing infrastructure.”43 Five east African nations—Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda— have formed a common market called the East African Community (EAC).44 Under this agreement, goods can be sold across borders without tariffs. The next step for the EAC will be monetary union, although that will take time to implement. The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), composed of eight member states (India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, the Mal- dives, and Afghanistan), began eliminating tariffs in 2006.45 Its aim, like all the other regional trading alliances, is to allow free flow of goods and services, and it continues to negotiate tariff reduction agreements with countries throughout the region.46 Finally, in 2015, 12 countries forged the terms of a trade alliance called the Trans- Pacific Partnership (TPP).47 The countries involved in the agreement include the United States, Canada, Mexico, Japan, Australia, and seven other countries around the Pacific region, excluding China. (See Exhibit 3-3.) If the agreement goes into effect, it will influence about two-thirds of world economic input, making it among the largest trade alliances of all time. Among its provisions is the elimination of more than 18,000 tariffs that make cross-national trade relationships costly. Myanmar Thailand Vietnam Laos Brunei Philippines Malaysia Indonesia Cambodia Singapore Current members Exhibit 3-2 ASEAN Map Source: This infographic was first published for IBA Global Insight online news analysis, 30 July 2013, [available at www.ibanet.org] and is reproduced by kind permission of the International Bar Association, London, UK. © International Bar Association. M03_ROBB5839_14_GE_C03.indd 121 10/07/17 4:51 PM http://www.ibanet.org 122 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace The preceding discussion indicates that global trade is alive and well. Regional trade alliances continue to be developed in areas where member countries believe it’s in their best interest economically and globally to band together and strengthen their economic position. Global Trade Mechanisms Global trade among nations doesn’t just happen on its own. As trade issues arise, global trade systems ensure that trade continues efficiently and effectively. Indeed, one of the realities of globalization is the interdependence of countries—that is, what hap- pens in one can impact others, good or bad. For example, the financial crisis that start- ed in the United States in 2008 threw the global economy into a tailspin. Although things spiraled precariously out of control, it didn’t completely collapse. Why? Because governmental interventions and trade and financial mechanisms helped avert a poten- tial crisis. We’re going to look at four important global trade mechanisms: the World Trade Organization, the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank Group, and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION The World Trade Organization (WTO) is a global organization of 161 countries (as of April 2015) that deals with the rules of trade among nations.48 Formed in 1995, the WTO evolved from the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), a trade agreement in effect since the end of World War II. To- day, the WTO is the only global organization that deals with trade rules among nations. Its membership consists of 161 member countries and 24 observer governments (which have a specific time frame within which they must apply to become members). The goal of the WTO is to help countries conduct trade through a system of rules. Although critics have staged vocal protests against the WTO, claiming that global trade destroys jobs and the natural environment, it appears to play an important role in monitoring, promoting, and protecting global trade. For instance, the WTO ruled that the European plane maker Airbus received improper European Union subsidies for the A380 super jumbo jet and several other airplanes, hurting its American rival, Boeing.49 Airbus has the right to appeal the ruling, but even after appealing, any member ultimately found to have provided improper subsidies is obliged to bring its policies into compliance with global trade rules. Failure to comply could bring trade sanctions. In another news story, the U.S. government is weighing whether to file a WTO complaint against China’s Inter- net censorship.50 There is one last example worth mentioning. President Barack Obama announced that the United States, the European Union, and Japan filed a challenge with the World Trade Organization against China’s export restrictions on minerals that are an essential ingredient in the production of numerous high-tech devices.51 Examples World Trade Organization (WTO) A global organization of 161 countries that deals with the rules of trade among nations Mexico Canada U.S.A. Peru Chile Thailand Cambodia Japan China Vietnam Malaysia Brunei Darussalam Singapore Australia New Zealand Current TPP countries Countries indicating a desire to join Trans-Pacific Trade AgreementExhibit 3-3 TPP Map Source: Data based on AFL-CIO, www.aflcio.org, October 16, 2015./AFL-CIO M03_ROBB5839_14_GE_C03.indd 122 10/07/17 4:51 PM http://www.aflcio.org Chapter 3 Global Management 123 of these devices include smartphones, hybrid car batteries, and wind turbines. The case seeks to force China to lift export limits on rare earths, which are the particular essential minerals. China produces nearly all of these minerals. With continued restrictions, the long-term viability of companies in the United States, the European Union, and Japan is at risk. According to the WTO, China agreed to lift these restrictions in 2015.52 These examples illustrate the types of trade issues with which the WTO deals. Such issues are best handled by an organization such as the WTO, and it has played, without a doubt, an important role in promoting and protecting global trade. INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND AND WORLD BANK GROUP Two other important and necessary global trade mechanisms include the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank Group. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an organization of 188 countries that promotes international monetary cooperation and provides member countries with policy advice, temporary loans, and technical assis- tance to establish and maintain financial stability and to strengthen economies.54 Dur- ing the global financial turmoil of the last few years, the IMF was on the forefront of advising countries and governments in getting through the difficulties.55 The World Bank Group is a group of five closely associated institutions, all owned by its member countries, that provides vital financial and technical assistance to developing countries around the world. The goal of the World Bank Group is to promote long-term eco- nomic development and poverty reduction by providing members with technical and financial support.56 For instance, during the recent global recession, financial commit- ments by the World Bank Group reached $100 billion as it helped nations respond to and recover from the economic downturn.57 Both entities have an important role in supporting and promoting global business and often collaborate to achieve these goals. ORGANIZATION FOR ECONOMIC COOPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT (OECD) The forerunner of the OECD, the Organization for European Economic Cooperation, was formed in 1947 to administer American and Canadian aid under the Marshall Plan for the reconstruction of Europe after World War II. Today, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) is a Paris- based international economic organization whose mission is to help its 34 member coun- tries achieve sustainable economic growth and employment and raise the standard of living in member countries while maintaining financial stability in order to contribute to the develop- ment of the world economy.58 When needed, the OECD gets involved in negotiations with OECD countries so they can agree on “rules of the game” for international cooperation. One current focus is combating small-scale bribery in overseas commerce. The OECD says such “so-called facilitation payments are cor- rosive . . . particularly on sustainable economic development and the rule of law.”59 In 2015, a group of finance ministers from several coun- tries expressed support for a plan that provides governments with solutions for closing the gaps in existing international rules. The long- standing laws have allowed corporate profits to be artificially shifted to low-/no-tax envi- ronments, where little or no economic activity takes place.60 With a long history of facilitating economic growth around the globe, the OECD now shares its expertise and accumulated experiences with more than 80 developing and emerging market economies. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) An international economic organization that helps its 34 member countries achieve sustainable economic growth and employment The China-based online retailing giant Alibaba made history in 2014 with the largest global initial public offering (IPO) of all time.53 A key leader behind the IPO and the company’s overall success is founding partner Lucy Peng, number 33 on Forbes 2015 list of the world’s most powerful women. Peng created and now leads Alibaba’s human resources department as their chief people officer. She also serves as the CEO of Ant Financial Services, a stand-alone financial services company that serves about 615 million customers. A former economics teacher, Peng was a founding leader of the company in 1999. She is credited with creating the family-like organizational culture at The Alibaba Group, which has helped the company grow to become the world’s largest online marketplace with nearly 35,000 employees. While she is known for being funny and down-to-earth, her strong values of humility and passion create the foundation for her success at Alibaba. What can you learn from this leader making a difference? LEADER making a DIFFERENCE So ur ce : B ao fa n - I m ag in ec hi na /A P Im ag es World Bank Group A group of five closely associated institutions that provides financial and technical assistance to developing countries International Monetary Fund (IMF) An organization of 188 countries that promotes international monetary cooperation and provides advice, loans, and technical assistance M03_ROBB5839_14_GE_C03.indd 123 10/07/17 4:51 PM 124 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace DOING business globally Daimler, Nissan Motor, and Renault are part of a strategic partnership that shares small-car technology and powertrains—an arrangement that all three automakers say will allow them to better compete in an environment where cutting costs is crucial. Convenience store operator 7-Eleven, a subsidiary of Japan- based Seven & iHoldings, has created a profitable niche in Jakarta by adapting its stores to Indonesian ways. Procter & Gamble Company relocated the top executives from its global skin, cosmetics, and personal-care unit from its Cincinnati headquar- ters to Singapore. Reckitt Benckiser, the U.K.-based maker of consumer products (Ly- sol, Woolite, and French’s mustard are just a few of its products), has operations in more than 60 countries, and its top 400 managers represent 53 different nationalities. The Missouri State Employees’ Retirement System pays retirement benefits to recipi- ents in 20 countries outside the United States.61 As these examples show, organizations in different industries and from different countries do business globally. But how do they do so? Different Types of International Organizations Companies doing business globally aren’t new. DuPont started doing business in China in 1863. H.J. Heinz Company was manufacturing food products in the United King- dom in 1905. Ford Motor Company set up its first overseas sales branch in France in 1908. By the 1920s, other companies, including Fiat, Unilever, and Royal Dutch/Shell, had gone international. But it wasn’t until the mid-1960s that international compa- nies became quite common. Today, few companies don’t do business internationally. However, there’s not a generally accepted approach to describe the different types of international companies; different authors call them different things. We use the terms multinational, multidomestic, global, and transnational.63 A multinational corpora- tion (MNC) is any type of international company that maintains operations in multiple countries. One type of MNC is a multidomestic corporation, which decentralizes man- agement and other decisions to the local country. This type of globalization reflects the polycentric attitude. A multidomestic corporation doesn’t attempt to replicate its domestic successes by managing foreign operations from its home country. Instead, local employees typically are hired to manage the business, and marketing strategies are tailored to that country’s unique characteristics. For example, Switzerland-based Nestlé is a multidomestic corporation. With operations in almost every country on the globe, its managers match the company’s products to its consumers. In parts of Europe, Nestlé sells products that are not available in the United States or Latin America. Another example is Frito-Lay, a division of PepsiCo, which markets a Dorito chip in the British market that differs in both taste and texture from the U.S. and Canadian version. Even the king of retailing, Walmart, has learned that it must “think locally to act globally” as it tailors its inventories and store formats to local tastes.64 Many consumer product companies organize their global businesses using this approach because they must adapt their products to meet the needs of local markets. Another type of MNC is a global company, which centralizes its management and other decisions in the home country. This approach to globalization reflects the ethnocentric attitude. Global companies treat the world market as an integrated whole and focus on the need for global efficiency and cost savings. Although these compa- nies may have considerable global holdings, management decisions with company- wide implications are made from headquarters in the home country. Some examples of global companies include Sony, Deutsche Bank AG, Starwood Hotels, and Merrill Lynch. Other companies use an arrangement that eliminates artificial geographical barri- ers. This type of MNC is often called a transnational, or borderless, organization LO3.3 multinational corporation (MNC) A broad term that refers to any and all types of international companies that maintain operations in multiple countries multidomestic corporation An MNC that decentralizes management and other decisions to the local country global company An MNC that centralizes management and other decisions in the home country transnational or borderless organization An MNC in which artificial geographical barriers are eliminated FYI • The world’s 500 largest companies generated $31.2 trillion in revenues and $1.7 trillion in profits in 2014. Together, this year’s Fortune Global 500 employ 65 million people worldwide and are represented by 36 countries.62 M03_ROBB5839_14_GE_C03.indd 124 10/07/17 4:51 PM Chapter 3 Global Management 125 and reflects a geocentric attitude.65 For example, IBM CEO Ginni Rometty is initiat- ing the largest global reorganization in IBM’s history. The goal is to create a vibrant future. “Multiple sources told us senior managers were this week informed about the changes that will see IBM try to shed the dusty hardware, software and services silo structure.”66 The main units are expected to include Research, Sales & Delivery, Global Technology Services, Cloud, Security, Commerce, and Analytics. Ford Motor Company is pursuing the second generation of what it calls the One Ford concept as it integrates its operations around the world and has achieved efficiencies by reduc- ing the number of vehicle platforms from 27 to 9.67 Another company, Thomson SA (renamed to Technicolor SA), which is legally based in France, has eight major loca- tions around the globe. The CEO said, “We don’t want people to think we’re based anyplace.”68 Managers choose this approach to increase efficiency and effectiveness in a competitive global marketplace.69 If your professor has assigned this, go to www.mymanagementlab.com to complete the Writing Assignment MGMT 5: The Global Marketplace. How Organizations Go International When organizations do go international, they often use different approaches. (See Exhibit 3-4.) Managers who want to get into a global market with minimal investment may start with global sourcing (also called global outsourcing), which is purchas- ing materials or labor from around the world wherever it is cheapest. The goal: take advantage of lower costs in order to be more competitive. For instance, Massachusetts General Hospital uses radiologists in India to interpret CT scans.70 Although global sourcing may be the first step in going international for many companies, they often continue to use this approach because of the competitive advantages it offers. Each successive stage of going international beyond global sourcing, however, requires more investment and thus entails more risk for the organization. The next step in going international may involve exporting the organization’s products to other countries—that is, making products domestically and selling them abroad. In addition, an organization might do importing, which involves acquiring products made abroad and selling them domestically. Both usually entail minimal investment and risk, which is why many small businesses often use these approaches to doing business globally. global sourcing Purchasing materials or labor from around the world wherever it is cheapest exporting Making products domestically and selling them abroad importing Acquiring products made abroad and selling them domestically Global Investment Minimal Significant Foreign Subsidiary Strategic Alliance – Joint Venture Franchising Licensing Exporting and Importing Global Sourcing Exhibit 3-4 How Organizations Go Global Write It! M03_ROBB5839_14_GE_C03.indd 125 10/07/17 4:52 PM http://www.mymanagementlab.com 126 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace Managers also might use licensing or franchising, which are similar approaches involving one organization giving another organization the right to use its brand name, technology, or product specifications in return for a lump sum payment or a fee usually based on sales. The only difference is that licensing is primarily used by manu- facturing organizations that make or sell another company’s products and franchising is primarily used by service organizations that want to use another company’s name and operating methods. For example, Chicago consumers can enjoy Guatemalan Pollo Campero fried chicken, South Koreans can indulge in Dunkin’ Donuts coffee, Hong Kong residents can dine on Shakey’s Pizza, and Malaysians can consume Schlotz- ky’s deli sandwiches—all because of franchises in these countries. On the other hand, Anheuser-Busch InBev has licensed the right to brew and market its Budweiser beer to brewers such as Kirin in Japan and Crown Beers in India. licensing An organization gives another organization the right to make or sell its products using its technology or product specifications franchising An organization gives another organization the right to use its name and operating methods If your professor has assigned this, go to www.mymanagementlab.com to watch a video titled Domino’s Pizza: Franchising and to respond to questions. China’s Lenovo CEO Yang Yuanqing (left) and Japan’s NEC President Nobuhiro Endo formed a strategic alliance to create a new joint venture called NEC Lenovo Japan Group to sell personal computers in Japan. The joint venture gives the two electronics firms the opportunity to expand their business in Japan, the third-largest PC market in the world. Source: Kyodo/AP Images When an organization has been doing business internationally for a while and has gained experience in international markets, managers may decide to make more of a direct foreign investment. One way to increase investment is through a strategic alli- ance, which is a partnership between an organization and a foreign company partner or partners in which both share resources and knowledge in developing new products or building production facilities. For example, Honda Motor and General Electric teamed up to produce a new jet engine. A specific type of strategic alliance in which the partners form a separate, independent organization for some business purpose is called a joint venture. For example, Hewlett-Packard has had numerous joint ven- tures with various suppliers around the globe to develop different components for its computer equipment. British automaker Land Rover and Chinese automaker Chery created a joint venture, which aims to combine the experience of Britain’s luxury vehi- cle manufacturer with Chery’s deep understanding of the Chinese markets and cus- tomer preferences. These partnerships provide a relatively easy way for companies to compete globally. Finally, managers may choose to directly invest in a foreign country by setting up a foreign subsidiary as a separate and independent facility or office. This subsidiary can be managed as a multidomestic organization (local control) or as a global organization (cen- tralized control). As you can probably guess, this arrangement involves the greatest commitment of resources and poses the greatest amount of risk. For instance, United Plastics Group of Houston, Texas, built two injection-molding facilities in Suzhou, China. The company’s executive vice president for business development said that level of investment was neces- sary because “it fulfilled our mission of being a global sup- plier to our global accounts.”71 MANAGING in a global environment Assume for a moment that you’re a manager going to work for a branch of a global organization in a foreign country. You know that your environment will differ from the one at home, but how? What should you look for? Any manager who finds himself or herself in a new country faces challenges. In this section, we’ll look at some of these challenges. Although our discus- sion is presented through the eyes of a U.S. manager, this framework could be used by any manager, regardless of national origin, who manages in a foreign environment. strategic alliance A partnership between an organization and foreign company partner(s) in which both share resources and knowledge in developing new products or building production facilities joint venture A specific type of strategic alliance in which the partners agree to form a separate, independent organization for some business purpose foreign subsidiary Directly investing in a foreign country by setting up a separate and independent production facility or office LO3.4 Watch It 1! M03_ROBB5839_14_GE_C03.indd 126 10/07/17 4:52 PM http://www.mymanagementlab.com Chapter 3 Global Management 127 The Political/Legal Environment The growing complexity of the political and legal landscapes in the global environ- ment is one of the most important trends affecting global business. Managers working for global businesses contend with a growing tide of employment legislation that cuts across national boundaries. Legal and political forces are unique to each country, and sometimes the laws of one contradict those of another, or are ignored altogether. For instance, Americans may encounter laws that are routinely ignored by host countries, creating somewhat of a dilemma. The laws in some countries that require a minimum age for factory workers are often not enforced. A U.S. Department of Labor report revealed continued child labor abuses in the apparel and textile industries.72 U.S. managers are accustomed to a stable legal and political system. Changes tend to be slow, and legal and political procedures are well established. Elections are held at regular intervals, and even when the political party in power changes after an election, it’s unlikely that anything too radical will happen. The stability of laws allows for accurate predictions. However, this certainly isn’t true for all countries. Managers must stay informed of the specific laws in countries where they do business. For instance, the president of Zimbabwe is pushing ahead with plans to force foreign companies to sell majority stakes to locals.73 Such a law would be a major barrier to foreign business investment. In China, foreign businesses are finding a less-than-welcoming climate as government policies are making it more difficult to do business there.74 U.S. companies find that China provides preferential treatment to protect and promote domestic firms and state-owned companies.75 Also, some countries have risky political climates. For instance, BP could have warned Exxon about the challenges of doing business in Russia. During its long involve- ment in the country, BP has “had so many police run-ins that its stock price often nudges up or down in response to raids or the arrests of employees.” However, almost a quarter of BP’s output comes from Russian oil and natural gas, so the company has learned to live with the disruptions. Recently, not long after Exxon formed a strategic alliance with Russia’s state-owned oil company, armed commandos raided BP’s offices in “one of the ritual armed searches of white-collar premises that are common here.” These incidents are so common that they’ve been “given a nickname: masky shows (so-called because of the balaclavas—ski masks—the agents often wear).” The episode was sure to “send a signal that when it comes to dealing with the state-run business world of Prime Minister Vladimir V. Putin, Exxon wasn’t in Texas anymore.”76 Risks are part of doing business globally. Those risks encompass political ones as well as security, kidnap, and maritime situations. The 2014 annual report by Control Risks maps the trends that multinational companies need to track.77 Managers of businesses in countries with higher risk levels face dramatically greater uncertainty. In addition, politi- cal interference is a fact of life in some regions, especially in some Asian countries such as China.78 In other nations, however, the legal and political systems are much less stable. Some governments are subject to coups, dictatorial rule, and corruption, which can sub- stantially alter both the business and legal environments. Legal systems can also become unstable, with contracts suddenly becoming unenforceable because of internal politics. Keep in mind that a country’s political/legal environment doesn’t have to be risky or unstable to be a concern to managers. Just the fact that it differs from that of the home country is important. Managers must recognize these differences if they hope to understand the constraints and opportunities that exist. The Economic Environment Strange as it may sound, 17,000 tons of Parmesan cheese, with an estimated value of $187 million, were held in the vaults of Italian bank Credito Emiliano. The cheese was collateral from Italian cheese makers struggling through the recent recession.79 Such an example of an economic factor of business may seem peculiar for those of us in the United States, but it’s not all that unusual for Italian businesses. A global manager must be aware of economic issues when doing business in other coun- tries. First, it’s important to understand a country’s type of economic system. The two major types are a free market economy and a planned economy. A free market economy is one free market economy An economic system in which resources are primarily owned and controlled by the private sector M03_ROBB5839_14_GE_C03.indd 127 10/07/17 4:52 PM 128 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace in which resources are primarily owned and controlled by the private sector. A planned economy is one in which economic decisions are planned by a central government. Let’s consider the United States and China, respectively, as examples of these types of economies. The U.S. economy is based on the idea of capitalism. Under capitalism, the government does not possess ownership of all land, businesses, or natural resources. This economic sys- tem relies on market forces in which supply and demand for products, services, and labor determine monetary value. China’s political and economic systems are tightly intertwined and are founded on communism. Communism draws on the principle of community own- ership. That is, all property, businesses, and natural resources are community owned, but these items are controlled by the single political party (Communist Party). Also, in com- munist societies, the government provides basic necessities based on need. In principle, citi- zens elect individuals to serve in the Communist Party, but that is rarely the case. In recent decades, China’s economy has become more diverse. While maintaining communist control, economic growth has been fueled by market forces and capitalism. As a result, a growing segment of the population has gained considerable wealth and is adopting lifestyles similar to those in the United States. Actually, no economy is purely free market or planned. Why planned economy An economic system in which economic decisions are planned by a central government The United Nations International Telecommunication Union estimates that 3.2 billion people use the Internet.80 To put this into perspective, the world population is just over 7.2 billion. These figures translate into nearly 45 per- cent! About 2 billion of those connections are in the devel- oping world. With all these people on the Internet, one of the challenges—as it is in the physical realm—is the many different languages spoken by Internet users. In fact, there are nearly 800 languages spoken in India alone! The top 10 languages used on the Internet are as seen in the graph.81 Communicating in a Connected WorldF U T U R E V I S I O N The diversity of Internet users creates challenges for the increasing number of companies expanding operations globally. One of the challenges for companies is to find a common language to ensure effective communication and shared understanding across cultures. Today’s workplace often includes geographically dispersed teams, creating a need to overcome these communication challenges.82 When teams address conceptual matters such as consum- er preferences, there is a significant risk that team mem- bers will have different interpretations of a particular idea or concept.83 The growing availability of trans- lation software is making it easier to com- municate across language differences. For example, Skype now offers real-time translation services between seven of the world’s most used languages for video discussions.84 Skype also provides transla- tion of more than fifty languages through their text chat service. However, cultural differences still create communication concerns. As the number of Internet us- ers continues to grow, so will challenges for companies working with international employees as well as customers. If your professor has chosen to as- sign this, go to www.mymanagement- lab.com to discuss the following ques- tions. TALK ABOUT IT 1: How can a manager improve communication be- tween employees in different international locations? TALK ABOUT IT 2: How can companies learn more about their customers with different cultural backgrounds? Source: Internet World Stats, “Estimated total Internet Users Are 3,366,260,056,” www.internetworldstats.com/stats7.htm, November 30, 2015, Copyright 2016, Miniwatts Marketing Group. M03_ROBB5839_14_GE_C03.indd 128 10/07/17 4:52 PM http://www.mymanagement-lab.com http://www.mymanagement-lab.com http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats7.htm Chapter 3 Global Management 129 If your professor has assigned this, go to www.mymanagementlab.com to complete the Simulation: Managing in the Global Environment. would managers need to know about a country’s economic system? Because it, too, has the potential to constrain decisions. Other economic issues managers need to understand include (1) currency exchange rates, (2) inflation rates, and (3) diverse tax policies. 1. An MNC’s profits can vary dramatically, depending on the strength of its home currency and the currencies of the countries in which it operates. For instance, prior to the overall global economic slowdown, the rising value of the euro against both the dollar and the yen had contributed to strong profits for German companies.85 Any currency exchange revaluations can affect managers’ decisions and the level of a company’s profits. 2. Inflation means that prices for products and services are increasing, but it also affects interest rates, exchange rates, the cost of living, and the general confidence in a country’s political and economic system. Country inflation rates can, and do, vary widely. The World Bank shows rates ranging from a negative 18.7 percent in South Sudan to a positive 48.6 percent in Venezuela.86 Managers need to monitor inflation trends so they can anticipate possible changes in a country’s monetary policies and make good business decisions regarding purchasing and pricing. 3. Finally, tax policies can be a major economic worry. Some countries’ tax laws are more restrictive than those in an MNC’s home country. Others are more lenient. About the only certainty is that they differ from country to country. For instance, U.S. companies have been unable to move profits from Venezuela and are buying up commercial real estate in Caracas, the capitol.87 Managers need accurate information on tax rules in countries in which they operate to minimize their business’s overall tax obligation. The Cultural Environment One year, the entire senior leadership team at Starwood Hotels relocated to Shanghai, China, for five weeks. Why? Because clearly China is a huge growth market and “work- ing closely with people from a different culture helps you to see pitfalls and opportuni- ties in a very different way.”88 Managing today’s talented global workforce can be a challenge!89 Consider the cul- tural challenges faced by Sodexo, a multinational corporation based in France, with more than 400,000 employees working at facilities in 80 countries. Businesses, hospi- tals, universities, and other organizations contract with Sodexo for on-site catering, cleaning, reception, and other services. Clients often ask for services in two different nations, as happened when Sodexo handled maintenance for the headquarters of the French space agency as well as for the agency’s base in Guyana. When supervising employees in such situations, Sodexo’s managers must be sensitive to the client’s man- agement practices, not just to differing cultural norms and communication preferences. Another management challenge is posed by the range of ages within the workforce. In the United Kingdom, Sodexo created a program to improve cross-generational collabo- ration by highlighting generational similarities, not just differences, and by demonstrat- ing the benefits of teamwork among employees of all ages.90 Most often, cross-cultural challenges are described between countries that speak dif- ferent languages, and these language differences can result in conflict or misunderstand- ings. Perhaps surprisingly, misunderstanding can occur between two countries that share the same language, such as is the case for the United States and the United Kingdom. For instance, Martin Brooks, Production and Export Manager of pet nutrition company Hilton Herbs, considers the U.S. as one of the most challenging. “As an example, we had a product for older horses and dogs called ‘Veteran,’” he says.91 Sales were lackluster until the company replaced the word “veteran” with “senior,” which is the way people in the United States refer to older pets and animals. Veteran is a commonplace descriptor in the United Kingdom. If such a large cultural divide can exist between two countries that share a common mother tongue, how much wider must the chasm be between nations that speak different languages? Try It! M03_ROBB5839_14_GE_C03.indd 129 10/07/17 4:52 PM http://www.mymanagementlab.com 130 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace As we know from Chapter 7, organizations have differ- ent cultures. Countries have cultures, too. National culture includes the values and attitudes shared by individuals from a specific country that shape their behavior and their beliefs about what is important.92 National culture is steeped in a country’s history, and we can describe it based on a society’s social tradi- tions, political and economic philosophy, and legal system. Which is more important to a manager—national culture or organizational culture? For example, is an IBM facility in Germany more likely to reflect German culture or IBM’s cor- porate culture? Research indicates that national culture has a greater effect on employees than their organization’s culture.93 German employees at an IBM facility in Munich will be influ- enced more by German culture than by IBM’s culture. Legal, political, and economic differences among countries are fairly obvious. The Japanese manager who works in the United States or his or her American counterpart who works in Japan can get information about laws or tax policies without too much effort. Getting information about cultural differences isn’t quite that easy! The primary reason? It’s difficult for natives to explain their country’s unique cultural characteristics to someone else. For instance, if you were born and raised in the United States, how would you describe U.S. culture? In other words, what are Americans like? Think about it for a moment and see which characteristics in Exhibit 3-5 you identified. HOFSTEDE’S FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSING CULTURES Geert Hofstede developed one of the most widely referenced approaches to helping managers bet- ter understand differences between national cultures. His research found that coun- tries vary on five dimensions of national culture.94 These dimensions are described in Exhibit 3-6, which also shows some of the countries characterized by those dimensions. national culture The values and attitudes shared by individuals from a specific country that shape their behavior and beliefs about what is important Top executives of French car manufacturer PSA Peugeot Citroen participate in a Hindu puja ritual during a ceremony celebrating the firm’s plan to re-enter the Indian market with the construction of a new plant. The spiritual ritual is an integral part of India’s national culture, which research shows has a greater effect on employees than an organization’s culture. Source: Sam Panthaky/AFP/Getty Images Exhibit 3-5 What Are Americans Like? • Americans are very informal. They tend to treat people alike even when great differences in age or social standing are evident. • Americans are direct. They don’t talk around things. To some foreigners, this may appear as abrupt or even rude behavior. • Americans are competitive. Some foreigners may find Americans assertive or overbearing. • Americans are achievers. They like to keep score, whether at work or at play. They emphasize accomplishments. • Americans are independent and individualistic. They place a high value on freedom and believe that individuals can shape and control their own destiny. • Americans are questioners. They ask a lot of questions, even of someone they have just met. Many may seem pointless (“How ya’ doin’?”) or personal (“What kind of work do you do?”). • Americans dislike silence. They would rather talk about the weather than deal with silence in a conversation. • Americans value punctuality. They keep appointment calendars and live according to schedules and clocks. • Americans value cleanliness. They often seem obsessed with bathing, eliminating body odors, and wearing clean clothes. Sources: Based on M. Ernest, ed., Predeparture Orientation Handbook: For Foreign Students and Scholars Planning to Study in the United States (Washington, DC: U.S. Information Agency, Bureau of Cultural Affairs, 1984), pp. 103–105; A. Bennett, “American Culture Is Often a Puzzle for Foreign Managers in the U.S.,” Wall Street Journal, February 12, 1986, p. 29; “Don’t Think Our Way’s the Only Way,” The Pryor Report, February 1988, p. 9; and B. J. Wattenberg, “The Attitudes Behind American Exceptionalism,” U.S. News & World Report, August 7, 1989, p. 25. If your professor has assigned this, go to www.mymangementlab.com to watch a video titled Impact of Culture on Business: Spotlight on China and to respond to questions.Watch It 2! M03_ROBB5839_14_GE_C03.indd 130 10/07/17 4:52 PM http://www.mymangementlab.com Chapter 3 Global Management 131 THE GLOBE FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSING CULTURES The Global Leader- ship and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) program is an ongoing research program that extended Hofstede’s work by investigating cross-cultural leader- ship behaviors and giving managers additional information to help them identify and manage cultural differences. Using data from more than 18,000 managers in 62 coun- tries, the GLOBE research team (led by Robert House) identified nine dimensions on which national cultures differ.95 Two dimensions (power distance and uncertainty avoidance) fit directly with Hofstede’s. Four are similar to Hofstede’s (assertiveness, which is similar to achievement-nurturing; humane orientation, which is similar to the nurturing dimension; future orientation, which is similar to long-term and short- term orientation; and institutional collectivism, which is similar to individualism- collectivism). The remaining three (gender differentiation, in-group collectivism, and performance orientation) offer additional insights into a country’s culture. Here are descriptions of these nine dimensions. For each of these dimensions, we have indicated which countries rated high, which rated moderate, and which rated low. • Power distance: the extent to which a society accepts that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally. (High: Russia, Spain, and Thailand. Moderate: England, France, and Brazil. Low: Denmark, the Netherlands, and South Africa.) • Uncertainty avoidance: a society’s reliance on social norms and procedures to alleviate the unpredictability of future events. (High: Austria, Denmark, and Germany. Moderate: Israel, United States, and Mexico. Low: Russia, Hungary, and Bolivia.) Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) program The research program that studies cross-cultural leadership behaviors Individualistic—People look after their own and family interests Collectivistic—People expect the group to look after and protect them1 2 Mexico, Singapore, France Italy, Japan United States, Sweden High power distance—Accepts wide differences in power; great deal of respect for those in authority Low power distance—Plays down inequalities: employees are not afraid to approach nor are in awe of the boss 3High uncertainty avoidance—Threatened with ambiguity and experience high levels of anxiety Low uncertainty avoidance—Comfortable with risks; tolerant of different behavior and opinions 4Achievement—Values such as assertiveness, acquiring money and goods, and competition prevail Nurturing—Values such as relationships and concern for others prevail 5Long-term orientation—People look to the future and value thrift and persistence Short-term orientation—People value tradition and the past Germany, Australia, United States, Canada China, Taiwan, Japan United States, Japan, Mexico Canada, Greece France, Sweden Italy, Mexico, France United Kingdom Canada, United States, Singapore United States, Canada, Australia Japan Mexico, Thailand Exhibit 3-6 Hofstede’s Five Dimensions of National Culture Source: Based on Hofstede, Geert, Culture’s Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values, © Geert Hofstede, 1980 (Newbury Park: SAGE Publications, Inc., 1980). M03_ROBB5839_14_GE_C03.indd 131 10/07/17 4:52 PM 132 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace • Assertiveness: the extent to which a society encourages people to be tough, confrontational, assertive, and competitive rather than modest and tender. (High: Spain, United States, and Greece. Moderate: Egypt, Ireland, and Philippines. Low: Sweden, New Zealand, and Switzerland.) • Humane orientation: the degree to which a society encourages and rewards individuals for being fair, altruistic, generous, caring, and kind to others. (High: Indonesia, Egypt, and Malaysia. Moderate: Hong Kong, Sweden, and Taiwan. Low: Germany, Spain, and France.) • Future orientation: the extent to which a society encourages and rewards future-oriented behaviors such as planning, investing in the future, and delaying gratification. (High: Denmark, Canada, and the Netherlands. Moderate: Slovenia, Egypt, and Ireland. Low: Russia, Argentina, and Poland.) • Institutional collectivism: the degree to which individuals are encouraged by societal institutions to be integrated into groups within organizations and society. (High: Greece, Hungary, and Germany. Moderate: Hong Kong, United States, and Egypt. Low: Denmark, Singapore, and Japan.) • Gender differentiation: the extent to which a society maximizes gender role differences as measured by how much status and decision-making responsibilities women have. (High: South Korea, Egypt, and Morocco. Moderate: Italy, Brazil, and Argentina. Low: Sweden, Denmark, and Slovenia.) • In-group collectivism: the extent to which members of a society take pride in membership in small groups, such as their family and circle of close friends, and the organizations in which they’re employed. (High: Egypt, China, and Morocco. Moderate: Japan, Israel, and Qatar. Low: Denmark, Sweden, and New Zealand.) • Performance orientation: the degree to which a society encourages and rewards group members for performance improvement and excellence. (High: United States, Taiwan, and New Zealand. Moderate: Sweden, Israel, and Spain. Low: Russia, Argentina, and Greece.) The GLOBE studies confirm that Hofstede’s dimensions are still valid and extend his research rather than replace it. GLOBE’s added dimensions provide an expanded and updated measure of countries’ cultural differences. It’s likely that cross-cultural stud- ies of human behavior and organizational practices will increasingly use the GLOBE dimensions to assess differences among countries.96 While indeed Hofstede’s dimen- sions are still valid, it is also important to recognize that our interactions with individu- als from the same culture may differ because a variety of factors, such as personality, influence how people interact with each other. For example, we previously described Americans as being proactive. Indeed, this is a fair characterization of most Americans. But, by nature, some may not fulfill this expectation because they are inherently intro- verted. Introverted people tend to be focused more on internal thoughts, feelings, and moods rather than on seeking out interactions with others. Personality variables are measured on a continuum. Introversion is typically considered as part of a continuum along with extraversion, or individuals who generally seek out interactions with others. Cultural Intelligence—If your instructor is using Pearson MyLab Management, log onto mymanagementlab.com and test your cultural intelligence knowledge. Be sure to refer back to the chapter opener! Global Management in Today’s World Doing business globally today isn’t easy! As we look at managing in today’s global envi- ronment, we want to focus on two important issues. The first issue involves the challenges associated with globalization, especially in relation to the openness that’s part of being global. The second issue revolves around the challenges of managing a global workforce. THE CHALLENGE OF OPENNESS The push to go global has been widespread. Advocates praise the economic and social benefits that come from globalization, but globalization also creates challenges because of the openness that’s necessary for it It’s Your Career! M03_ROBB5839_14_GE_C03.indd 132 10/07/17 4:52 PM Chapter 3 Global Management 133 Katie Pagan Accounting & HR Manager S ou rc e: K at ie P ag an REALlet’s get The Scenario: Renata Zorzato, head of new product development for a global recruiting company, is preparing to move from Saõ Paulo to San Diego to head up a team of executive recruiters. Her newly formed team will include company employees from Berlin, London, Shanghai, Mexico City, Kuala Lumpur, New York, and San Diego. The team will be designing and launching an innovative new global executive recruiting tool. But first, Renata has to get the team members all working together, each bringing his or her unique strengths and perspectives to the project. What’s the best way for Renata to get this culturally diverse team up and running? I would organize an off-site luncheon; food is a universal language. While at the luncheon, I would have each team member go around the room and intro- duce themselves, and being that the group is from all over the world, I would have each person speak a little about where they are from. After the lunch I would have an interactive game of some sort that requires the team to slowly begin working together—the idea would be for them to have more fun as opposed to work and get to know each other. to work. One challenge is the increased threat of terrorism by a truly global terror network. Globalization is meant to open up trade and to break down the geographical barriers separating countries. Yet, opening up means just that—being open to the bad as well as the good. In a wide range of countries, from the Philippines and the United Kingdom to Israel and Pakistan, organizations and employees face the risk of terrorist attacks. Another challenge from openness is the economic interdependence of trad- ing countries. As we saw over the last couple of years, the faltering of one country’s economy can have a domino effect on other countries with which it does business. So far, however, the world economy has proved to be resilient. And as we discussed earlier, structures that are currently in place, such as the World Trade Organization and the International Monetary Fund, help to isolate and address potential problems. The far more serious challenge for managers in the openness required by globaliza- tion comes from intense underlying and fundamental cultural differences—differences that encompass traditions, history, religious beliefs, and deep-seated values. Managing in such an environment can be extremely complicated. Even though globalization has long been praised for its economic benefits, some individuals think that globalization is simply a euphemism for “Americanization”—that is, the way U.S. cultural values and U.S. business philosophy are said to be slowly taking over the world.97 At its best, proponents of Ameri- canization hope others will see how progressive, efficient, industrious, and free U.S. society and businesses are and want to emulate that way of doing things. However, critics claim that this attitude of the “almighty American dollar wanting to spread the American way to every single country” has created many problems.98 Although history is filled with clashes between civilizations, what’s unique now is the speed and ease with which misunderstandings and disagreements can erupt and escalate. The Internet, television and other media, and global air travel have brought the good and the bad of American entertainment, products, and behaviors to every corner of the globe. For those who don’t like what Americans do, say, or believe, this exposure can lead to resentment, dislike, distrust, and even outright hatred. Challenges of Managing a Global Workforce • Cross-cultural work teams can have many benefits, but conflicts can arise due to differences in work methods, pay levels, and language barriers.99 M03_ROBB5839_14_GE_C03.indd 133 10/07/17 4:52 PM 134 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace • Global companies with multicultural work teams are faced with the challenge of managing the cultural differences in work-family relationships. The work-family practices and programs appropriate and effective for employees in one country may not be the best solution for employees in other locations.100 These examples indicate challenges associated with managing a global workforce. As glo- balization continues to be important for businesses, it’s obvious that managers need to un- derstand how to best manage that global workforce. Some researchers have suggested that managers need cultural intelligence or cultural awareness and sensitivity skills.101 Cultural intelligence encompasses three main dimensions: (1) knowledge of culture as a concept— how cultures vary and how they affect behavior; (2) mindfulness—the ability to pay atten- tion to signals and reactions in different cross-cultural situations; and (3) behavioral skills— using one’s knowledge and mindfulness to choose appropriate behaviors in those situations. Other researchers have said that what effective global leaders need is a global mind-set, attributes that allow a leader to be effective in cross-cultural environ- ments.102 Those attributes have three components, as shown in Exhibit 3-7. Leaders who possess such cross-cultural skills and abilities—whether cultural intelligence or a global mind-set—will be important assets to global organizations. Successfully managing in today’s global environment will require incredible sensitiv- ity and understanding. Managers from any country will need to be aware of how their decisions and actions will be viewed, not only by those who may agree, but more importantly, by those who may disagree. They will need to adjust their leadership styles and management approaches to accommodate these diverse views, and at the same time be as efficient and effective as possible in reaching the organization’s goals. cultural intelligence Cultural awareness and sensitivity skills global mind set Attributes that allow a leader to be effective in cross-cultural environments Chapter 3 PREPARING FOR: Exams/Quizzes CHAPTER SUMMARY by Learning Objectives CONTRAST ethnocentric, polycentric, and geocentric attitudes toward global business. Parochialism is viewing the world solely through your own eyes and perspectives and not recognizing that others have different ways of living and working. An ethnocen- tric attitude is the parochial belief that the best work approaches and practices are those of the home country. A polycentric attitude is the view that the managers in the host country know the best work approaches and practices for running their busi- ness. And a geocentric attitude is a world-oriented view that focuses on using the best approaches and people from around the globe. LO3.1 Intellectual capital: Knowledge of international business and the capacity to understand how business works on a global scale Psychological capital: Openness to new ideas and experiences Social capital: Ability to form connections and build trusting relationships with people who are different from you Source: Based on M. Javidan, M. Teagarden, and D. Bowen, “Making It Overseas,” Harvard Business Review, April 2010, and J. McGregor, ed., “Testing Managers’ Global IQ,” Bloomberg BusinessWeek, September 28, 2009. Exhibit 3-7 A Global Mind Set  M03_ROBB5839_14_GE_C03.indd 134 10/07/17 4:52 PM Chapter 3 Global Management 135 DISCUSS the importance of regional trading alliances and global trade mechanisms. Countries enter regional trading alliances for a variety of reasons, mainly to stimulate economic growth. The European Union consists of 28 democratic countries with 5 coun- tries having applied for membership. NAFTA continues to help Canada, Mexico, and the United States strengthen their global economic power. In Latin America, CAFTA-DR promotes trade liberalization between the United States and 5 Central American coun- tries, and another free trade agreement of 10 South American countries known as the Southern Common Market or Mercosur is seen as an effective way to combine resources to better compete against other global economic powers. ASEAN is a trading alliance of 10 Southeast Asian nations—a region that remains important in the global economy. Other trade alliances include the African Union (AU), the East African Community (EAC), the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), and the Trans- Pacific Partnership (TPP). To counteract some of the risks in global trade, the World Trade Organization (WTO) plays an important role in monitoring and promoting trade relationships. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank Group are two entities that provide monetary support and advice to their member countries. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development assists its member countries with financial support in achieving sustainable economic growth and employment. DESCRIBE the structures and techniques organizations use as they go international. A multinational corporation is an international company that maintains operations in multiple countries. A multidomestic organization is an MNC that decentralizes management and other decisions to the local country (the polycentric attitude). A global organization is an MNC that centralizes management and other decisions in the home country (the ethnocentric attitude). A transnational organization (the geo- centric attitude) is an MNC that has eliminated artificial geographical barriers and uses the best work practices and approaches from wherever. Global sourcing is pur- chasing materials or labor from around the world wherever it is cheapest. Exporting is making products domestically and selling them abroad. Importing is acquiring prod- ucts made abroad and selling them domestically. Licensing is used by manufacturing organizations that make or sell another company’s products and use the company’s brand name, technology, or product specifications. Franchising is similar but is usually used by service organizations that want to use another company’s name and operat- ing methods. A global strategic alliance is a partnership between an organization and foreign company partners in which they share resources and knowledge to develop new products or build facilities. A joint venture is a specific type of strategic alliance in which the partners agree to form a separate, independent organization for some busi- ness purpose. A foreign subsidiary is a direct investment in a foreign country that a company creates by establishing a separate and independent facility or office. EXPLAIN the relevance of the political/legal, economic, and cultural environments to global business. The laws and political stability of a country are issues in the global political/legal environment with which managers must be familiar. Likewise, managers must be aware of a country’s economic issues such as currency exchange rates, inflation rates, and tax policies. Geert Hofstede identified five dimensions for assessing a country’s culture, including individualism-collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, achieve- ment-nurturing, and long-term/short-term orientation. The GLOBE studies identified nine dimensions for assessing country cultures: power distance, uncertainty avoid- ance, assertiveness, humane orientation, future orientation, institutional collectivism, gender differentiation, in-group collectivism, and performance orientation. The main challenges of doing business globally in today’s world include (1) the openness associ- ated with globalization and the significant cultural differences between countries and (2) managing a global workforce, which requires cultural intelligence and a global mind-set. LO3.2 LO3.3 LO3.4 M03_ROBB5839_14_GE_C03.indd 135 10/07/17 4:52 PM 136 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace REVIEW AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 3-1. A monolingual, parochial, and ethnocentric organization is bound to fail. Discuss. 3-2. The European Union (EU) is an economic and political partnership of countries. What are the practical implications of this union? 3-3. Discuss the role of the World Trade Organization (WTO). 3-4. What are the characteristics of a multidomestic corporation? 3-5. Is learning a foreign language essential for managers? 3-6. What clarity of perspective would the GLOBE framework, as presented in this chapter, offer to local managers to help them understand their employees better? 3-7. What makes the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) different from the European Union (EU) as a trade alliance? Can those differences impair ASEAN’s effectiveness as a trade alliance compared to the EU? 3-8. How many ways can an organization go global? What is the primary driver for the organization to choose a particular path toward going global? Pearson MyLab Management If your professor has assigned these, go to mymanagementlab.com for the following Assisted-graded writing questions: 3-9. What are the main challenges of global business and how would you suggest handling them? 3-10. Is globalization good for business? For consumers? Discuss. PERSONAL INVENTORY ASSESSMENTS P I A PERSONAL INVENTORY ASSESSMENT Managing in a global environment absolutely demands being sensitive to other country’s cultures. Use this PIA to determine your level of cultural sensitivity. ETHICS DILEMMA In 2013, a clothing factory in Bangladesh collapsed, killing 1,138 people.103 Some 27 global brands, including Walmart and Benetton, were using the factory. One year on, these two corporations were among 22 of the 27 yet to contribute toward a compensation fund created for this cause. Factories in developing countries face similar problems all the time, but such instances may go unreported. Bangladesh alone houses around 5,000 garment factories. Many of these factories are converted to residential buildings, with no fire escapes or alarms. The scale of the problem means reforms may well take time. PREPARING FOR: My Career Intercultural Sensitivity Scale Pearson MyLab Management Go to mymanagementlab.com to complete the problems marked with this icon . M03_ROBB5839_14_GE_C03.indd 136 10/07/17 4:52 PM Chapter 3 Global Management 137 SKILLS EXERCISE Developing Your Collaboration Skill About the Skill Collaboration is the teamwork, synergy, and cooperation used by individuals when they seek a common goal. In many cross-cultural settings, the ability to collaborate is crucial. When all partners must work together to achieve goals, collaboration is critically important to the process. However, cultural differences can often make collaboration a challenge. Steps in Practicing the Skill • Look for common points of interest. The best way to start working together in a collaborative fashion is to seek commonalities that exist among the parties. Common points of interest enable communications to be more effective. • Listen to others. Collaboration is a team effort. Everyone has valid points to offer, and each individual should have an opportunity to express his or her ideas. • Check for understanding. Make sure you understand what the other person is saying. Use feedback when necessary. • Accept diversity. Not everything in a collaborative effort will “go your way.” Be willing to accept different ideas and different ways of doing things. Be open to these ideas and the creativity that surrounds them. • Seek additional information. Ask individuals to provide additional information. Encourage others to talk and more fully explain suggestions. This brainstorming opportunity can assist in finding creative solutions. • Don’t become defensive. Collaboration requires open communications. Discussions may focus on things you and others may not be doing or need to do better. Don’t take the constructive feedback as personal criticism. Focus on the topic being discussed, not on the person delivering the message. Recognize that you cannot always be right! Practicing the Skill Interview individuals from three different nationalities about the challenges of collaborating with individuals from different cultures. What challenges do different cultures create? How have they dealt with these challenges? What advice do they have for improving collaboration across cultural differences? Based on your interviews, what are some general ideas you learned to improve your ability to collaborate? WORKING TOGETHER Team Exercise Moving to a foreign country isn’t easy, no matter how many times you’ve done it or how receptive you are to new experiences. Successful global organizations are able to identify the best candidates for global assignments, and one of the ways they do this is through individual assessments prior to assigning people to global facilities. Form groups of three to five individuals. Your newly formed team, the Global Assignment Task Force, has been given the responsibility for developing a global aptitude assessment form for Yum Brands (the largest food operator in the world whose units include Taco Bell, Pizza Hut, KFC, Long John Silver’s, and A&W). Because Yum is expanding its global operations significantly, it wants to make sure it’s sending the best possible people to the various global locations. Your team’s assignment is to come up with a rough draft of a form to assess people’s global aptitude. Think about the characteristics, skills, attitudes, and so on that you think a successful global employee would need. Your team’s draft should be at least half a page, but not lengthier than one page. Be prepared to present your ideas to your classmates and professor. MY TURN TO BE A MANAGER • Find two current examples of each of the ways that organizations go international. Write a short paper describing what these companies are doing. • The U.K.-based company Kwintessential has several cultural knowledge “quizzes” on its website (www.kwintessential.co.uk/resources/culture-tests.html). Go to the website and try two or three of them. Were you surprised at your score? What does your score tell you about your cultural awareness? • On this website, you’ll also find Intercultural Management Guides (www.kwintessential.co.uk/intercultural/management/ guide.html). Pick two countries to study (from different regions), and compare them. How are they the same? Different? How would this information help a manager? • Interview two or three professors or students at your school who are from other countries. Ask them to describe what the business world is like in their country. Write a short paper describing what you found out. • Take advantage of opportunities you might have to travel to other countries, either on personal trips or on school- sponsored trips. • Sign up for a foreign language course. 3-11. Do you think that corporations that outsource to developing countries have a responsibility of care to the workers on those sites? 3-12. What can be done globally to ensure that employees working under such conditions are protected? M03_ROBB5839_14_GE_C03.indd 137 10/07/17 4:52 PM http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/resources/culture-tests.html http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/intercultural/management/guide.html http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/intercultural/management/guide.html 138 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace Dirty Little Secret1CASE APPLICATION Money. Secrecy. Foreign officials. “Greasing palms.” Bribery. That’s the dirty little secret about doing business globally that managers at multinational companies don’t want to talk about. Although 39 countries worldwide have signed up for the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention to outlaw bribery and corruption, the problem is far from gone. Take Greece, for example, which has been censored by the OECD for failing in its promise to crack down on corruption. The practice of political favouritism and passing “fakelaki”—envelopes stuffed with cash—in return for services is as prevalent today as it ever was. Indeed, since the country joined the European Community, more than 150 scandals have come to light, and it is thought that part of the blame for the country’s €367 billion ($486 billion) debt is down to an epidemic of corruption. From needless jobs to a refusal to give receipts, through tax evasion and then on to high-level bribery, it is estimated that Greek citizens spent nearly €1.62 billion ($2.15 billion) in 2012 on bribes. Foreign companies looking toward Greece are aware that this is often the cost of doing business there. In August 2012, the German group Siemens AG, reached a €330 million ($438 billion) settlement with the Greek government over long- running allegations that Siemens AG used bribery to secure a raft of contracts for the Athens Olympic Games in 2004. In an earlier case, two managers from another Ger- man company, industrial firm Ferrostaal, were convicted of paying bribes in Greece and ordered to pay fines.104 DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 3-13. What’s your reaction to the events mentioned in the case? Are you surprised that bribery is illegal? Why do you think bribery takes place? Why do you think it needs to be outlawed? 3-14. Research whether other countries outlaw bribery. (Hint: look at the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.) 3-15. We’ve said it’s important for managers to be aware of external environmental forces, especially in global settings. Discuss this statement in light of the events described. 3-16. What might the managers at Siemens AG have done differently? Explain. 3-17. Siemens AG is not the only company to be linked to bribery. Find at least three other examples and describe them briefly. • Suppose you were sent on an overseas assignment to another country (you decide which one). Research that country’s economic, political/legal, and cultural environments. Write a report summarizing your findings. • If you don’t have your passport yet, go through the process to get one. (The current fee in the United States is $140.) • It is important to understand basic etiquette when traveling internationally for business (e.g., how does one greet someone new, and is a handshake appropriate?). Identify three countries that you would like to travel to and conduct research to learn about business etiquette for those countries. Summarize your findings. • Identify a company that operates internationally and has locations in more than two different countries. Explore the “Career” page of the company’s website. Write a brief report about the career opportunities available at the company and the required qualifications of applicants. M03_ROBB5839_14_GE_C03.indd 138 10/07/17 4:52 PM Chapter 3 Global Management 139 How do you successfully manage a growing international company? CEO Christian Chabot of Seattle-based Tableau now believes being there physically is an impor- tant piece in the often complex puzzle of international management.105 International growth is nothing new for Tableau, which was founded in 2004. As a leading provider of analytics and business intelligence software solutions, the company has more than 35,000 clients in over a dozen countries. Tableau provides software tools and interactive dashboards that allow users to generate useful business insights through the analysis and visualization of data. The company is on the cutting edge of data-imaging solutions for end-users, creating prod- ucts such as Elastic, which allows users to create graphics from spreadsheets. Despite tough competition in the market for business intelligence from software giants such as Microsoft, Tableau has continued to maintain its share of the marketplace, and the company’s value continues to grow with a 64 percent increase in revenue over last year. Much of the company’s growth is attributed to the company’s expansion into inter- national markets, with an 86 percent increase in revenue last year from international markets, which now account for a quarter of the company’s total revenues. With plans to hire about 1,000 more employees in the next year, the company’s projected continued success is evident. While more than half of their current 2,800 employees work in the company’s Seattle headquarters, Tableau has 14 locations around the world in places such as Shanghai, Singapore, Sydney, and London. About 400 of the new employees will be hired outside of the Seattle headquarters, and Tab- leau’s expansion will include opening new international offices. International growth creates many challenges for companies, particularly as they open and staff branch locations in different countries. Cultural differences, time differences, and simply the geographic distance can make it difficult to sustain the same management practices at home and abroad. How has Chabot managed the quick growth of this international company? One strategy was to spend almost a year abroad working in the company’s London office. His focused time at that location helped grow regional sales, but also provided the CEO with valuable insights to support fur- ther international expansion. Chabot reported that the time he spent in London highlighted the importance of managing culture and people. Prior to the trip he did not have a true understanding of the challenges of international employees working for a U.S.-based company. He found that many working in international branch offices did not feel like they were taken seriously by those at the home office. Geographically remote workers can feel disconnected from a global company, particularly when they report to management they have never met in person at headquarters. Chabot’s time working in London was valuable for employees in all locations of the company, as his actions sent the message that he feels employees outside of head- quarters are important. While he spent time only in London, the fact that he spent a year away from the home office emphasized his belief that locations beyond Seattle are important for the company’s success. Chabot’s experience is having such a pro- found impact on the company’s success, Tableau is now encouraging other executives to spend time at international offices. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 3-18. Tableau staffs its international offices primarily with host country nationals. What are the advantages and disadvantages of this staffing strategy? 3-19. Do you agree with Chabot that the company will benefit if more executives spend time in international offices? Why or why not? The Power of Presence2CASE APPLICATION M03_ROBB5839_14_GE_C03.indd 139 10/07/17 4:52 PM 140 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace 3-20. As Tableau executives get ready to spend time in the company’s international offices, how can they prepare for the cultural differences they will encounter? 3-21. What are some of the challenges Tableau will face as it hires 1,000 new employees in one year? ANSWERS TO “WHO OWNS WHAT” QUIZ 1. d. Switzerland Nestlé SA bought both the Tombstone and DiGiorno frozen-pizza brands from Kraft Foods in 2009. 2. c. United States Uber Technologies, LLC is a U.S. company based in San Francisco, California, established in 2009. 3. a. United States Rajah Spices are products of the Lea & Perrins sauce division, which the H.J. Heinz Company acquired in June of 2005. 4. a. The Netherlands Mexico’s second-largest beer producer was acquired by Heineken N.V. in January 2010. 5. b. United Kingdom The television show America’s Got Talent premiered in June 2006, and it is a part of the British franchise Got Talent, owned by SYCOtv company. 6. c. United States Chobani, LLC is a U.S. company that manufactures and distributes Greek yogurt, and prior to 2012, was named Agro-Farma, Inc. 7. c. Switzerland The Swatch Group Ltd. was established through the merger of two Swiss watch companies— ASUAG and SSIH, in 1983. 8. a. Russia Russian tycoon Alexander Lebedev acquired the Independent in March 2010. 9. a. Sweden Spotify is a service of Spotify AB, which was established in 2008. 10. b. Sweden Interactive game company King Digital Entertainment was established in 2003. ENDNOTES 1. B. Leonard, “Study Examines the Importance of Globally Competent Leaders,” SHRM Online, www.shrm. org/hrdisciplines/businessleadership/articles/pages/global- leadership-study.aspx., May 21, 2015. 2. “Compete and Connect: Developing Globally Competent Leaders,” Human Capital Institute Report, Kenan-Flagler Business School Executive Development, University of North Carolina, www.execdev.unc.edu, 2015. 3. J. Eisenberg, H-J. Lee, F. Bruck, B. Brenner, M-T. Claes, J. Mironski, and R. Bell, “Can Business Schools Make Students Culturally Competent? Effects of Cross-Cultural Management Courses on Cultural Intelligence,” Academy of Management Learning & Education, December 2013, pp. 603–621; M. E. Mendenhall, A. A. Arnardottir, G. R. Oddou, and L. A. Burke, “Developing Cross-Cultural Competencies in Management Education via Cognitive- Behavior Therapy,” Academy of Management Learning & Education, September 2013, pp. 436–451; B. D. Blume, T. T. Baldwin, and K. C. Ryan, “Communication Apprehension: A Barrier to Students’ Leadership, Adaptability, and Multicultural Appreciation,” Academy of Management Learning & Education, June 2013, pp. 158–172; P. Caligiuri, “Develop Your Cultural Agility,” T&D, March 2013, pp. 70+; M. Li, W. H. Mobley, and A. Kelly, “When Do Global Leaders Learn Best to Develop Cultural Intelligence? An Investigation of the Moderating Role of Experiential Learning Style,” Academy of Management Learning & Education, March 2013, pp. 32–50; N. Jesionka, “Why Knowing About the World Can Help Your Career,” www.thedailymuse.com, June 14, 2013. 4. G. Koretz, “Things Go Better with Multinationals—Except Jobs,” BusinessWeek, May 2, 1994, p. 20. 5. N. Kelly, “7 Traits of Companies on the Fast Track to International Growth,” Harvard Business Review online, https://hbr.org, March 6, 2015. 6. M. Palmquist, “Measuring the Value of Going Global,” Strategy + Business Online, Spring 2012. 7. The idea for this quiz was adapted from R. M. Hodgetts and F. Luthans, International Management, 2d ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1994). 8. A. R. Carey and V. Bravo, “Proficiency in Foreign Languages,” USA Today, December 3, 2013, p. 1A. 9. D. Skorton and G. Altschuler, “America’s Foreign Language Deficit,” www.forbes.com, August 21, 2012. 10. Based on Reuters Limited, USA Today online, www. usatoday.com, February 21, 2006; D. Graddol, “Indian English Challenge Hurts Bahrain,” The Telegraph (Calcutta, India), February 22, 2006; and “Learning the Lingo,” USA Today, January 26, 2006, p. 1A. 11. U.S. Department of Education, “Education and the Language Gap: Secretary Arne Duncan’s Remarks at the Foreign Language Summit,” press release, http://www. ed.gov/news/speeches/education-and-language-gap-secretary- arne-duncans-remarks-foreign-language-summit, December 8, 2010. 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Browne and J. Dean, “Business Sours on China,” Wall Street Journal, March 17, 2010, pp. A1+. 75. U.S. Department of State, “China: Investment Climate Statement 2015,” www.state.gov, May 2015. 76. W. Mauldin, “Russians Search BP Office Second Day,” Wall Street Journal, September 2, 2011, p. B6; and A. E. Kramer, “Memo to Exxon: Business with Russia Might Involve Guns and Balaclavas,” New York Times online, www.nytimes.com, August 31, 2011. 77. M. Moran, “Political Risk on the Rise: The Peril of Emerging Markets,” http://www.forbes.com/sites/ riskmap/2014/01/17/political-risk-on-the-rise-the-peril-of- emerging-markets/, March 10, 2014. 78. U.S. Department of State, “China: Investment Climate Statement 2015,”; Roberts, “Closing for Business”; and Browne and Dean, “Business Sours on China.” 79. “Leading Indicator,” Newsweek, September 14, 2009, p. 14. 80. British Broadcasting Corporation, “Internet Used by 3.2 Billion People in 2015,” bbc.com, May 26, 2015. 81. 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Sheivachman, “Starwood Puts Priority on Chinese Development,” Hotel Management, August 1, 2011, p. 15; and A. Berzon, “Frits Van Paasschen: Starwood CEO Moves to China to Grow Brand,” Wall Street Journal, June 6, 2011, p. B6. 89. J. McGregor and S. Hamm, “Managing the Global Workforce,” Bloomberg BusinessWeek, January 28, 2008, pp. 34–51. 90. Katie Jacobs, “Sodexo’s Natalie Bickford on Diversity, Engagement, and Mobility,” HR Magazine (UK), February 23, 2015, http://www.hrmagazine.co.uk/article-details/ sodexos-natalie-bickford-on-diversity-engagement-and- mobility (accessed December 13, 2016); Erin McGuire, “Communication Crucial for Generation Game,” Irish Times, October 16, 2015 (accessed December 13, 2016); Michel Landel, “Sodexo’s CEO on Smart Diversification,” Harvard Business Review, March 2015, https://hbr.org/2015/03/sodexos- ceo-on-smart-diversification (accessed December 13, 2016). 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J. Hirschkorn, “Business Etiquette: The Importance of Cultural Sensitivity,” The Telegraph online, www.telegraph.co. uk, January 30, 2014. 92. See G. Hofstede, Culture’s Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values, 2d ed. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2001), pp. 9–15. 93. S. Bhaskaran and N. Sukumaran, “National Culture, Business Culture and Management Practices: Consequential Relationships?,” Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 14, no. 7, 2007, pp. 54–67; G. Hofstede, Culture’s Consequences; and G. Hofstede, “The Cultural Relativity of Organizational Practices and Theories,” Journal of International Business Studies, Fall 1983, pp. 75–89. 94. M. Minkov and G. Hofstede, “The Evolution of Hofstede’s Doctrine,” Cross Cultural Management, February 2011, pp. 10–20. 95. R. R. McCrae, A. Terracciano, A. Realo, and J. Allik, “Interpreting GLOBE Societal Practices Scale,” Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, November 2008, pp. 805–810; J. S. 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Lowrey Miller, “Is It Globaloney?,” Newsweek, December 16, 2002, pp. E4–E8; L. Gomes, “Globalization Is Now a Two-Way Street—Good News for the U.S.,” Wall Street Journal, December 9, 2002, p. B1; J. Kurlantzick and J. T. Allen, “The Trouble With Globalism,” U.S. News and World Report, February 11, 2002, pp. 38–41; and J. Guyon, “The American Way,” Fortune, November 26, 2001, pp. 114–120. 98. Guyon, “The American Way,” p. 114. 99. Based on H. Seligson, “For American Workers in China, a Culture Clash,” New York Times online, www.nytimes.com, December 23, 2009. 100. G. N. Powell, A. M. Francesco, and Y. Ling, “Toward Culture-Sensitive Theories of the Work-Family Interface,” Journal of Organizational Behavior, July 2009, pp. 597–616. 101. “Why You Need Cultural Intelligence (And How to Develop It),” Forbes online, www.forbes.com, March 24, 2015; J. S. Lublin, “Cultural Flexibility in Demand,” Wall Street Journal, April 11, 2011, pp. B1+; S. Russwurm, L. Hernández, S. Chambers, and K. Chung, “Developing Your Global Know-How,” Harvard Business Review, March 2011, pp. 70–75; “Are You Cued in to Cultural Intelligence?” Industry Week, November 2009, p. 24; M. Blasco, “Cultural Pragmatists? Student Perspectives on Learning Culture at a Business School,” Academy of Management Learning & Education, June 2009, pp. 174–187; and D. C. Thomas and K. Inkson, “Cultural Intelligence: People Skills for a Global Workplace,” Consulting to Management, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 5–9. 102. M. Javidan, M. Teagarden, and D. Bowen, “Making It Overseas,” Harvard Business Review, April 2010, pp. 109–113. 103. Jason Burke, “Rana Plaza: One Year on from the Bangladesh Factory Disaster,” The Guardian, April 19, 2014. 104. OECD Web site, www.oecd.org/greece, November 2012. 105. T. Soper, “Tableau Software Set to Hire Another 1,000 Employees in 2016; CEO Says Business ‘Flourishing,’” www.geekwire.com, December 14, 2015; N. Ungerleider, “What Tinder Did for Dating, Tableau Wants to Do for Spreadsheets.” Fast Company online, www.fastcompany.com, February 24, 2015; “Tableau’s Q3 Earnings: International Expansion & New Products Drive Top-Line Growth,” Forbes online, www.forbes .com, November 11, 2015; “Tableau’s Entry into China a Good Move as Company Targets International Growth,” Forbes online, www.forbes.com, August 21, 2015; T. Soper, “ How to Lead a Global Company: What Tableau’s CEO Learned During His Year in London,” www.geekwire.com, December 25, 2015. M03_ROBB5839_14_GE_C03.indd 143 10/07/17 4:52 PM http://www.nytimes.com http://www.forbes.com http://www.oecd.org/greece http://www.geekwire.com http://www.fastcompany.com http://www.forbes.com http://www.geekwire.com http://www.forbes.com http://www.forbes.com http://www.telegraph.co.uk http://www.telegraph.co.uk It’s Your Career Chapter 4 Valuing a Diverse Workforce Find a Great Sponsor/ Mentor—Be a Great Protégé What do you want from your career? If your goal is to “move up the organizational ladder” to higher and more challenging positions of responsibility, then consider finding influential people who believe in you and will work with you to help you get ahead. These individuals—called sponsors or mentors—can be a wonderful source of career support. How? By advocating for your career path/ promotion; assisting you in dealing with problems/ conflicts; expanding your perception of what you can do; helping you “connect” with senior executives and other influential people; and advising you on “how” to be promotable. Now that you know what they’re called . . . what are you called? The term for the other person in this relationship is protégé, which comes from a French word meaning to protect. As someone with a lot of knowledge and experience, the sponsor/mentor “protects” the protégé by helping prepare (groom) that person for more challenging job responsibilities. Here’s what you need to know to have active and effective sponsor/protégé relationships: 1. Absolutely, positively, always DO GREAT WORK. Be sure that your work performance is stellar. Demonstrate that you can and will deliver outstanding performance. Realize that doesn’t mean that you won’t ever make mistakes. But if you do make mistakes, learn quickly from those mistakes. Seek out new challenges and be enthusiastic when you get them. And remember, doing great work is absolutely essential! 2. TRUSTWORTHINESS and LOYALTY and DEPENDABILITY are absolutely critical. Sponsors/mentors want to know that you can be trusted in all ways and in all things. Be loyal. Keep your sponsor “in the know.” Your sponsor wants to know that you can be depended on totally to do the right thing. Make your sponsor look good and look smart for taking you on as a protégé. Ideally, you and your sponsor(s) should work together to Source: MNSKumar/Shutterstock A key to success in management and in your career is knowing how to find a great sponsor/ mentor and how to be a great protégé. M04_ROBB5839_14_GE_C04.indd 144 26/07/17 11:12 AM ● SKILL OUTCOMES 4.1 Define workplace diversity and explain why managing it is so important. ● Develop your skill at valuing and working with diverse individuals and teams. 4.2 Describe the changing workplaces in the United States and around the world. 4.3 Explain the different types of diversity found in workplaces. 4.4 Discuss the challenges managers face in managing diversity. 4.5 Describe various workplace diversity management initiatives. ● Know how to find a great sponsor/mentor and be a great protégé. Pearson MyLab Management® Improve Your Grade! When you see this icon, visit www.mymanagementlab.com for activities that are applied, personalized, and offer immediate feedback. Learning Objectives accomplish results that can help each of you fast track your careers. A mentor/protégé relationship can—and should—be mutually beneficial. 3. BE SELECTIVE in seeking out your sponsor(s)/mentor(s). Look for individuals who are compatible and complement your work style/ approach and who can help you reach your goals. Although you may start off with just one, don’t be content with that. Target leaders (inside and outside your organization) whose expertise and networks you think you learn from. It’s helpful to think of these individuals as your own personal “board of advisors” who are helping you develop your skills and abilities. 4. NURTURE the relationship. Have regular meetings—face-to-face, by phone, or by e-mail. Prove that you were worth the investment by meeting deadlines, exceeding targets, and advancing the organization’s mission. Look for ways to support your sponsors and help them build their careers. Also, remember at some point to become a sponsor/mentor yourself. When you harness and help develop other talent, that’s a great demonstration of leadership! Although many companies have a goal of cultivating a diverse workforce, there’s still a lot of work to be done by organizations around the globe. For instance, only seven women are CEOs of the United Kingdom’s FTSE 100 companies, leading major firms like GlaxoSmithKline, Whitbread, and easyJet. Few corporations in South Korea and Japan have female CEOs. In Australia, only about 18 percent of CEOs are women. This is why some nations, including Germany, Norway, and Malaysia, now set minimum standards for the number of women on corporate boards. Other minorities are also underrepresented in top management. Tidjane Thiam of Credit Suisse Group is the first black CEO of a leading European bank. Antonio Simões of HSBC Bank is among the relatively few openly gay chief executives.1 Clearly, the issue of moving beyond a homogeneous workforce remains important. This chapter will look at managing diversity in the workplace. 145 M04_ROBB5839_14_GE_C04.indd 145 10/07/17 11:29 AM http://www.mymanagementlab.com 146 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace DIVERSITY 101 It’s amazing all the different languages you can hear in the lobby of one of MGM Mirage’s hotels. Because guests come from all over the world, the company is committed to reflecting that diversity in its workforce. MGM Mirage has implemented a program that is devoted to making sure that everyone in the orga- nization feels included. There are payoffs for promoting diversity. For instance, com- panies in the hospitality business that boast gender-diverse workforces have shown a 19 percent higher average quarterly profit than hospitality businesses with less diversity.2 Such diversity—and inclusion—can be found in many organizational workplaces domestically and globally.3 Sodexo, provider of quality of life services, is an example. The company offers “Spirit of Inclusion” training sessions for employees who work throughout Europe, including their locations in Finland, Germany, and Luxembourg.4 Managers in those workplaces are looking for ways to value and develop that diversity, as you’ll see through the various examples throughout this chapter. However, before we look at what it takes to manage diversity, we first have to know what workplace diversity is and why it’s important. What Is Workplace Diversity? Look around your classroom (or your workplace). You’re likely to see young/old, male/female, tall/short, blonde hair, blue-eyed/dark hair, brown-eyed, any number of races, and any variety of dress styles. You’ll see people who speak up in class and oth- ers who are content to keep their attention on taking notes or daydreaming. Have you ever noticed your own little world of diversity where you are right now? Many of you may have grown up in an environment around diverse individuals, while others may not have had that experience. We want to focus on workplace diversity, so let’s look at what it is. By looking at various ways that diversity has been defined, you’ll gain a better understanding of it. Diversity has been “one of the most popular business topics over the last two decades. It ranks with modern business disciplines such as quality, leadership, and eth- ics. Despite this popularity, it’s also one of the most controversial and least understood topics.”5 With its basis in civil rights legislation and social justice, the word diversity often invokes a variety of attitudes and emotional responses in people. Diversity has traditionally been considered a term used by human resources departments, associ- ated with fair hiring practices, discrimination, and inequality. But diversity today is considered to be so much more. Exhibit 4-1 illustrates a historical overview of how the concept and meaning of workforce diversity has evolved. We’re defining workforce diversity as the ways in which people in an organiza- tion are different from and similar to one another. Notice that our definition not only focuses on the differences, but also the similarities of employees. This reinforces our belief that managers and organizations should view employees as having qualities in common as well as differences that separate them. It doesn’t mean that those differ- ences are any less important, but that our focus as managers is in finding ways to develop strong relationships with and engage our entire workforce. We want to point out one final thing about our description of “what” work- force diversity is:6 The demographic characteristics that we tend to think of when we think of diversity—age, race, gender, ethnicity, and so on—are just the tip of the iceberg. These demographic differences reflect surface-level diversity, which includes easily perceived differences that may trigger certain stereotypes but don’t necessarily reflect the ways people think or feel. Such surface-level differences in characteristics can affect the way people perceive others, especially when it comes to assumptions or stereotyping. The Time Warner Corporation works diligently to turn surface-level diversity into an advantage. According to Chief Diversity Officer Lisa Garcia Quiroz, “our success as a business is directly correlated to our ongoing efforts to attract talent and maintain a progressive and inclusive environment where employees can thrive regardless of gender, race, ethnicity or sexual orientation.”7 LO4.1 workforce diversity The ways in which people in an organization are different from and similar to one another surface-level diversity Easily perceived differences that may trigger certain stereotypes, but that do not necessarily reflect the ways people think or feel M04_ROBB5839_14_GE_C04.indd 146 10/07/17 11:29 AM Chapter 4 Valuing a Diverse Workforce 147 As people get to know one another, these surface-level differences become less impor- tant and deep-level diversity—differences in values, personality, and work prefer- ences—becomes more important. At Nielsen, Angela Talton, Senior Vice President of Global Diversity & Inclusion, endorses this idea: “By diversity, we mean far more than the diversity you can see; we value diversity of thought, experiences, skills and backgrounds. It is our ability to create a culture of inclusion—whereby we value, encourage and promote the various thoughts, opinions and insights of our diverse workforce—that enables us to grow and continuously provide clients with innovative solutions.”8 These deep-level differences can affect the way people view organiza- tional work rewards, communicate, react to leaders, negotiate, and generally behave at work. Why Is Managing Workforce Diversity So Important? Ranked on Diversity Inc.’s list of top 50 companies for diversity, financial services company Wells Fargo recognizes the powerful benefits of diversity. The company’s chief diversity officer says, “With more than 264,000 team members, we know there is power in mobilizing our global organization around common diversity and inclusion goals and priorities. By doing so, we will create a sustainable culture that is accepting of differences, open to new ideas, and able to create a competitive advantage in the marketplace.”9 Another example is KeyBank, which is “committed to supplier diver- sity through business strategy and community access. We support diverse business enterprises and our Supplier Diversity team in our Corporate Responsibility group provides accountability.”10 Many companies besides Wells Fargo and KeyBank are experiencing the benefits that diversity can bring. In this section, we want to look at why workforce diversity is so important to organizations. The benefits fall into three main categories: people management, organizational performance, and strategic. (See Exhibit 4-2.) deep-level diversity Differences in values, personality, and work preferences Exhibit 4-1 Timeline of the Evolution of Workforce Diversity  1960s to 1970s Focus on complying with laws and regulations: Title VII of Civil Rights Act; Equal Employment Opportunity Commission; affirmative action policies and programs Early 1980s Focus on assimilating minorities and women into corporate setting: Corporate programs developed to help improve self-confidence and qualifications of diverse individuals so they can “fit in” Late 1980s Concept of workforce diversity expanded from compliance to an issue of business survival: Publication of Workforce 2000 opened business leaders’ eyes about the future composition of workforce—that is, more diverse; first use of term workforce diversity Late 1980s to Late 1990s Focus on fostering sensitivity: Shift from compliance and focusing only on women and minorities to include everyone; making employees more aware and sensitive to the needs and differences of others New Millennium Focus on diversity and inclusion for business success: Workforce diversity seen as core business issue; important to achieve business success, profitabil- ity, and growth Source: Based on “The New Global Mindset: Driving Innovation Through Diversity” by Ernst & Young, January 27, 2010. M04_ROBB5839_14_GE_C04.indd 147 10/07/17 11:29 AM 148 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace PEOPLE MANAGEMENT When all is said and done, diversity is, after all, about people, both inside and outside the organization. The people management benefits that organizations get because of their workforce diversity efforts revolve around attracting and retaining a talented workforce. Organizations want a talented work- force because it’s the people—their skills, abilities, and experiences—who make an organization successful. Positive and explicit workforce diversity efforts can help organizations attract and keep talented diverse people and make the best of the talents those individuals bring to the workplace. In addition, another important people management benefit is that as companies rely more on employee teams in the workplace, those work teams with diverse backgrounds often bring different and unique perspectives to discussions, which can result in more creative ideas and solutions. However, recent research has indicated that such benefits might be hard to come by in teams performing more interdependent tasks over a long period of time. Such situations also present more opportunities for conflicts and resentments to build.12 But, as the researchers pointed out, that simply means that those teams may need stronger team training and coaching to facilitate group decision making and conflict resolution. Exhibit 4-2 Benefits of Workforce Diversity  FYI • Racial and ethnic diversity are 35 percent more likely to have financial returns above national industry medians. • Currently 97 percent of U.S. companies fail to have senior leadership teams that reflect the country’s ethnic labor force.11 If your professor has assigned this, go to www.mymanagementlab.com to watch a video titled: Verizon: Diversity and to respond to questions. ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE The performance benefits that organizations get from workforce diversity include cost savings and improvements in organization- al functioning. The cost savings can be significant when organizations that cultivate a diverse workforce reduce employee turnover, absenteeism, and the chance of lawsuits. People Management • Better use of employee talent • Increased quality of team problem-solving efforts • Ability to attract and retain employees of diverse backgrounds Organizational Performance • Reduced costs associated with high turnover, absenteeism, and lawsuits • Enhanced problem-solving ability • Improved system flexibility Strategic • Increased understanding of the marketplace, which improves ability to better market to diverse consumers • Potential to improve sales growth and increase market share • Potential source of competitive advantage because of improved innovation efforts • Viewed as moral and ethical; the “right” thing to do Sources: Based on Ernst & Young, “The New Global Mindset: Driving Innovation Through Diversity,” EYGM Limited, 2010; M. P. Bell, M. L. Connerley, and F. K. Cocchiara, “The Case for Mandatory Diversity Education,” Academy of Management Learning & Education, December 2009, pp. 597–609; E. Kearney, D. Gebert, and S. C. Voelpel, “When and How Diversity Benefits Teams: The Importance of Team Members’ Need for Cognition,” Academy of Management Journal, June 2009, pp. 581–598; J. A. Gonzalez and A. S. DeNisi, “Cross-Level Effects of Demography and Diversity Climate on Organizational Attachment and Firm Effectiveness,” Journal of Organizational Behavior, January 2009, pp. 21–40; O. C. Richard, “Racial Diversity, Business Strategy, and Firm Performance: A Resource-Based View,” Academy of Management Journal, April 2000, pp. 164–177; and G. Robinson and K. Dechant, “Building a Business Case for Diversity,” Academy of Management Executive, August 1997, pp. 21–31. Watch It 1! M04_ROBB5839_14_GE_C04.indd 148 10/07/17 11:29 AM http://www.mymanagementlab.com Chapter 4 Valuing a Diverse Workforce 149 For instance, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police recently agreed to a very costly settle- ment in cases of sexual discrimination and harassment brought by hundreds of female Mounties.13 Women in China are increasingly speaking out against sexual discrimina- tion, not just to attain management positions but also for the right to work in jobs that traditionally have been held by men.14 In the United Kingdom, employees file more than 3,000 complaints about racial discrimination every year. One organization was ordered to pay more than £162,000 for racial discrimination, an amount that can seriously affect the bottom line. According to a U.K. study, job applicants from ethnic minorities tend to receive fewer employer responses than non-minority applicants.15 In addition to gender and race, discrimination on the basis of age, disability, or sexual orientation also causes employees to file complaints (and, often, to find work elsewhere).16 In Hong Kong, for example, one in three employees surveyed by the Equal Opportunities Commission said they had faced age discrimination, and one in four had been denied promotions due to age.17 However, from the positive side, organizational performance can be enhanced through workforce diversity because of improved problem-solving abilities and system flexibility. An organization with a diverse workforce can tap into the variety of skills and abilities represented, and just the fact that its workforce is diverse requires that processes and procedures be more accommodative and inclusive. The benefits of promoting diver- sity are worthwhile. According to Professor Christine Riordan, “inclusion also has the promise of many positive individual and organizational outcomes such as reduced turn- over, greater altruism, and team engagement. When employees are truly being included within a work environment, they’re more likely to share information, and participate in decision-making.”18 STRATEGIC Organizations also benefit strategically from a diverse workforce. You have to look at managing workforce diversity as the key to extracting the best talent, per- formance, market share, and suppliers from a diverse country and world. One important REALlet’s get The Scenario As the district manager for a region of retail discount clothing stores, Henry Banks is preparing for a quarterly meeting with all of the store managers in his district. As part of a presentation about company hiring practices, he plans to stress the importance of diversity. He knows the company needs a diverse workforce to meet the needs of the company’s diverse customer base; however, he is not sure how to convey this to the group of store managers. What do you think Henry should say in his presentation? Henry should take this opportunity to review the company’s values and to consider how diversity is a critical aspect of a dynamic culture. He could provide data that indicate that diverse companies perform better than less diverse companies, overall. With a diverse customer base, Henry should provide real-life examples of situations in which diversity helped with a customer’s shopping experience or increased a sale, as well as examples in which lack of diversity had a negative impact on the business. Lastly, Henry should explain how the store managers’ incentives are tied to the overall performance of the store; the better the store performs, the greater incentive opportunity they have. Leya Gaynor HR Business Partner So ur ce : L ey a Ga yn or M04_ROBB5839_14_GE_C04.indd 149 10/07/17 11:29 AM 150 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace strategic benefit is that with a diverse workforce, organizations can better anticipate and respond to changing consumer needs. Diverse employees bring a variety of points of view and approaches to opportunities, which can improve how the organization markets to diverse consumers. For instance, as the Hispanic population has grown, so have orga- nizational efforts to market products and services to that demographic group. Organiza- tions have found their Hispanic employees to be a fertile source of insights that would otherwise not have been available. Food service companies, retailers, financial services companies, and automobile manufacturers are just a few of the industries that have seen sales and market share increases because they paid attention to the needs of diverse consumers using information from employees. It is important to remember that a diverse workforce is not a magic pill: “Diversity does not produce better results automatically, through a sort of multicultural magic. It does so only if it is managed well.”19 A diverse workforce also can be a powerful source of competitive advantage, pri- marily because innovation thrives in such an environment. A report by Ernst & Young stated that “cultural diversity offers the flexibility and creativity we need to re-create the global economy for the twenty-first century.”21 Innovation is never easy, but in a global- ized world, it’s even more challenging. Tapping into differing voices and viewpoints can be powerful factors in steering innovation. Companies that want to lead their industries have to find ways to “stir the pot”—to generate the lively debate that can create those new ideas. And research shows that diverse viewpoints can do that. “Diversity powers innovation, helping businesses generate new products and services.”22 Finally, from an ethical perspective, workforce diversity and effectively managing diversity is the right thing to do. Although many societies have laws that say it’s illegal to treat diverse people unfairly, many cultures also exhibit a strong ethical belief that diverse people should have access to equal opportunities and be treated fairly and justly. Businesses do have an ethical imperative to build relationships that value and enable all employees to be successful. Managers need to view workforce diversity as a way to bring different voices to the table and to build an environment based on trust- ing relationships. If they can do that, good things can happen, as we’ve noted. FYI Companies with diverse leader- ship are:20 • 45 percent more likely to report a growth in market share over the previous year • 70 percent more likely to have captured a new market If your professor has assigned this, go to www.mymanagementlab.com to watch a video titled: Rudi’s Bakery: Diversity and to respond to questions. THE CHANGING workplace An African American serving as the chief executive of the United States. A woman heading up the Federal Reserve. A Latina sitting on the nation’s highest court. Even at the highest levels of the political arena, we see a diverse work- place. In the business world, the once predominantly white male managerial workforce has given way to a more gender-balanced, multiethnic workforce. But it’s a workforce still in transition as the overall population changes. In this section, we want to look at some of those changes, focusing on demographic trends by looking first at the charac- teristics of the U.S. population and then at global diversity trends. These trends will be reflected in a changing workplace, thus making this information important for manag- ers to recognize and understand. Characteristics of the U.S. Population Of all the babies born in the United States recently, less than half are whites of Euro- pean ancestry—a significant demographic milestone that will affect the country’s polit- ical, economic, and labor force characteristics.23 Statistics from the latest U.S. Census reports are reinforcing what we’ve already seen happening—America is changing.24 We are an increasingly diverse society with some major readjustments occurring that will dramatically change the face of America by the year 2050. Let’s look at some of the most dramatic of these changes.25 LO4.2 Watch It 2! M04_ROBB5839_14_GE_C04.indd 150 10/07/17 11:29 AM http://www.mymanagementlab.com Chapter 4 Valuing a Diverse Workforce 151 as gender, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, or geo- graphic background might also be applied to expand diversity. When these other factors can be visibly assessed by the way someone looks, dresses, or talks, then they are also surface- level variables. But here’s the interesting observation: While college administrators try to increase diversity through admis- sion selection, students themselves tend to undermine surface diversity by gravitating to others like themselves. Fraternities and sororities choose members who are like themselves. And friends tend to be those with similar majors, or living in the same dorm wing, or belonging to a common on-campus affinity group. So what we find is that campuses do a very good job at pro- moting surface-level diversity through admission decisions, but this breaks down once students are on campus. Natural student groupings tend to be defined more by deep-level characteristics. So what can you do to more effectively deal with coworker diversity? At the surface level, start by confronting your biases and assumptions about others. You can’t deal with your preju- dices unless you recognize them. Then consider the positives of diversity. As we noted in the chapter, a diverse workforce has numerous pluses. You need to recognize, accept, and value the unique contributions of those who are different from you in terms of appearance, culture, skills, experiences, and abilities. At the deep level, the good news is that as we get to know people, most of us look beyond the surface to find common bonds. Specifically, the evidence shows that the longer indi- viduals work together, the less the effects of surface diversity. So your first reaction might be to assume you have nothing in common with a colleague who is 30 years older, or raised in a different country, or whose first language is different from yours. But start with the basics. You’re both working for the same employer. That alone suggests a common bond. Both of you saw something in your employing organization that drew you to it. Then, if you’re having trouble dealing with someone’s differences, look beyond the surface and try to get to know the individual’s personality, interests, and beliefs. You’re likely to be pleasantly surprised. You might initially think someone isn’t like you or won’t understand you, but as you dig deeper and spend more time with the person, you’ll often find common bonds. In addition to working one-on-one with a diverse set of coworkers, you’ll likely have to deal with diversity within work teams. Occasionally, diversity within teams can create problems known as “faultlines.” Faultlines are subgroups that develop naturally within teams, typically along various demo- graphic lines. The behavior of the team leader and way in which she structures the leadership role is essential for promoting communication and cohesiveness across the subgroups and for rallying the membership to meet a common cause. Source: Based on D. A. Harrison, K. H. Price, and M. P. Bell, “Beyond Rela- tional Demography: Time and the Effects of Surface- and Deep-Level Diversity on Work Group Cohesion,” Academy of Management Journal, February 1998, pp. 96–107; D. C. Lau and J. K. Murnighan, “Demographic Diversity and Fault- lines: The Compositional Dynamics of Organizational Groups,” Academy of Management Review, April 1998, pp. 325–340; L. F. Pendry, D. M. Driscoll, and S. C. T. Field, “Diversity Training: Putting Theory into Practice,” Journal of Occu- pational Psychology, March 2007, pp. 27–50; and M-E. Roberge, E. Petrov, and W-R. Huang, “Students’ Perceptions of Their Attitudes and Behaviors Toward Different Cultures/Ethnicities Before and After a Diversity Training Program,” Journal of Business Diversity, August 2014, pp. 80–90. This chapter looks at diversity from the standpoint of man- agement: Specifically, what can management do to create a workplace that welcomes and appreciates differences—such as gender, age, race, religion, sexual orientation, disabilities, or social class? But this chapter doesn’t offer you direct guidance on how to deal with coworker diversity. While management and the organization are largely responsible for fostering an inclusive culture that values diversity, you play a vital part. Let’s begin with the realization that many individuals have difficulty accepting others who are different from them- selves. Human nature is such that we tend to be attracted to and feel more comfortable with people who are like us. It’s not by chance, for example, that new immigrants gravitate to communities where there is a sizeable population of people from their country of origin. But “embracing differences” has become an unquestioned goal in most advanced economies and a mantra within organizations. It’s increasingly difficult to survive in today’s workplace if you can’t accept differences and function effectively with a diverse workforce. As described in this chapter, a strong argument can be made for a diverse workforce. From your standpoint, that argu- ment would include being part of more effective work groups through a broader perspective in decision making; gaining a better understanding of diverse markets and customer prefer- ences; improved ability to work comfortably with others in your workplace; and promoting fairness for individuals from under- represented groups. Furthermore, we would be naïve to ignore that supporting diversity is, for lack of a better term, “politically correct.” Today’s workplace is sensitive to appearances of prej- udice or unfairness. If you expect to be a valued and accepted member of today’s labor force, you need to recognize that sup- porting diversity is the ethical and morally right thing to do. Research tells us that we all have biases. Demographics mostly reflect surface-level diversity and can lead you to per- ceive others through stereotypes and assumptions. In contrast, when you get to know others, you become less concerned about demographic differences if you can see yourself sharing more important, deeper-level characteristics. Let’s elaborate on the difference between surface- and deep-level diversity. Most of us typically define diversity in terms of surface- level characteristics. Surface-level diversity relates to those characteristics that are easily noticeable; the things we ini- tially see in people. This includes gender, age, skin color, lan- guage, and the presence or absence of a physical disability. So when a 20-year-old sees someone who’s 70 and quickly classifies him as “old,” that person is operating at a surface level. In contrast, deep-level diversity refers to characteristics that are not easily noticeable. They’re communicated through verbal and nonverbal behaviors. Examples of deep-level dif- ferences would include personality, moods, attitudes, values, and beliefs. As you get to know a person, especially someone you like and bond with, you tend to forget surface differences and focus on your deeper commonalities. An interesting illustration of the difference between these two types of diversity is the typical college campus. For more than 40 years, most college admissions’ personnel have actively sought to expand surface diversity by considering race or eth- nicity in their decision criteria. In addition, other factors such Dealing with DiversityWORKPLACE CONFIDENTIAL M04_ROBB5839_14_GE_C04.indd 151 10/07/17 11:29 AM 152 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace The total population of the United States is projected to increase to 438 million by the year 2050, up from 322 million in 2015; 82 percent of that increase will be due to immigrants and their U.S.-born descendants. Nearly one in five Americans will be an immigrant in 2050, compared with one in eight in 2015. In addition to total population changes, the components of that population are projected to change as well. Exhibit 4-3 provides the projected population breakdown. As the projections show, the main changes will be in the percentages of the Hispanic and white population. But the data also indicate that the Asian population will be more than double. Also, as a nation, the pop- ulation of the United States is aging. According to the CIA World Factbook, the median age stands at 37.8 years, up from 36.2 years in 2001.26 By 2050, one in every five persons will be age 65 or over. The most populous group would be those age 80 and over.27 Such population trends are likely to have a major impact on U.S. workplaces. The reality of these trends for businesses is that they’ll have to accommodate and embrace such workforce changes. Although America historically has been known as a “melt- ing pot,” where people of different nationalities, religions, races, and ethnicities have blended together to become one, that perspective is no longer relevant.28 Organizations must recognize that they can’t expect employees to assimilate into the organization by adopting similar attitudes and values. Instead, there’s value in the differences that peo- ple bring to the workplace. It’s not been easy. The ability of managers and organiza- tions to effectively manage diversity has not kept pace with these population changes, creating challenges for minorities, women, and older employees. But many businesses are excelling at managing diversity, and we’ll discuss some of their workplace diversity initiatives in a later section of this chapter. Global Population Trends and the Changing Global Workforce Right now, we share our planet with more than 7.4 billion people, a number projected to increase to nearly 10 billion by 2050.29 That’s a worldwide population increase of more than one-third, with much of this future growth occurring in Africa and Asia. What are some of the key population trends and what do they mean for the global workplace? Age Trends. First, as life spans increase, some areas will have a higher proportion of older people. Europe currently has a higher percentage of people over 60 than any other region, followed by North America. At the country level, Japan’s population is the oldest, with a median age over 46 and a low birth rate. Germany, Italy, and Por- tugal have a median age over 44. By 2050, China’s median age is projected to be 56, and Singapore’s will be 53.30 Management challenges will increase as large numbers of workers retire and businesses will need to fill many open positions to maintain opera- tions. On the other hand, this trend creates business opportunities for entrepreneurs and companies that can fill the needs of an aging population. Exhibit 4-3 Changing Population Makeup of the United States    2015 2050 Foreign-born 14% 19% Racial/Ethnic Groups     White* 72% 47% Hispanic 12% 29% Black* 12% 13% Asian* 4% 9% *= Non-Hispanic American Indian/Alaska Native not included. Sources: Based on “Population Density by County,” U.S. Census Bureau, www. census.gov, accessed February 24, 2016; H. El Nasser, “U.S. Hispanic Population to Triple by 2050,” USA Today, February 12, 2008; and J. Passel and D. Cohn, “U.S. Population Projections: 2005–2050,” Pew Research Center, February 11, 2008. M04_ROBB5839_14_GE_C04.indd 152 10/07/17 11:29 AM http://www.census.gov http://www.census.gov Chapter 4 Valuing a Diverse Workforce 153 In comparison, some countries have particularly young populations with high birth rates. Niger is the world’s youngest country, with a median age just below 15. Although that median age is expected to increase to nearly 18 by 2050, analysts proj- ect that Niger will remain the youngest country for decades to come. In fact, Africa is currently the continent with the largest percentage of the population younger than 15. One benefit of a younger population is having a youthful workforce that contributes to productivity as well as economic growth. The challenge here is to provide education, employment opportunities, and welfare services to these young workers.31 Gender, Gender Identity, and Sexual Orientation. In today’s global population, there are slightly more males than females overall. Individual countries, however, can have vastly different proportions of males and females in the population. Russia, for example, has fewer than 90 men for every 100 women. In contrast, India has 107 men for every 100 women. Looking ahead to 2050, when there will be slightly more females than males in the overall world population, how will traditional gender roles and cultural norms affect the ability of companies to attract and retain a motivated workforce? Also while some countries are legalizing equal rights for the LGBTQ community, preventing dis- crimination and harassment on the basis of gender identity or sexual orientation will remain an important issue for organizations. Migration and Movement. Strife and violence in certain regions are increasing pressures on migration, which leads to changes in national and regional policies on immigration that affect the ability of businesses to hire people from other countries. Migration also affects the ethnic (and sometimes the religious) composition of the local population, which global businesses must bear in mind. Managers must also consider where jobs and workers are located. In Europe, for instance, much of the working-age population is concentrated in urban areas, which is a consideration for companies deciding where to open new facilities. With managers recognizing that many jobs can only be performed in person, should work- places be moved to areas with an abundance of skilled labor and other valued resources, or should workers be expected to move to take advantage of career opportunities? These trends indicate the real urgency for improving diversity in the workplace. Businesses are increasingly concerned about being able to attract more workers, from the domestic or international population, regardless of gender, ethnicity, religion, or age. Organizations that actively recruit across national borders, seeking to fill special- ized jobs or address competitive issues, are paying close attention to how government policies regarding migration and work permits are changing. To prepare for the future, managers must understand the current realities of the global workforce and the many dimensions of workplace diversity.32 How much do you know about global aging? (Our guess is . . . probably not much!) Take the quiz in Exhibit 4-4—no peeking at the answers beforehand—and see how well you scored. Were you surprised by some of the answers? TYPES of workplace diversity As we’ve seen so far, diversity is a big issue, and an important issue, in today’s workplaces. What types of dissimilarities—that is, diversity—do we find in those workplaces? Exhibit 4-5 shows several types of workplace diversity. Let’s work our way through the different types. Age The Marriott hotel group, headquartered in Bethesda, Maryland, employs more than 100,000 employees in the United States. What’s interesting is that 43 percent of those employees are age 45 and older, and 18 percent are 55 and older.33 To make it easier for older workers, company managers are redesigning tasks that require bending, stretch- ing, lifting, pushing, and pulling. For instance, an older employee may be paired with a younger one, and tasks such as bending to clean under beds are shared. LO4.3 At 90, Bill Dudley, Europe’s oldest McDonald’s employee, works as a part-time member of the customer care team at a restaurant in Wales. McDonald’s values its older employees for their strong work ethic, reliability, loyalty, mentoring skills that help younger co-workers, and friendly and helpful service that results in high customer satisfaction. Source: Peter Byrne/PA Wire/AP Images M04_ROBB5839_14_GE_C04.indd 153 10/07/17 11:29 AM 154 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace 1. True or False: At age 65, life expectancy is expected to be an additional 20 years. 2. The world’s older population (60 and older) is expected to change from 841 million in 2013 to            people in 2050? a. decrease to 500 million b. decrease to 750 million c. increase to 1.5 billion d. increase to 2 billion 3. Which of the world’s continents has the highest percentage of older people (age 60 or older)? a. North America b. Latin America c. Europe d. Asia 4. True or False: The worldwide median age was 27 in 2015. 5. Which country had the world’s highest percentage of older people in 2013? a. Sweden b. Japan c. China d. Italy Answers to quiz: 1. True. At age 60, people worldwide can expect to live an additional 20 years. That number is smaller in least developed countries (17 years) and higher in more developed countries (23 years). According to the United Nations, African countries and Asian countries (excluding Japan) are examples of least developed countries. The United States and Sweden are examples of more developed countries. 2. d. The number of older people is expected to be approximately 2 billion people in 2050. 3. c. Four of the top five countries with the greatest percentage of older people (age 60 or older) are located on the European continent: Italy (26.9%), Germany (26.8%), and Bulgaria and Finland (26.1%). 4. False. The worldwide median age was estimated to be about 30 in 2015. That age was 24 in 1950, and it is expected to reach 36 by 2050. 5. b. Japan, with 32 percent of its population aged 60 or over, has supplanted Italy as the world’s oldest major country. Sources: Based on CIA World Factbook, www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/, 2016; “World Population Ageing,” by Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division, from United Nations, 2013. Exhibit 4-4 Global Aging: How Much Do You Know?  Age Gender Race and Ethnicity Disability/ AbilitiesReligion LGBT Other Exhibit 4-5 Types of Diversity Found in Workplaces M04_ROBB5839_14_GE_C04.indd 154 10/07/17 11:29 AM http://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/ Chapter 4 Valuing a Diverse Workforce 155 As we saw in the last section, the aging population is a major critical shift taking place in the workforce. Many people over 50 are enthusiastic and productive work- ers, contrary to the sometimes negative stereotypes. To accommodate the aging work- force, more organizations are changing their approach to mandatory retirement, and government policies are also being adjusted. In South Korea, where more than 20 percent of the population will be 65 or older by 2026, the country has increased the official retirement age from 55 to 60. Yet age discrimination remains a major concern for employees and employers, as well as a legal and regulatory challenge. Australia is one of many nations strengthening plans to encourage older workers to remain in the workforce while vigorously enforcing laws against discrimination.34 One issue with older workers is the perception that people have of those workers. Perceptions such as they’re sick more often and they can’t work as hard or as fast as younger employees—perceptions that are inaccurate. Employers have mixed feelings about older workers.35 On the positive side, they believe that older workers bring a number of good qualities to the job, including experience, judgment, a strong work ethic, and a commitment to doing quality work. Also, some companies recognize the value of these attributes. For instance, global bank Barclays launched an internship program for persons age 50 or older. The bank’s management believes that the real life experience of older workers will benefit their business.36 Although the Barclays example shows promise for utilizing the knowledge, skills, and experience of older workers, there remain many employers who also view older workers as not being flexible or adaptable and being more resistant to new technology. The challenge for managers is overcoming those misperceptions of older workers and the widespread belief that work performance and work quality decline with age. Another issue that also supports the need for effectively managing workplace age diversity is that when Baby Boomers do retire, experts point out that some industries will face severe shortages of qualified employees. “Many of today’s growth industries require a higher level of technical competence in quantitative reasoning, problem solv- ing, and communication skills . . . and the United States simply does not have enough students who are getting solid math and science education.”37 Organizations that do not plan for such a future may find themselves struggling to find a competent work- force, diverse or not. Finally, the aging population is not the only age-related issue facing organiza- tions. Some 50 million Generation Xers juggle work and family responsibilities. And now some 76 million members of Generation Y (often referred to as Millennials) are either already in or poised to enter the workforce.38 These Gen Yers will make up about 75 percent of the global workforce by 2025.39 Having grown up in a world where they’ve had the opportunity to experience many different things, Gen Y workers bring their own ideas and approaches to the workplace. For instance, one study revealed that Millennials are 71 percent more likely to focus on teamwork, 28 percent more likely to focus on business impact, and 22 percent more likely to focus on a culture of connection. In contrast, non-Millennials are 31 percent more likely to focus on equity; 28 percent more likely to focus on acceptance, tolerance and fairness of opportunity; and 26 percent more likely to focus on integration.40 Given these differences, manag- ers face the challenges of creating and maintaining a culture of inclusivity. According to this study, “unfortunately, millennials are currently less engaged than members of older generations because organizations are falling short in these areas.”41 Manag- ers need to ensure that they take into account differing norms between generations. Effectively managing an organization’s diverse age groups can lead to their working well with each other, learning from each other, and taking advantage of the different perspectives and experiences that each has to offer. It can be a win-win situation for all. Gender Women (49.5%) and men (50.5%) now each make up almost half of the work- force.42 Yet gender diversity issues are still quite prevalent in organizations. Take the gender pay gap. The latest information shows that women’s median earnings were M04_ROBB5839_14_GE_C04.indd 155 10/07/17 11:29 AM 156 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace 83 percent of male full-time wage and salary workers.43 The Wall Street Journal cites a recent study which determined that about 8 percent of the wage gap cannot be explained by job-related factors, concluding that discrimination may be the reason.44 Other issues involve career start and progress. Research by Pew Research Center shows that young women now place more importance on having a high-paying career or profession than do young men.45 Yet, although 57 per- cent of today’s college students are women, and women now collect nearly 60 percent of four-year degrees and are just as likely to have completed college and hold an advanced degree, inequities persist.46 Research by Catalyst found that men start their careers at higher levels than women. And after starting out behind, women don’t ever catch up. Men move up the career ladder further and faster as well.47 A study by Mercer revealed that women make up only 35 percent of the average com- pany’s workforce at the professional level and above.48 A study by the Pew Research Center found that more women are not in executive positions because they are held to higher standards.49 However, leaving women behind may be to companies’ detri- ment. One study found some support that having more women in executive positions improves firm performance.50 Finally, misconceptions, mistaken beliefs, and unsup- ported opinions still exist about whether women perform their jobs as well as men do. You can see why gender diversity issues are important to attend to. So what do we know about differences between men and women in the workplace? First of all, few, if any, important differences between men and women affect job performance.51 No consistent male-female differences exist in problem-solving ability, analytical skills, competitive drive, motivation, sociability, or learning ability. Psycho- logical research has found minor differences: Women tend to be more agreeable and willing to conform to authority, while men are more aggressive and more likely to have expectations of success. Another area where we also see differences between genders is in preference for work schedules, especially when the employee has preschool-age children. To accom- modate their family responsibilities, working mothers are more likely to prefer part- time work, flexible work schedules, and telecommuting. They also prefer jobs that encourage work-life balance. One question of much interest as it relates to gender is whether men and women are equally competent as managers. Research evidence indicates that a “good” man- ager is still perceived as predominantly masculine.53 But the reality is that women tend to use a broader, more effective range of leadership styles to motivate and engage people. They usually blend traditional masculine styles—being directive, authorita- tive, and leading by example—with more feminine ones that include being nurturing, inclusive, and collaborative. Men tend to rely primarily on masculine styles.54 Another study showed that women managers were significantly more likely than their male counterparts to coach and develop others and to create more committed, collabora- tive, inclusive, and, ultimately, more effective teams. This study also found that women were more likely to foster genuine collaboration while males were far more likely to view negotiations and other business transactions as zero-sum games.55 A recent Gal- lup survey concluded, “Organizations should hire and promote more female manag- ers. Female managers in the U.S. exceed male managers at meeting employees’ essential workplace requirements. And female managers themselves are more engaged at work than their male counterparts.”56 Despite this, according to another Gallup survey, Americans—male and female—still prefer a male boss, although 41 percent of the respondents said they had no preference.57 What should you take away from this discussion? Not that either women or men are the superior employees, but rather a better appreciation for why it’s important for organizations to explore the strengths that both women and men bring to an IBM India staged a leadership conference to encourage its female employees in the workplace and to enhance their leadership and networking skills. IBM’s key diversity efforts in the advancement of women focuses on mentoring and coaching programs that help them develop their careers and on creating an environment that balances their professional and personal needs. Source: Aijaz Rahi/AP Images FYI • Most regions of the world continue to face challenges in increasing women’s representation at all levels: Asia is expected to have the lowest representation of women in 2025.52 M04_ROBB5839_14_GE_C04.indd 156 10/07/17 11:29 AM Chapter 4 Valuing a Diverse Workforce 157 organization and the barriers they face in contributing fully to organizational efforts. And it’s important to note that many companies are “grooming more women for the corner office.” The pool of highly qualified women continues to grow as those who have received advanced degrees and worked in the corporate world are moving up through the ranks. In fact, research by McKinsey & Co. found that 24 percent of senior vice presidents at 58 big companies are women.58 If your professor has assigned this, go to www.mymanagementlab.com to complete the Simulation: HR & Diversity and get a better understanding of the challenges of diversity in organizations. Race and Ethnicity Roll the calendar back to the year 2000. The Coca-Cola Company has just agreed to an enormous settlement of $192.5 million for a class-action racial discrimination lawsuit.59 Court documents describe a company atmosphere in which black employ- ees “formed informal networks to provide ’sanity checks’ and diversity efforts were not considered a high priority by senior management.” Also, as the number of African American hires declined, a “number of highly educated and trained African- Americans at the company noted receiving unfavorable treatment, thus creating the impression that Coke was a high-risk environment for high-potential and aggressive African-Americans.” Now, fast-forward to 2013. The Coca-Cola Company is named by Diversity Inc. magazine as number 2 on the list of Top 10 Companies for blacks and number 10 on the Top 10 Companies for Latinos. How did the company make such a drastic turnaround? Since being sued for racial discrimination, Coca-Cola has made considerable strides in its diversity efforts at all levels and in all areas. Commitment from top execu- tives became and remains a cornerstone for managing diversity at the company. CEO Muhtar Kent (who was not CEO at the time of the discrimination problems) says, “Building a diverse and inclusive workforce is central to our 2020 Vision, which calls for us to ‘achieve true diversity’ throughout our business.” Kent also personally signs off on executive compensation tied to diversity goals and actions. Coca-Cola’s chief diversity officer, Steve Bucherati, has managed the company’s diversity programs for years. He has been described as a strong and devoted advocate for inclusion and rou- tinely provides Coke’s board of directors with reports about diversity initiatives and outcomes. Coca-Cola has recognized that diversity can greatly benefit the company in many ways. CEO Kent says, “The real power of diversity is the synergies that are cre- ated when different people and cultures come together united behind a common goal of winning and creating shared value. Extraordinary things truly happen.” Many other companies have had similar racial issues. There’s a long and contro- versial history in the United States and in other parts of the world over race and how people react to and treat others of a different race.60 Race and ethnicity are important types of diversity in organizations. We’re going to define race as the biological heri- tage (including physical characteristics such as one’s skin color and associated traits) that people use to identify themselves. Most people identify themselves as part of a racial group. Such racial classifications are an integral part of a country’s cultural, social, and legal environments. The racial and ethnicity choices in the most recent U.K. Census included 16 classifications: white (with choices such as British or Irish), mixed/multiple ethnic group (choices such as white and black Caribbean or white and Asian), Asian/Asian British (such as Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Chinese, and other Asian), Black/African/Caribbean/Black British (African, Caribbean, other black), and choices in an “other ethnic group” category. However, these categories may change in the next U.K. Census as the government tests ways to allow people to more accurately describe their racial and ethnic backgrounds.61 Ethnicity is related to race, but it refers to social traits—such as one’s cultural background or allegiance— that are shared by a human population. race The biological heritage (including skin color and associated traits) that people use to identify themselves ethnicity Social traits (such as cultural background or allegiance) that are shared by a human population Try It 1! M04_ROBB5839_14_GE_C04.indd 157 10/07/17 11:29 AM http://www.mymanagementlab.com 158 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace As we saw earlier in Exhibit 4-3, the racial and ethnic diversity of the U.S. popula- tion is increasing at an exponential rate. We’re also seeing this same effect in the com- position of the workforce. Most of the research on race and ethnicity as they relate to the workplace has looked at hiring decisions, performance evaluations, pay, and work- place discrimination.62 However, much of that research has focused on the differences in attitudes and outcomes between whites and African Americans. Minimal study has been done on issues relevant to Asian, Hispanic, and Native American populations. Let’s look at a few key findings. One finding is that individuals in workplaces tend to favor colleagues of their own race in performance evaluations, promotion decisions, and pay raises. Although such effects are small, they are consistent. Next, research shows substantial racial differences in attitudes toward affirmative action, with African Americans favoring such programs to a greater degree than whites. Other research shows that African Americans generally do worse than whites in decisions related to the workplace. For instance, in employment interviews, African Americans receive lower ratings. In the job setting, they receive lower job performance ratings, are paid less, and are promoted less frequently. However, no statistically significant differences between the two races are observed in absenteeism rates, applied social skills at work, or accident rates. As you can see, race and ethnicity issues are a key focus for managers in effectively managing workforce diversity. Disability/Abilities According to the U.S. Census Bureau, people with disabilities are the largest minority in the United States. Estimates vary, but it’s believed that there are some 19.8 million working-age Americans with disabilities. And that number continues to increase as military troops return from Iraq and Afghanistan.63 The year 1990 was a watershed year for persons with disabilities. That was the year the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) became law. The ADA prohibits REALlet’s get The Scenario Katie Harris is a manager in a branch office of a large insurance claims company. She manages a diverse team of 15 people. One of her team members stopped in to tell her that “several of them were upset that other team members were talking in their native language throughout the day.” Their complaint? They felt it was “rude” for coworkers to speak another language at work, and it made the other team members feel excluded and uncomfortable. What should Katie do to resolve this issue? Katie should have a conversation with the team members who were speaking in their native language to understand why they were speaking in their native language throughout the day. She should provide them with feedback that there are some coworkers who feel uncomfortable with this situation. Katie should definitely ask them for a solution on how to avoid this in the future. She should express that, as long as the conversation is work related, all coworkers need to be involved as communication is key in a work environment. Any other type of conversations can be spoken in their native language offstage; for example, at lunch or breaks. Claudia Gutierrez Service Manager So ur ce : C la ud ia G ut ie rr ez M04_ROBB5839_14_GE_C04.indd 158 10/07/17 11:29 AM Chapter 4 Valuing a Diverse Workforce 159 discrimination against an individual who is “regarded as” having a disability and requires employers to make reasonable accommodations so their workplaces are accessible to people with physical or mental disabilities and enable them to effectively perform their jobs. With the law’s enactment, individuals with disabilities became a more representative and integral part of the U.S. workforce. One issue facing managers and organizations is that the definition of disability is quite broad. The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission classifies a per- son as disabled if he or she has any physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities. For instance, deafness, chronic back pain, AIDS, missing limbs, seizure disorder, schizophrenia, diabetes, and alcoholism would all qualify. However, since these conditions have almost no common features, it’s been difficult to study how each condition affects employment. It’s obvious that some jobs cannot be accommodated to a disability. For instance, the law recognizes that a visu- ally impaired person could not be an airline pilot, a person with severe cerebral palsy could not be a surgeon, and a person with profound mobility constraints could not be a firefighter. However, computer technology and other adaptive devices have shattered many employment barriers for other employees with disabilities. A survey by the Society for Human Resource Management found that 61 percent of the HR professionals responding said that their organizations now include disabilities in their diversity and inclusion plans. However, only 47 percent said that their organiza- tions actively recruit individuals with disabilities. And 40 percent said that their senior managers demonstrate a strong commitment to do so.64 Even after 20-plus years of the ADA, organizations and managers still have fears about employing disabled workers. A survey by the U.S. Department of Labor looked at these unfounded fears.65 Exhibit 4-6 describes some of those fears as well as the reality; that is, what it’s really like. Let’s look at one company’s experience. Walgreens has hired individuals with mental and physical disabilities to work at its distribution center in Anderson, South Carolina.66 These employees work in one of three departments: case check-in (where merchan- dise initially comes in), de-trash (where merchandise is unpacked), or picking (where products are sorted into tubs based on individual store orders). Using an innovative approach that included job coaches, automated processes, and comprehensive training, Walgreens now has a capable and trusted workforce. The company’s senior vice presi- dent of distribution said, “One thing we found is they (the disabled employees) can all Commonplace technologies such as the Internet and voice-recognition software have eliminated many of the obstacles for workers with disabilitie great problem-solving skills from finding s; many individuals with disabilities have creative ways to perform tasks that others may take for granted Absentee rates for sick time are virtually equal between employees with and without disabilities; workers’ disabilities are not a factor in formulas calculating insurance costs for workers’ compensation : A person with a disability for whom workplace accommodations have been provided has the same obligations and rights as far as job performance Most workers with disabilities require no accommodation but for those who do, more than half of the workplace modifications cost $500 or less Hiring people with disabilities leads to higher employment costs and lowe profitr margins : Workers with dis- abilities lack job skills and experience necessary to perform as well as their abled counterparts Uncertainty over how to take potential dis- ciplinary action with a worker with disabilities High costs associated with accommodating disabled employees Exhibit 4-6 Employers’ Fears About Disabled Workers Sources: Based on R. Braum, “Disabled Workers: Employer Fears Are Groundless,” Bloomberg BusinessWeek, October 2, 2009; and “Survey of Employer Perspectives on the Employment of People with Disabilities,” U.S. Department of Labor/Office of Disability Employment Policy, November 2008. M04_ROBB5839_14_GE_C04.indd 159 10/07/17 11:29 AM 160 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace do the job. What surprised us is the environment that it’s created. It’s a building where everybody helps each other out.” Increasingly, there are companies that specialize in prepar- ing the disabled for employment. For instance, Specialisterne, a Danish company, focuses on training and placing autistic individuals for high-tech careers. Computer Aid is one of the companies that has hired autistic individuals who were trained by Specialisterne. Ernie Dianastasis, the managing director of Computer Aid, maintains, “The individuals I’ve hired are phe- nomenal. People on the autism spectrum are loyal, reliable, and have a high degree of accuracy in their work.”67 In effectively managing a workforce with disabled employ- ees, managers need to create and maintain an environment in which employees feel comfortable disclosing their need for accommodation. Those accommodations, by law, need to enable individuals with dis- abilities to perform their jobs but they also need to be perceived as equitable by those not disabled. That’s the balancing act that managers face. Religion In her sophomore year at college, Umme-Hani Khan worked for three months as a stock clerk at a Hollister clothing store in San Francisco.68 One day, she was told by her supervisors to remove the head scarf that she wears in observance of Islam (known as a hijab) because it violated the company’s “look policy” (which instructs employees on clothing, hair styles, makeup, and accessories they may wear to work). She refused on religious grounds and was fired one week later. Like a number of other Muslim women, she filed a federal job discrimination complaint. A spokesperson for Abercrombie & Fitch (Hollister’s parent company) said, “If any Abercrombie associate identifies a reli- gious conflict with an Abercrombie policy . . . the company will work with the associate in an attempt to find an accommodation.” Although that’s a step in the right direction, Abercrombie & Fitch was found guilty of religious discrimination in another case when it chose not to hire a Muslim job applicant because she wore a hijab.69 Title VII of the Civil Rights Act prohibits discrimination on the basis of religion (as well as race/ethnicity, country of origin, and sex). Today, it seems that the greatest religious diversity issue in the United States revolves around Islam, especially after 9/11.70 Islam is one of the world’s most popular religions, and over 2 million Muslims live in the United States. For the most part, U.S. Muslims have attitudes similar to those of other U.S. citizens. However, there are real and perceived differences. For instance, nearly 4 in 10 U.S. adults admit they harbor negative feelings or prejudices toward U.S. Muslims, and 52 percent believe U.S. Muslims are not respectful of women. Religious beliefs also can prohibit or encourage work behaviors. Many conserva- tive Jews believe they should not work on Saturdays. Some Christians do not want to work on Sundays. Religious individuals may believe they have an obligation to express their beliefs in the workplace, making it uncomfortable for those who may not share those beliefs. Some pharmacists have refused to give out certain kinds of con- traceptives on the basis of their beliefs. Similarly, in 2015, Kentucky state clerk Kim Davis refused to issue marriage licenses to same-sex couples until she was directed by court order not to interfere with same-sex couples’ constitutional rights to marriage. Ms. Davis refused to issue same-sex marriage licenses because homosexuality is not supported by her religion. As you can see, religion and religious beliefs can generate misperceptions and neg- ative feelings. The latest EEOC statistics showed that 3,502 religious-based complaints were filed in 2015.71 In accommodating religious diversity, managers need to recognize and be aware of different religions and their beliefs, paying special attention to when certain religious holidays fall. Try to accommodate, when at all possible, employees who have special needs or requests, but do so in such a way that other employees don’t view it as “special treatment.” Omar Troy is one of a team of baristas employed by Asbury Automotive to staff coffee cafes for customers at its car dealerships. The program, called Café Blends: Blending Autism into the Workplace, focuses on hiring and training autistic young adults and on educating other employees about the disability and ways they can help integrate the baristas in the workplace. Source: Robin Nelson/ZUMA Press/Alamy M04_ROBB5839_14_GE_C04.indd 160 10/07/17 11:29 AM Chapter 4 Valuing a Diverse Workforce 161 LGBT: Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity The acronym LGBT—which refers to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people— relates to the diversity of sexual orientation and gender identity.72 Sexual orientation has, in fact, been called the “last acceptable bias.”73 We want to emphasize that we’re not condoning this perspective, but what the comment refers to is that most people understand that racial and ethnic stereotypes are off-limits. Still, it’s not unusual to hear derogatory comments about gays or lesbians—in fact, negative attitudes toward LGBT are not uncommon.74 How many LGBT people are in the overall population? It’s difficult to know, exactly. Some governments are actually trying to find out by including questions about sexual identity on national census forms. Already, some estimates are becoming available. For instance, the Office for National Statistics reports that 1.7 percent of the U.K. population identifies as lesbian, gay, or bisexual; of those people, most were in the age category of 16 to 24.75 A growing number of nations are adopting laws banning discrimination against LGBT people. For example, in the European Union, the Employment Equality Directive requires all member states to introduce legislation making it unlawful to discriminate on grounds of sexual orientation.76 Despite the progress, much more needs to be done. One study found more than 40 percent of gay and lesbian employees indicated they had been unfairly treated, denied a promotion, or pushed to quit their job because of their sexual orientation.77 Another study found that “closeted” LGBTs who felt isolated at work were 73 percent more likely to leave their job within three years than “out” workers.78 This statistic is not surprising based on the results of a third study: More than one-third of LGBT workers felt they had to lie about their personal lives at work, and about the same percentage felt exhausted from the time and energy needed to hide their gender identity.79 Employers take differing approaches to employing LGBT people. Sometimes companies band together to push for change as a group, as happened recently in Japan. Thirty businesses, including Panasonic, Sony, and Dai-ichi Life Insurance, jointly developed standards that individual firms can copy or adapt as policies for making LGBT employees more welcome in Japanese workplaces.80 Another approach is to take the initiative by setting goals for increasing the number of LGBT people employed, as part of the drive for diversity and inclusion in the workplace. The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), for example, has pledged to meet a target of having LGBT employees comprise 8 percent of its workforce within a few years. The BBC’s other diversity targets include increasing the percentage of women to 50 percent of its workforce and the percentage of disabled people to 8 percent.81 Other businesses are showing support for LGBT employees through personnel policies and practices. Not only does the Swedish communications tech giant Ericsson promote equal opportu- nity in employment and professional development for LGBT people, it encourages the formation of LGBT networking groups to foster a deeper sense of connection. The company has a global diversity council with representatives from each geographic region, plus local diversity councils in each area where Ericsson operates. These coun- cils include LGBT employees in programs aimed at improving inclusion and under- standing, as well as reducing unconscious biases within the workforce.82 As with most of the types of diversity we’ve discussed in this section, managers need to look at how best to meet the needs of their LGBT employees. They need to respond to employees’ concerns while also creating a safe and productive work environment for all. Other Types of Diversity As we said earlier, diversity refers to any dissimilarities or differences that might be present in a workplace. Other types of workplace diversity that managers might confront and have to deal with include socioeconomic background (social class and income-related factors), team members from different functional areas or organiza- tional units, physical attractiveness, obesity/thinness, job seniority, or intellectual abili- ties. Each of these types of diversity also can affect how employees are treated in the workplace. Again, managers everywhere need to ensure that all employees—no matter the similarities or dissimilarities—are treated fairly and given the opportunity and support to do their jobs to the best of their abilities. M04_ROBB5839_14_GE_C04.indd 161 10/07/17 11:29 AM 162 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace CHALLENGES in managing diversity Nooses, racist graffiti, and Confederate battle flags should have been enough to warrant action. However, the discovery that he was paid less as a painter than white workers is what finally prompted an African American employee to complain to his employer, Texas-based Turner Industries Group LLC.84 Soon after filing the complaint, he was fired. His complaints, along with those of seven other employees, “have led the federal government to conclude there was evidence of racial discrimination.” Despite the benefits that we know workforce diversity brings to organizations, managers still face challenges in creating accommodating and safe work environments for diverse employees. In this section, we’re going to look at two of those challenges: personal bias and the glass ceiling. Personal Bias Women drivers. Smokers. Working mothers. Football players. Blondes. Female presi- dent of the United States. Hispanic. Blue-collar worker. What impressions come to mind when you read these words? Based on your background and experiences, you probably have pretty specific ideas and things you would say, maybe even to the point of characteristics you think that all smokers or all working mothers or all Hispanics share. Each of us has biases—often hidden from others.85 Employees can and do bring such ideas about various groups of people with them into the workplace. Such ideas can lead to prejudice, discrimination, and stereotypes—all of which shape and influ- ence our personal biases. And research is pointing to a troubling fact: Eliminating bias is a lot more difficult than previously thought.86 Bias is a term that describes a tendency or preference toward a particular perspec- tive or ideology. It’s generally seen as a “one-sided” perspective. Our personal biases LO4.4 bias A tendency or preference toward a particular perspective or ideology What does diversity mean to you? Your response might depend on when you were born.83 According to a recent study from Deloitte and the Billie Jean King Leadership Initiative, those born between about 1980 and 2000, known as the Millennial generation, may have a differ- ent definition of diversity than do older generations. Instead of thinking of diversity as those surface-level differences including demographic characteristics such as gender or race, the Millennial generation focuses more on deep-level differences, quickly taking to this expanded view of diversity. The researchers suggest that unlike Baby Boomers and Generation X, the Mil- lennials are already comfortable with diversity in the traditional sense and don’t necessarily see the need for organizational efforts to build awareness around diver- sity. However, they do see the value in a different kind of diversity that directly impacts business outcomes. Millennials believe in what is often called diversity of thought. People join organizations with a wide range of experiences that shape how they think. People attend different schools and grow up in different parts of the world. They come to the workplace with different back- grounds, cultural experiences, and personalities. All of Diversity of ThoughtF U T U R E V I S I O N these experiences and traits develop cognitive view- points that are wide and varied. Diversity of thought creates significant potential value to organizations if effectively cultivated. Diverse thinkers in an organiza- tion can help guard against groupthink and give organi- zations an advantage through more innovation and cre- ative problem solving. Given that Millennials will make up nearly 75 percent of the workforce by the year 2025, it seems that organizations need to look more closely at this deep-level definition of diversity. Valuing diver- sity means openness to different perspectives, and those coming to the workplace with varied experiences can bring with them this diversity of thought. If your professor has chosen to assign this, go to www.mymanagmentlab.com to discuss the follow- ing questions. TALK ABOUT IT 1: Do you agree that diverse cogni- tive viewpoints benefit organizations? What kind of chal- lenges could diverse thinking create for organizations? TALK ABOUT IT 2: How can managers cultivate diversity of thought? M04_ROBB5839_14_GE_C04.indd 162 10/07/17 11:29 AM http://www.mymanagmentlab.com Chapter 4 Valuing a Diverse Workforce 163 cause us to have preconceived opinions about people or things. Such preconceived opinions can create all kinds of inaccurate judgments and attitudes. Let’s take a look at how our personal biases affect the way we view and respond to diversity. One outcome of our personal biases can be prejudice, a preconceived belief, opinion, or judgment toward a person or a group of people. Our prejudice can be based on all the types of diversity we discussed: race, gender, ethnicity, age, disability, religion, sexual orientation, or even other personal characteristics. A major factor in prejudice is stereotyping, which is judging a person on the basis of one’s perception of a group to which he or she belongs. For instance, “married persons are more stable employees than single persons” is an example of stereotyping. Keep in mind, though, that not all stereotypes are inaccurate. For instance, asking someone in accounting about a budgeting problem you’re having would be an appro- priate assumption and action. However, many stereotypes—red-haired people have a bad temper, elderly drivers are the most dangerous, working mothers aren’t as commit- ted to their careers as men are, and so forth—aren’t factual and distort our judgment. Both prejudice and stereotyping can lead to someone treating others who are members of a particular group unequally. That’s what we call discrimination, which is when people act out their prejudicial attitudes toward people who are the targets of their prejudice. You’ll find in Exhibit 4-7 definitions and examples of different types of discrimination. Many of these actions are prohibited by law, so you won’t find them discussed in employee handbooks or organizational policy statements. However, you can still see these actions in workplaces. “As discrimination has increasingly come under both legal scrutiny and social disapproval, most overt forms have faded, which may have resulted in an increase in more covert forms like incivility or exclusion.”87 Discrimination, whether intentional or not, can lead to serious negative conse- quences for employers, as illustrated by the example we discussed at the beginning of this chapter and section. But it’s not just the potential financial consequences organi- zations and managers face for discriminatory actions. It’s the reduced employee pro- ductivity, negative and disruptive interpersonal conflicts, increased employee turnover, and overall negative climate that can lead to serious problems for managers. Even if an organization has never had an employment discrimination lawsuit filed against it, managers need to aggressively work to elimi- nate unfair discrimination. Glass Ceiling Pretend you’ve just finished your MBA degree. It’s not been easy. Your graduate classes were challenging, but you feel well-prepared for and excited about that first post-MBA job. If you’re female, that first job for 60 percent of you will be an entry-level position. However, if you’re male, only 46 percent of you would start out in an entry- level position.89 And 2 percent of women would make it to the CEO or senior executive position, although 6 percent of men would. “Although entry into occupations such as accounting, busi- ness, and law happens at about the same rate for men and women, evidence is mounting that women’s and men’s career paths begin to divide soon after.”90 This issue can be seen with minori- ties as well. Only a small percentage of both male and female Hispanics and African Americans have made it into management positions in the United States. What’s going on here? After all these years of “equal opportunity,” why do we still see statistics like these? prejudice A preconceived belief, opinion, or judgment toward a person or a group of people stereotyping Judging a person based on a perception of a group to which that person belongs discrimination When someone acts out their prejudicial attitudes toward people who are the targets of their prejudice Dr. Rohini Anand, senior vice president and global chief diversity officer at Sodexo, says her job is to carry out the vision that “diversity and inclusion would result in Sodexo being able to identify and develop the best talent and create an environment where employees could thrive and deliver out- standing service solutions to clients and customers.” 88 Anand, who grew up in India, was “surrounded by others who looked like me, but had variation by socioeconomic status or religion.” It was when she moved to the United States that she was first perceived as a minority, which led her to the work she does today. After earning her PhD from the University of Michigan, Anand worked in various corporate and government positions and came to Sodexo in 2003. Under her intel- ligent and compassionate leadership, the company is consistently in the top two or three on DiversityInc’s Top Companies for Diversity list. And it’s easy to see why. From the CEO down, there is a strong commit- ment to integrating diversity and inclusion throughout the organization. What can you learn from this leader making a difference? LEADER making a DIFFERENCE So ur ce : J ua n M an ue l V ar ga s/ AP Im ag es M04_ROBB5839_14_GE_C04.indd 163 10/07/17 11:30 AM 164 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace First used in a Wall Street Journal article in the 1980s, the term glass ceiling refers to the invisible barrier that separates women and minorities from top management positions.91 The idea of a “ceiling” means something is blocking upward movement and the idea of “glass” is that whatever’s blocking the way isn’t immediately apparent. Many biases and stereotypes about women reinforce the glass ceiling. For instance, “[a male’s] interaction with a woman comes with a reputation risk that can damage careers—‘there’s more than just a professional relationship between the two.’”92 Research on the glass ceiling has looked at identifying the organizational prac- tices and interpersonal biases that have blocked women’s advancement. Findings from those studies have ranged from lack of mentoring to sex stereotyping, views that asso- ciate masculine traits with leader effectiveness, and bosses’ perceptions of family-work conflict.93 Another perspective on why there are so few top women leaders in many fields was offered by a highly successful woman—Sheryl Sandberg, former vice president of Google and currently the chief operating officer of Facebook. In her book, Lean In, glass ceiling The invisible barrier that separates women and minorities from top management positions Exhibit 4-7 Forms of Discrimination  Type of Discrimination Definition Examples from Organizations Discriminatory policies or practices Actions taken by representatives of the organization that deny equal opportunity to perform or unequal rewards for performance Older workers may be targeted for layoffs because they are highly paid and have lucrative benefits.a Sexual harassment Unwanted sexual advances and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature that create a hostile or offensive work environment Salespeople at one company went on company-paid visits to strip clubs, brought strippers into the office to celebrate promotions, and fostered pervasive sexual rumors.b Intimidation Overt threats or bullying directed at members of specific groups of employees African American employees at some companies have found nooses hanging over their work stations.c Mockery and insults Jokes or negative stereotypes; sometimes the result of jokes taken too far Arab Americans have been asked at work whether they were carrying bombs or were members of terrorist organizations.d Exclusion Exclusion of certain people from job opportunities, social events, discussions, or informal mentor- ing; can occur unintentionally Many women in finance claim they are assigned to marginal job roles or are given light workloads that don’t lead to promotion.e Incivility Disrespectful treatment, including behaving in an aggressive man- ner, interrupting the person, or ignoring his or her opinions Female lawyers note that male attorneys frequently cut them off or do not adequately address their comments.f Notes: a. J. Levitz and P. Shishkin, “More Workers Cite Age Bias After Layoffs,” Wall Street Journal, March 11, 2009, pp. D1–D2. b. W. M. Bulkeley, “A Data-Storage Titan Confronts Bias Claims,” Wall Street Journal, September 12, 2007, pp. A1, A16. c. D. Walker, “Incident with Noose Stirs Old Memories,” McClatchy-Tribune Business News, June 29, 2008; and D. Solis, “Racial Horror Stories Keep EEOC Busy,” Knight-Ridder Tribune Business News, July 30, 2005, p. 1. d. H. Ibish and A. Stewart, Report on Hate Crimes and Discrimination Against Arab Americans: The Post- September 11 Backlash, September 11, 2001–October 11, 2001 (Washington, DC: American-Arab Anti- Discrimination Committee, 2003). e. A. Raghavan, “Wall Street’s Disappearing Women,” Forbes, March 16, 2009, pp. 72–78. f. L. M. Cortina, “Unseen Injustice: Incivility as Modern Discrimination in Organizations.” Source: S. Robbins and T. Judge, Organizational Behavior, 15th ed., Prentice Hall, p. 43. FYI • 57 percent of women feel that unconscious bias is the greatest barrier they face in the workplace.94 M04_ROBB5839_14_GE_C04.indd 164 10/07/17 11:30 AM Chapter 4 Valuing a Diverse Workforce 165 Sandberg suggests that there’s a “leadership ambition gap”—that is, women don’t get top jobs because they don’t really want to.95 She suggests that women “lean in” and be as assertive as men are in pushing forward their careers.96 Whatever is believed to be the reason why so few women reach the executive level, and as others have said, it’s time to shatter the glass ceiling for all employees. Every employee should have the opportunity to work in a career in which they can use their skills and abilities and to have a career path that allows them to progress as far as they want to go. Getting to that end, however, isn’t going to be easy. As we’ll see in the next section, there are a number of workplace diversity initiatives that organizations can implement to work toward that end. WORKPLACE diversity initiatives Marriott International takes diversity seriously. A company spokesper- son said that “we leverage our core values to embed diversity and inclu- sion so deeply that it is integral to how we do business globally.”97 Arne Sorenson, the company’s president and CEO, is a visible force and advocate for diversity both in the company and externally. For instance, he publically spoke against Indiana’s anti- LGBT Religious Freedom Restoration Act, saying: “This is just plain wrong and . . . and we will not stand for it . . . the notion that you can tell businesses that somehow they are free to discriminate is not right.”98 The company also has mandatory diversity training every month and a number of employee resource groups that provide input and advice. Their diversity management efforts have earned the company the number 13 spot on the Top 50 Companies for Diversity list for 2015. As the Marriott example shows, some businesses are effectively managing diver- sity. In this section, we look at various workplace diversity initiatives; however, before we start discussing these, we first look at the legal framework within which diversity efforts take place. The Legal Aspect of Workplace Diversity Would workplaces have evolved to the level of diversity that currently exists without federal legislation and mandates?99 Although it’s an interesting question, the fact is that federal laws have contributed to some of the social change we’ve seen over the last 50-plus years. Exhibit 4-8 describes the major equal employment opportunity laws with which organizations must comply. Failure to do so, as we have seen in some of the examples we’ve described, can be costly and damaging to an organization’s bottom line and reputation. It’s important that managers know what they can and cannot do legally and ensure that all employees understand as well. However, effectively managing workplace diversity needs to be more than under- standing and complying with federal laws. Organizations that are successful at manag- ing diversity use additional diversity initiatives and programs. We’re going to look at four of these: top management commitment, mentoring, diversity skills training, and employee resource groups. Top Management Commitment to Diversity Today’s increasingly competitive marketplace underscores the reality that creating a diverse workplace has never been more important. It’s equally important to make diversity and inclusion an integral part of the organization’s culture. “A sustainable diversity and inclusion strategy must play a central role in decision making at the high- est leadership level and filter down to every level of the company.”100 How do organi- zational leaders do that? One of the first things to do is make sure that diversity and inclusion are part of the organization’s purpose, goals, and strategies. Look back at our chapter opener. That’s one of the things that the Coca-Cola Company does. Even during economically chal- lenging times, an organization needs a strong commitment to diversity and inclusion programs. Diversity needs to be integrated into every aspect of the business—from the LO4.5 FYI • 67 percent of mid- to senior- level businesswomen said mentorship was highly important in helping advance and grow their careers. • 63 percent have never had a formal mentor.101 M04_ROBB5839_14_GE_C04.indd 165 10/07/17 11:30 AM 166 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace workforce, customers, and suppliers to products, services, and the communities served. Policies and procedures must be in place to ensure that grievances and concerns are addressed immediately. Finally, the organizational culture needs to be one where diver- sity and inclusion are valued, even to the point where, like Marriott International, individual performance is measured and rewarded on diversity accomplishments. Mentoring One of the consequences of having few women and minorities in top corporate leader- ship positions is that lower-level diverse employees lack someone to turn to for sup- port or advice. That’s where a mentoring program can be beneficial. Mentoring is a process whereby an experienced organizational member (a mentor) provides advice and guidance to a less-experienced member (a protégé). Mentors usually provide two unique forms of mentoring functions: career development and social support.102 Andrea Jung, former CEO of Avon Products, the first woman to hold that job in the female-oriented products company, said her male mentor (previous CEO James Preston) had the most influence on her career.103 A study by Catalyst of male mentors to women found that men who impeded or who were indifferent to the progress of women viewed the workplace as a zero-sum game where promotion of women came at mentoring A process whereby an experienced organizational member (a mentor) provides advice and guidance to a less experienced member (a protégé) Exhibit 4-8 Major Equal Employment Opportunity Laws  Year Law or Ruling Description 1963 Equal Pay Act Prohibits pay differences for equal work based on gender 1964 (amended in 1972) Civil Rights Act, Title VII Prohibits discrimination based on race, color, religion, national origin, or gender 1967 (amended in 1978) Age Discrimination in Employment Act Prohibits discrimination against employees 40 years and older 1973 Rehabilitation Act Prohibits discrimination against a qualified person with a disability in the federal government as well as retalia- tion against a person who complained about discrimination 1978 Pregnancy Discrimination Act Prohibits discrimination against women in employment decisions on the basis of pregnancy, childbirth, and related medical decisions 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act Prohibits discrimination against indi- viduals who have disabilities or chronic illnesses; also requires reasonable accommodations for these individuals 1991 Civil Rights Act of 1991 Reaffirms and tightens prohibition of discrimination and gives individuals right to sue for punitive damages 1993 Family and Medical Leave Act Gives employees in organizations with 50 or more employees up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave each year for family or medical reasons 2008 Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act Prohibits discrimination against employees or applicants because of genetic information (one’s own or family members’ genetic tests) 2009 Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act Changes the statute of limitations on pay discrimination to 180 days from each paycheck Source: U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, www.eeoc.gov. M04_ROBB5839_14_GE_C04.indd 166 10/07/17 11:30 AM http://www.eeoc.gov Chapter 4 Valuing a Diverse Workforce 167 the expense of men. However, one thing that stood out among men who championed women was a strong sense of fairness.104 A good mentoring program would be aimed at all employees with high potential to move up the organization’s career ladder. Exhibit 4-9 looks at what a good mentor does. If an organization is serious about its commitment to diversity, it needs to have a mentoring program in place. Gives constructive criticism Shares technical expertise Develops a high-quality, close, and supportive relationship with protégé Keeps lines of communication open Provides instruction Offers advice Helps build appropriate skills Knows when to “let go” and let the protégé prove what he/she can do Exhibit 4-9 What a Good Mentor Does Sources: Based on J. Prime and C. A. Moss-Racusin, “Engaging Men in Gender Initiatives: What Change Agents Need to Know,” Catalyst, www.catalyst. org, 2009; T. J. DeLong, J. J. Gabarro, and R. J. Lees, “Why Mentoring Matters in a Hypercompetitive World,” Harvard Business Review, January 2008, pp. 115–121; S. N. Mehta, “Why Mentoring Works,” Fortune, July 9, 2001, p. 119; and D. A. Thomas, “Race Matters: The Truth About Mentoring Minorities,” Harvard Business Review, April 2001, pp. 99–107. Mentors and Protégés—If your instructor is using Pearson MyLab Management, log onto mymanagementlab.com and test your mentor-protégé knowledge. Be sure to refer back to the chapter opener! Diversity Skills Training “The only thing in human DNA is to discriminate. It’s a part of normal human tribal behavior.”105 In a chapter on managing diversity, you might be surprised to find a statement like this. However, it reflects reality. Our human nature is to not accept or approach anyone who is different from us. But it doesn’t make discrimination of any type or form acceptable. And we live and work in a multicultural context. So the chal- lenge for organizations is to find ways for employees to be effective in dealing with others who aren’t like them. That’s where diversity skills training—specialized train- ing to educate employees about the importance of diversity and teach them skills for working in a diverse workplace—comes in. Millions of dollars are spent on this effort annually, much of it on training.106 Most diversity skills training programs start with diversity awareness training. During this type of training, employees are made aware of the assumptions and biases they may have. Once we recognize that, we can look at increasing our sensitivity and openness to those who are different from us. Sounds simple, but it’s not. However, if people can be taught to recognize that they’re prejudging people and to consciously address that behavior, then the diversity awareness training has been successful. The next step is diversity skills training, in which people learn specific skills on how to com- municate and work effectively in a diverse work environment. At Sodexo, the food services/facilities management company, employee diversity training is an important part of its diversity management program. Employee Resource Groups Kellogg Company, the cereal corporation, is a pioneer in workplace diversity. More than 100 years ago, company founder W. K. Kellogg employed women in the work- place and reached across cultural boundaries. That commitment to diversity continues diversity skills training Specialized training to educate employees about the importance of diversity and teach them skills for working in a diverse workplace It’s Your Career M04_ROBB5839_14_GE_C04.indd 167 10/07/17 11:30 AM http://www.catalyst.org http://www.catalyst.org PREPARING FOR: Exam/Quizzes 168 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace today. The company’s CEO attributes much of the company’s success to the wide variety of histories, experiences, ideas, and perspectives employees have brought to the business.107 Kellogg’s has been very supportive of its various employee resource groups, made up of employees connected by some common dimension of diversity. Such groups typically are formed by the employees themselves, not the organiza- tions. However, it’s important for organizations to recognize and support these groups. Employee resource groups (also called employee net- works or affinity groups) have become quite popular. Why are they so prevalent? The main reason is that diverse groups have the opportunity to see that their existence is acknowl- edged and that they have the support of people within and outside the group. Individu- als in a minority often feel invisible and not important in the overall organizational scheme of things. Employee resource groups provide an opportunity for those individu- als to have a voice. For instance, Prudential, a financial services and insurance company, has seven employee resource groups—some are Abled & Disabled Associates Partner- ing Together (ADAPT); Prudential Military Veterans Network (VETNET); Employee Association of Gay Men, Lesbians, Bisexual, Transgender & Allies (EAGLES); and the newest—Generations—which focuses on generational diversity. These groups dem- onstrate a commitment to empowering, leveraging, and fostering the development of the individual members of the resource group. Through these employee resource groups, those in a minority find they’re not alone—and that can be a powerful means of embracing and including all employees, regardless of their differences. A gospel choir employee resource group at Nissan’s automotive plant in Canton, Mississippi, brings together a diverse group of employees, from technicians to salaried workers, who all share a love of singing. Nissan’s top managers are committed to employee diversity initiatives that also include mentoring and skills training. Source: Rogelio V. Solis/AP Images employee resource groups Groups made up of employees connected by some common dimension of diversity Chapter 4 CHAPTER SUMMARY by Learning Objectives DEFINE workplace diversity and explain why managing it is so important. Workplace diversity is the ways in which people in an organization are different from and similar to one another. Managing workforce diversity is important for three rea- sons: (1) people management benefits—better use of employee talent, increased qual- ity of team problem-solving efforts, and ability to attract and retain diverse employees; (2) organizational performance benefits—reduced costs, enhanced problem-solving ability, and improved system flexibility; and (3) strategic benefits—increased under- standing of a diverse marketplace, potential to improve sales and market share, and competitive advantage. DESCRIBE the changing workplaces in the United States and around the world. The main changes in the workplace in the United States include the total increase in the population; the changing components of the population, especially in relation to racial/ethnic groups; and an aging population. The most important changes in the global population include the total world population and the aging of that population. EXPLAIN the different types of diversity found in workplaces. The different types of diversity found in workplaces include age (older workers and younger workers), gender (male and female), race and ethnicity (racial and ethnic LO4.1 LO4.2 LO4.3 M04_ROBB5839_14_GE_C04.indd 168 10/07/17 11:30 AM Chapter 4 Valuing a Diverse Workforce 169 classifications), disability/abilities (people with a disability that limits major life activi- ties), religion (religious beliefs and religious practices), sexual orientation and gender identity (gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender), and other (for instance, socioeco- nomic background, team members from different functional areas, physical attractive- ness, obesity, job seniority, and so forth). DISCUSS the challenges managers face in managing diversity. The two main challenges managers face are personal bias and the glass ceiling. Bias is a tendency or preference toward a particular perspective or ideology. Our biases can lead to prejudice, which is a preconceived belief, opinion, or judgment toward a person or a group of people; stereotyping, which is judging a person on the basis of one’s perception of a group to which he or she belongs; and discrimination, which is when someone acts out prejudicial attitudes toward people who are the targets of that person’s prejudice. The glass ceiling refers to the invisible barrier that separates women and minorities from top management positions. DESCRIBE various workplace diversity management initiatives. It’s important to understand the role of federal laws in diversity. Some of these laws include Title VII of the Civil Rights Act, the Americans with Disabilities Act, and Age Discrimination in Employment Act. Workplace diversity management initia- tives include top management commitment to diversity; mentoring, which is a process whereby an experienced organizational member provides advice and guidance to a less experienced member; diversity skills training; and employee resource groups, which are groups made up of employees connected by some common dimension of diversity. LO4.4 LO4.5 Pearson MyLab Management Go to mymanagementlab.com to complete the problems marked with this icon . REVIEW AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 4-1. How has workforce diversity changed since the 1960s, particularly in the West? 4-2. Identify the three main challenges of having workforce diversity in an organization. 4-3. Which countries experience a “demographic dividend,” and what does this mean? Is it sustainable or not? 4-4. Do you think religion can affect work behaviors? 4-5. Look around you and summarize the different forms of diversity you can find at your university. 4-6. Different ethnicity causes problems associated with diversity management. Discuss. 4-7. Are laws, federal or otherwise, necessary for supporting diversity initiatives? 4-8. Who is responsible for doing more to break the glass ceiling barrier for women and minorities? Pearson MyLab Management If your professor has assigned these, go to mymanagementlab.com for the follow- ing Assisted-graded writing questions: 4-9. What is workforce diversity, and why is managing it so important? 4-10. What would you include in a diversity training program? Justify your suggestions. M04_ROBB5839_14_GE_C04.indd 169 10/07/17 11:30 AM 170 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace PREPARING FOR: My Career PERSONAL INVENTORY ASSESSMENTS P I A PERSONAL INVENTORY ASSESSMENT Multicultural Awareness Scale It’s highly likely that you’ll be employed in an organization with a diverse workforce. How aware are you of other cultures and other cultural contexts? Complete this PIA and find out. ETHICS DILEMMA An unexpected ethical issue arose when Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria joined the European Union (EU). The start of the free movement of workers across the EU meant that workers from these countries could effectively undercut the domestic workforce. Wages in Eastern Europe were considerably lower than its Western counterparts, but recruitment agencies actively hired to help businesses drive down their salary and wage bills. With unemployment being relatively high in France, the United Kingdom, and Spain, for example, recruiters offered high-quality workers a fraction of the domestic rates. Locals were being priced out of the job market. 4-11. Do you think the Eastern Europeans were being exploited by the recruitment agencies? 4-12. Should a country ever adopt a “locals first” policy in terms of employment opportunity? Does legal migration only imply flooding lucrative job markets? SKILLS EXERCISE Developing Your Valuing Diversity Skill About the Skill Understanding and managing people who are similar to us can be challenging—but understanding and managing people who are dissimilar from us and from each other can be even tougher.108 The diversity issues a manager might face are many. They may include issues such as communicating with employees whose familiarity with the language may be limited; creating career development programs that fit the skills, needs, and values of a particular group; helping a diverse team cope with a conflict over goals or work assignments; or learning which rewards are valued by different groups. Steps in Practicing the Skill • Fully accept diversity. Successfully valuing diversity starts with each individual accepting the principle of diversity. Accept the value of diversity for its own sake—not simply because it’s the right thing to do. And it’s important that you reflect your acceptance in all you say and do. • Recruit broadly. When you have job openings, work to get a diverse applicant pool. Although referrals from current employees can be a good source of applicants, that source tends to produce candidates similar to the present workforce. • Select fairly. Make sure the selection process doesn’t discriminate. One suggestion is to use job-specific tests rather than general aptitude or knowledge tests. Such tests measure specific skills, not subjective characteristics. • Provide orientation and training for diverse employees. Making the transition from outsider to insider can be particularly difficult for a diverse employee. Provide support either through a group or through a mentoring arrangement. • Sensitize nondiverse employees. Not only do you personally need to accept and value diversity, as a manager you need to encourage all your employees to do so. Many organizations do this through diversity training programs. In addition, employees can also be part of ongoing discussion groups whose members meet monthly to discuss stereotypes and ways of improving diversity relationships. The most important thing a manager can do is show by his or her actions that diversity is valued. • Strive to be flexible. Part of valuing diversity is recognizing that different groups have different needs and values. Be flexible in accommodating employee requests. • Seek to motivate individually. Motivating employees is an important skill for any manager; motivating a diverse workforce has its own special challenges. Managers must strive to be in tune with the background, cultures, and values of employees. • Reinforce employee differences. Encourage individuals to embrace and value diverse views. Create traditions and ceremonies that promote diversity. Celebrate diversity M04_ROBB5839_14_GE_C04.indd 170 10/07/17 11:30 AM Chapter 4 Valuing a Diverse Workforce 171 by accentuating its positive aspects. However, also be prepared to deal with the challenges of diversity such as mistrust, miscommunication, lack of cohesiveness, attitudinal differences, and stress. Practicing the Skill Read through the following scenario. Write down some notes about how you would handle the situation described. Be sure to refer to the eight behaviors described for valuing diversity. Scenario You have recently taken over the management of a team assigned to implement a new information technology system at your company. Read through the descriptions of the following employees who are on your team. Consider the steps you can take to ensure that your team successfully works together. What types of employee issues might you face as the team’s manager? How can you ensure your team works together successfully and benefits from the diversity of the team? Make some notes of your plans on how you will manage your new team. Lester. Lester is 57 years old, a college graduate, and has been with the company for more than 20 years. His two children are married, and he is a grandparent of three beautiful grandchildren. He lives in a condo with his wife, who does volunteer work and is active in their church. Lester is healthy and likes to stay active, both physically and mentally. Sanjyot. Sanjyot is a 30-year-old who joined the company after she came to the United States from Indonesia 10 years ago. She completed high school after moving to the United States and has begun to attend evening classes at a local community college. Sanjyot is a single parent with two children under the age of 8. Although her health is excellent, one of her children suffers from a severe learning disability. Yuri. Yuri is a recent immigrant from one of the former Soviet republics and is new to the company. He is 42 and his English communication skills are quite limited. He is unmarried and has no children but feels obligated to send much of his paycheck to relatives back in his home country. As a result, he is willing to work extra hours to increase his pay. Beth. Beth joined the company two years ago when she graduated from college. She is recently married and is very involved in the local community, volunteering with several local nonprofit organizations when she is not at work. She grew up in a nearby community and also has responsibility for caring for her aging parents who have recently developed several health problems. WORKING TOGETHER Team Exercise A challenge for organizations in managing diversity is how to recruit and hire a diverse workforce. In groups of three or four students, discuss opportunities to identify and attract a diverse job applicant pool for an organization. Consider the different types of diversity and generate a list of ideas of where a company could publicize job openings in order to target more diverse applicants. Be prepared to share your ideas with the class. MY TURN TO BE A MANAGER • Describe your experiences with people from other backgrounds. What challenges have you faced? What have you learned that will help you in understanding the unique needs and challenges of a diverse workplace? • Go to DiversityInc.com (www.diversityinc.com) and find the latest list of Top 50 Companies for Diversity. Select three companies from this list. Describe and evaluate what they’re doing as far as workplace diversity is concerned. • Think of times when you may have been treated unfairly because of stereotypical thinking. What stereotypes were being used? How did you respond to the treatment? • The Job Accommodation Network is a free resource for employers to identify ways to provide work accommodations to allow disabled workers to be productive and hold a wider variety of jobs. Visit www. askjan.org and search the accommodation database to find examples of accommodations for specific disabilities. • Assume you are designing a mentoring program for an organization. Conduct some research on mentoring programs that currently exist in different organizations and identify characteristics of an effective mentoring program. • Pick one of the laws listed in Exhibit 4-8. Research that law looking for these elements: Whom does the law cover? What does the law prohibit? What are the consequences for violating the law? M04_ROBB5839_14_GE_C04.indd 171 10/07/17 11:30 AM http://www.diversityinc.com http://www.askjan.org http://www.askjan.org 172 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace An Ethical Hotel where Disabled People Can Find Their WayCASE APPLICATION 1 In 2015, the Albergo Etico (Ethical Hotel), located in Asti, Norther Italy, opened its doors to the public and has quickly become a case of excellence in the management of disabled workers in the hospitality industry. The main characteristic of this hotel is that disabled workers represent a large part of the company’s workforce. The hotel’s management ensures that the employees are mentored throughout their tenure with the company and are supported in developing their personal and professional abilities. This successful diversity management initiative began in 2006 with a project called “download.” This was created by a group of friends who wanted to do something to improve the society they lived in and, particularly, to help Niccolò, a young man with Down syndrome, to complete work experience to validate his diploma in hospitality management. Niccolò began his internship working in the hotel and its restaurant, performing all core activities completed by the hotel staff, including working in the back and front offices and serving clients during meals. Through the hotel’s support, Niccolò’s development in his work and personal life were significant. He has reached a considerable degree of autonomy, now having his own key to the restaurant, serving as a mentor for newcomers to the business, and living independently. Today, with help from charities like the Vodafone Foundation, the download proj- ect has implemented structured training and has seen more disabled workers joining Alberto Etico following Niccolò’s example. The hotel hosts an Academy of Indepen- dence within its premises, allowing disabled people to work, learn, and live together for the entire duration of the three-year program. The hotel staff guides the trainees through all the different hotel functions to help build their skills. A fundamental mo- ment of each day in training is the lunch where trainees and mentors take time to reflect on challenges of the morning. They also find time to relax and develop their re- lationships. The camaraderie between employees is incredibly strong and contributes in creating a unique climate of trust, respect, and collaboration that enable the workers to learn all the necessary skills to work in the hotel in a safe environment. Trainees are also encouraged to use these skills in their personal life, to strengthen their independence. However, working in the hospitality industry is not always easy as the responsibili- ties and clients can be demanding. Therefore, hotel managers take into serious account the physical and mental well-being of their collaborators, especially of the disabled workers who need to strengthen their musculature to be able to perform all required tasks. To achieve this goal, the hotel’s direction has decided to develop partnerships with local sport centers to let disabled workers practice regular sport and massage therapy to relax and reinforce their musculature. Disabled workers are initiated to jog- ging or Nordic walking who are sports particularly suitable for them as can be prac- ticed with graduation and enable them to correct posture and body balance. Another suitable sport is the Judo that enables disabled workers to improve their equilibrium, movements, and coordination. With organizations across the world recognizing the need to hire more differently abled people in their verticals, and envisaging business development in which they also play an important part, Albergo Etico is an illustrative example of how a company can be profitable and socially responsible at the same time. It was able to achieve this by not just hiring and training its staff, but by also providing a barrier-free and disabled- friendly work environment. Its efforts have received recognition from the President of the Italian Republic, the European Parliament, and Pope Francis, to name a few. The experience of Albergo Etico is a best practice in diversity management demonstrating that managing employees belonging to minority groups can follow traditional perfor- mance imperative exactly as other employees rather than the logics of compassion or compliance with laws and regulations, with positive repercussion on the entire organi- zation, diverse workers, and the social community.109 M04_ROBB5839_14_GE_C04.indd 172 10/07/17 11:30 AM Chapter 4 Valuing a Diverse Workforce 173 Women in Management at Deutsche TelekomCASE APPLICATION 2 DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 4-13. What challenges could a manager face in the long-term management of disabled workers? 4-14. What are the hotel’s advantages of having its workforce being comprised largely of disabled workers? What are the potential drawbacks? 4-15. In your opinion, would a performance imperative approach or a compassionate approach be applicable to the management of disabled workers? 4-16. What do you think managers can do to let disabled workers find the “right place” in an organization? How can disabled employees help in this process? Explain. 4-17. How can other companies be sensitized to recruit more disabled workers? According to you, how would Albergo Etico inspire them? Explain. Companies across Europe have a problem—a large gender gap in leadership.110 Men far outnumber women in senior business leadership positions. This dismal picture of sexism in Europe exists despite efforts and campaigns to try and ensure equal- ity in the workplace. But one European company is tackling the problem head-on. Deutsche Telekom, Europe’s largest telecommunication company, says it intends to “more than double the number of women who are managers within five years.” In ad- dition, it plans to increase the number of women in senior and middle management to 30 percent by the end of 2015. With this announcement, the company becomes the first member of the DAX 30 index of blue-chip German companies to introduce a gender quota. Deutsche’s chief executive René Obermann said, “Taking on more women in management positions is not about the enforcement of misconstrued egali- tarianism. Having a greater number of women at the top will quite simply enable us to operate better.” In addition to its plans to intensify recruiting of female university graduates, Deutsche Telekom will need to make changes in its corporate policies and practices to attract and keep women in management positions. So what is Deutsche Telekom doing to achieve its goal of bringing more women into management posi- tions? One action the company is taking is to increase and improve recruiting of female university graduates. In fact, the company has committed to having at least 30 percent of the places in executive development programs held by women. Other steps being taken by the company revolve around the work environment and work–family issues. The company plans to expand its parental-leave programs and introduce more flexible working hours for managers. Right now, less than 1 percent of the company’s managers work part time. In addition, the company plans to double the number of available places in company child-care programs. The company also has realized it needs to become more transparent in its selection and appointment processes and to monitor whether recruiting and retention goals have been reached. Despite its ef- forts, Deutsche Telekom and other German companies have struggled with gender goals. In 2012, only 4 percent of senior executives at Germany’s top 200 companies were female. M04_ROBB5839_14_GE_C04.indd 173 10/07/17 11:30 AM 174 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 4-18. What do you think of the “quota” approach that Deutsche Telekom is pursuing? What benefits and drawbacks does such an approach have? 4-19. What issues might Deutsche Telekom face in recruiting female university graduates? How could they address these issues? 4-20. What issues might the company face in introducing changes in work–family programs? How can these issues be addressed? 4-21. What workplace diversity initiatives, discussed in the chapter, might be appropriate for Deutsche Telekom? What would be involved in implementing these initiatives? ENDNOTES 1. 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Bharadwaj Badal, “How Hiring a Gender-Diverse Workforce Can Improve A Company’s Bottom Line,” www .gallup.com/businessjournal/, January 20, 2014. 3. V. Hunt, D. Layton, and S. Prince, “Why Diversity Matters,” www.mckinsey.com, January 2015. 4. “Sodexo Training Programs for Diversity & Inclusion,” www .sodexo.com, February 2016. 5. R. Anand and M. Frances Winters, “A Retrospective View of Corporate Diversity Training from 1964 to the Present,” Academy of Management Learning & Education, September 2008, pp. 356–372. 6. This section is based on S. P. Robbins and T. A. Judge, Organizational Behavior, 15th ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2013), p. 42. 7. “The 2015 DiversityInc Top 50 Companies for Diversity,” DiversityInc.com, April 23, 2015. 8. 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Future Vision box based on G. White, “The Weakening Definition of Diversity,” The Atlantic online, www.theatlantic .com, May 13, 2015; C. Smith & S. Turner, “The Radical Transformation of Diversity and Inclusion: The Millennial Influence,” Deloitte University Leadership Center for Inclusion and the Billie Jean King Leadership Initiative, May 27, 2015; S. Rezvani, “Five Trends Driving Workplace Diversity in 2015,” Forbes online, www.forbes.com, February 3, 2015; A. Griswold, “Why ‘Thought Diversity’ is the Future of the Workplace,” Business Insider online, www .businessinsider.com, September 27, 2013. 84. L. Eaton, “Black Workers’ Complaints Advance,” Wall Street Journal, April 16, 2010, p. B4. 85. J. S. Lublin, “Do You Know Your Hidden Work Biases?” Wall Street Journal, January 10, 2014, pp. B1+. 86. T. Henneman, “You, Biased? No, It’s Your Brain,” Workforce, February 2014, pp. 28+. 87. Robbins and Judge, Organizational Behavior, 15th ed., p. 42. 88. Leader Making a Difference box based on R. Anand, “How Diversity and Inclusion Drives Employee Engagement,” DiversityInc, Winter 2013, p. 20; N. Rigoglioso, “Steering the No. 1 Company for Diversity: 5 Minutes with Rohini Anand,” Diversitywoman.com, February 6, 2012; “Sodexo,” DiversityInc, Summer 2011, p. 34; “Case Study No. 1: Sodexo,” DiversityInc, Early Fall 2011, pp. 48–50; DiversityInc Staff, “Sodexo’s Rohini Anand: Breaking Gender Barriers and Creating Change,” DiversityInc, June 7, 2010; and “Rohini Anand: Leading Sodexho’s Commitment to a Globally Diverse Workforce,” Nation’s Restaurant News, February 10, 2003, p. 24. 89. Catalyst, “Workforce Metrics: Level of First Position,” Workforce Management Online, www.workforce.com, April 8, 2010. M04_ROBB5839_14_GE_C04.indd 176 10/07/17 11:30 AM http://www.cnbc.om http://www.eeoc.gov https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/may/17/global-lgbt-rights-new-survey-ilga https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/may/17/global-lgbt-rights-new-survey-ilga https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/may/17/global-lgbt-rights-new-survey-ilga http://www.hrc.org http://asia.nikkei.com/Business/Trends/ http://www.bbc.com/news/entertainment-arts-36120246 http://www.bbc.com/news/entertainment-arts-36120246 http://www.ericsson.com http://www.forbes.com http://www.workforce.com http://www.bbc.co.uk/newsbeat/article/33860433/identity-in-the-uk-who-ticks-the-british-boxon-the-national-census-form http://www.bbc.co.uk/newsbeat/article/33860433/identity-in-the-uk-who-ticks-the-british-boxon-the-national-census-form http://www.bbc.co.uk/newsbeat/article/33860433/identity-in-the-uk-who-ticks-the-british-boxon-the-national-census-form www.dol.gov/odep/documents/survey_report_jan_09.doc www.dol.gov/odep/documents/survey_report_jan_09.doc http://www1.eeoc.gov/eeoc/statistics/enforcement/religion.cfm?renderforprint=1 http://www1.eeoc.gov/eeoc/statistics/enforcement/religion.cfm?renderforprint=1 http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/lgbt/report/2013/06/04/65133/a-broken-bargain/ http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/lgbt/report/2013/06/04/65133/a-broken-bargain/ https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/culturalidentity/sexuality/ https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/culturalidentity/sexuality/ http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/business/india-business/We-are-trying-to-get-peopleto-think-about-unconscious-bias-Maria-Angelica-Prez/articleshow/55516351 http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/business/india-business/We-are-trying-to-get-peopleto-think-about-unconscious-bias-Maria-Angelica-Prez/articleshow/55516351 http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/business/india-business/We-are-trying-to-get-peopleto-think-about-unconscious-bias-Maria-Angelica-Prez/articleshow/55516351 http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/business/india-business/We-are-trying-to-get-peopleto-think-about-unconscious-bias-Maria-Angelica-Prez/articleshow/55516351 http://www.theatlantic.com http://www.theatlantic.com Chapter 4 Valuing a Diverse Workforce 177 90. J. M. Hoobler, S. J. Wayne, and G. Lemmon, “Bosses’ Perceptions of Family-Work Conflict and Women’s Promotability: Glass Ceiling Effects,” Academy of Management Journal, October 2009, pp. 939–957. 91. C. Hymowitz and T. D. Schellhardt, “The Glass Ceiling,” Wall Street Journal: A Special Report—The Corporate Woman, March 24, 1986, pp. D1+. 92. S. Charas, L. L. Griffeth, & R. Malik, “Why Men Have More Help Getting to the C-Suite,” Harvard Business Review, online, www.hbr.org, November 16, 2015. 93. Hoobler, Wayne, and Lemmon, “Bosses’ Perceptions of Family-Work Conflict and Women’s Promotability: Glass Ceiling Effects.” 94. L. O’Conor, “A Third of Working Women Say They’re Discriminated Against,” The Guardian online, www .theguardian.com, June 3, 2015. 95. C. Allen, “Do As I Do, Not As I Say,” Wall Street Journal, March 13, 2013, p. A13. 96. L. McDermott, “Women, Seize Your Leadership Role,” T&D, March 2014, pp. 28–33. 97. “Top 50 Companies for Diversity: Marriott International,” DiversityInc, April 23, 2016, p. 39. 98. Ibid. 99. K. A. Cañas and H. Sondak, Opportunities and Challenges of Workplace Diversity, 2nd ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2011), p. 26. 100. “Leaders Create Sustainable Approaches to Diversity,” DiversityInc, February 2010, p. 20. 101. “Study: Mentoring Still Not Happening for Women at Work,” talentmgt.com, March 18, 2014. 102. K. E. O’Brien, A. Biga, S. R. Kessler, and T. D. Allen, “A Meta- Analytic Investigation of Gender Differences in Mentoring,” Journal of Management, March 2010, pp. 537–554. 103. D. Jones, “Often, Men See Women to the Top,” USA Today, August 5, 2009, pp. 1B+. 104. J. Prime and C. A. Moss-Racusin, “Engaging Men in Gender Initiatives: What Change Agents Need to Know,” Catalyst, www.catalyst.org, 2009. 105. L. Visconti, “Diversity Is Not in Your DNA, Says White Guy,” DiversityInc online, www.diversityinc.com, March 3, 2010. 106. D. Meinert, “Tailoring Diversity Practices Produces Different Results,” HR Magazine, July 2013, p. 16. 107. Kellogg Company, “Our Commitment to Diversity,” www .kelloggcompany.com, April 22, 2010. 108. Based on P. L. Hunsaker, Training in Management Skills (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2009); C. Harvey and J. Allard, Understanding and Managing Diversity: Readings, Cases, and Exercises, 3rd ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2005); and J. Greenberg, Managing Behavior in Organizations: Science in Service to Practice, 2nd ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1999). 109. Francesca Carli, “Inaugurato ad Asti il primo Albergo Etico Gestito Direttamente Da Personale Con La Sindrome Di Down [Asti Opens its First Ethics Hotel Directly Managed by People with Down Syndrome],” LaFame, July 27, 2015, http://lafame.net/albergo-etico-asti/; Independence Academy, Albergo Etico, http://www.albergoetico.it/progetti/accademia- indipendenza/, accessed November 2016. Independence Academy, Albergo Etico, http://www.albergoetico.asti. it/accademia.php, accessed November 2016. Benessere (Wellness), Albergo Etico, http://www.albergoetico.it/progetti/ benessere/, accessed November 2016. 110. J. S. Lublin and T. Francis, “Women Gain Board Seats— Abroad,” Wall Street Journal, February 5, 2014, p. B6; A. Webb, “Siemens Warming to Quotas Underscores Germany’s Gender Gap,” www.bloomberg.com/news/, December 4, 2013; R. Rayasam, “Do More Women on the Board Mean Better Results?” www.newyorker.com/online, November 19, 2013; K. Gurchiek, “The Global Battle for Female Talent,” HRMagazine, June 2012, pp. 48–52; T. Sattleberger, “HR Report 2010/2011: Facts and Figures,” Deutsche Telekom [www.e-paper.telekom.com/hrreport-2010-2011/epaper/ HR2010_11_eng. pdf], June 2012; N. Clark, “Deutsche Telekom Struggles With Gender Goal,” New York Times Online, October 2, 2011; K. Bennhold, “Women Nudged Out of German Workforce,” New York Times Online, June 28, 2011; L. Stevens and J. Espinoza, “Deutsche Telekom Sets Women-Manager Quota,” Wall Street Journal Online, March 22, 2010; J. Blaue, “Deutsche Telekom Launches Quota for Top Women Managers” [www.german-info.com/ business_shownews]; N. Clark, “Goal at Deutsche Telekom: More Women as Managers,” New York Times Online, March 15, 2010; R. Foroohar and S. H. Greenberg, “Working Women Are Poised to Become the Biggest Economic Engine the World Has Ever Known,” Newsweek, November 2, 2009, pp. B2–B5; News Release, “Women Still Hold Less Than a Quarter of Senior Management Positions in Privately Held Businesses,” Grant Thornton International [www.gti.org], March 5, 2009; and Catalyst Research Report, “Different Cultures, Similar Perceptions: Stereotyping of Western European Business Leaders” Catalyst [www.catalyst.org], 2006. M04_ROBB5839_14_GE_C04.indd 177 10/07/17 11:30 AM http://www.hbr.org http://www.catalyst.org http://www.diversityinc.com http://lafame.net/albergo-etico-asti/ http://www.albergoetico.it/progetti/accademia-indipendenza/ http://www.albergoetico.asti http://www.bloomberg.com/news/ http://www.newyorker.com/online http://www.e-paper.telekom.com/hrreport-2010-2011/epaper/HR2010_11_eng.pdf http://www.e-paper.telekom.com/hrreport-2010-2011/epaper/HR2010_11_eng.pdf http://www.german-info.com/business_shownews http://www.german-info.com/business_shownews http://www.gti.org http://www.catalyst.org http://www.theguardian.com http://www.theguardian.com http://www.albergoetico.it/progetti/benessere/ http://www.albergoetico.it/progetti/benessere/ It’s Your Career Chapter 5 Socially-Conscious Management How to Be Ethical When No One Else Seems to Be You make choices every day: Your boss asks you to do something questionable; you see a colleague doing something that violates a company rule or policy; you think about calling in sick because it’s a beautiful day, and boy oh boy do you need a day off; you need to make copies of some personal documents and the company copier isn’t monitored by anyone; you need to get some bills paid online and your boss is in meetings all day. Choices, choices, choices. What do you do? When an ethical dilemma occurs at work—the place where you spend the vast majority of your week and the source of your income that pays your bills and provides benefits—it can be challenging to decide what to do. In addition to the chapter suggestions (see Exhibit 5-8), here are some ideas that might help nudge you to be ethical when no one else seems to be: 1. Make sure you have all the information you need to make a decision. Sometimes, ethical “dilemmas” at work turn out to be nothing more than rumors or speculation about worst-case scenarios. “You can only do the right thing when you’re not looking at things all wrong.” 1 Get the facts, but use your discretion, patience, and common sense. Seek out advice from someone you trust and who you think is knowledgeable and wise. 2. Recognize that we don’t always act the way we think we’re going to act when faced with an ethical dilemma.2 Most of us would say that we know we should be fair, be respectful, be trustworthy, be responsible, treat others as we want to be treated, etc. We have a set of values we want—and strive—to live by. What happens, though, is that when faced with an ethical dilemma, our “I” self rationalizes by saying: I don’t want to lose my job, I don’t want to be punished, I don’t want to look foolish, etc. And so when something happens that we know is ethically questionable or even wrong, we “know” we should Source: Cattallina/Shutterstock. A key to success in management and in your career is knowing how to make good decisions about ethical dilemmas. M05_ROBB5839_14_GE_C05.indd 178 10/07/17 4:15 PM 179 ● SKILL OUTCOMES 5.1 Discuss what it means to be socially responsible and what factors influence that decision. 5.2 Explain green management and how organizations can go green. 5.3 Discuss the factors that lead to ethical and unethical behavior. ● Develop your skill at creating trust in work groups. 5.4 Describe management’s role in encouraging ethical behavior. ● Know how to make good decisions about ethical dilemmas. 5.5 Discuss current social responsibility and ethics issues. Pearson MyLab Management® Improve Your Grade! When you see this icon, visit www.mymanagementlab.com for activities that are applied, personalized, and offer immediate feedback. Learning Objectives speak up or make it right. But we can’t quite figure out how to do that, and then we explain it away by saying that it’s okay that we acted the way we did. So, be aware of the way you “fool” yourself. Don’t ignore or downplay ethical dilemmas. 3. TEST yourself. When faced with an ethical dilemma, use these “tests:” 3 The Golden Rule Test: Would I want people to do this to me? The Truth Test: Does this action represent the whole truth and nothing but the truth? The Stench Test: Does this action “stink” when I contemplate doing it? The What-If-Everybody-Did-This Test: Would I want everyone to do this? Would I want to live in that kind of world? The Family Test: How would my parents/ spouse/significant other/children feel if they found out I did this? The Conscience Test: Does this action go against my conscience? Will I feel guilty afterwards? The Consequences Test: Might this action have bad consequences? Might I regret doing this? The Front Page/Social Media Test: How would I feel if this action was reported on the front page of my hometown news- paper or splashed across social media outlets for all to see? Deciding how ethical and socially responsible an organization needs to be and when raises complicated issues managers may have to address as they plan, organize, lead, and control. As managers manage, these issues can and do influence their actions. Let’s see what we can learn about social responsibility and ethics. M05_ROBB5839_14_GE_C05.indd 179 10/07/17 4:16 PM http://www.mymanagementlab.com 180 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace WHAT is social responsibility? Organizations profess their commitment to sustainability and package their products in nonrecyclable materials. Companies have large pay inequities; however, the difference is often not linked to employee performance, but to entitlement and “custom.” Large global corporations lower their costs by outsourc- ing to countries where human rights are not a high priority and justify it by saying they’re bringing in jobs and helping to strengthen the local economies. Businesses fac- ing a difficult economic environment offer employees reduced hours and early retire- ment packages. Are these companies being socially responsible? Managers regularly face decisions that have a dimension of social responsibility in areas such as employee relations, philanthropy, pricing, resource conservation, product quality and safety, and doing business in countries that devalue human rights. What does it mean to be socially responsible? From Obligations to Responsiveness to Responsibility The concept of social responsibility has been described in different ways. For instance, it’s been called “profit making only,” “going beyond profit making,” “any discretion- ary corporate activity intended to further social welfare,” and “improving social or environmental conditions.”4 We can understand it better if we first compare it to two similar concepts: social obligation and social responsiveness.5 Social obligation is when a firm engages in social actions because of its obligation to meet certain eco- nomic and legal responsibilities. The organization does what it’s obligated to do and nothing more. This idea reflects the classical view of social responsibility, which says that management’s only social responsibility is to maximize profits. The most outspoken advocate of this approach is economist and Nobel laureate Milton Fried- man. He argued that managers’ primary responsibility is to operate the business in the best interests of the stockholders, whose primary concerns are financial.6 He also argued that when managers decide to spend the organization’s resources for “social good,” they add to the costs of doing business, which have to be passed on to con- sumers through higher prices or absorbed by stockholders through smaller dividends. Friedman doesn’t say that organizations shouldn’t be socially responsible, but his interpretation of social responsibility is to maximize profits for stockholders—a view still held by some today. An advisory firm that works with major corporations says, “Companies would achieve more social good by simply focusing on the bottom line rather than social responsibility programs.”7 The other two concepts—social responsiveness and social responsibility—reflect the socioeconomic view, which says that managers’ social responsibilities go beyond making profits to include protecting and improving society’s welfare. This view is based on the belief that corporations are not independent entities responsible only to stockholders, but have an obligation to the larger society. An example is Laureate Education, which is a for-profit educational company. Laureate claims that its objec- tive is to have a “positive effect for society and students by offering diverse education programs both online and at campuses around the world.”8 Organizations around the world have embraced this view, as shown by a survey of global executives in which 84 percent said that companies must balance obligations to shareholders with obligations to the public good.9 But how do these two concepts differ? Social responsiveness is when a company engages in social actions in response to some popular social need. Managers are guided by social norms and values and make practical, market-oriented decisions about their actions.10 For instance, Ford Motor Company became the first automaker to endorse a federal ban on sending text messages while driving. A company spokesperson explained that research has found that activities, such as text messaging, distract a drivers’ eyes from watching the road and traffic and contribute to an increased risk of getting in an accident.11 By sup- porting this ban, company managers “responded” to what they felt was an important social need. After Hurricane Katrina, Procter & Gamble sent mobile laundromats to LO5.1 social obligation When a firm engages in social actions because of its obligation to meet certain economic and legal responsibilities classical view The view that management’s only social responsibility is to maximize profits socioeconomic view The view that management’s social responsibility goes beyond making profits to include protecting and improving society’s welfare social responsiveness When a firm engages in social actions in response to some popular social need M05_ROBB5839_14_GE_C05.indd 180 10/07/17 4:16 PM Chapter 5 Socially-Conscious Management 181 New Orleans. Employees and volunteers washed and folded laundry for residents whose homes were destroyed. In 2014, Boeing arranged 10 flights transporting more than 54,000 pounds of medical supplies and equipment to patients in Ethiopia, Kenya and Thailand; educational books and com- puters to schools in Ethiopia; toys to orphans in Iraq; and winter clothing, blankets and quilts to the displaced and needy in Bangladesh, Iraq and Thailand.12 A socially responsible organization views things differ- ently. It goes beyond what it’s obligated to do or chooses to do because of some popular social need and does what it can to help improve society because it’s the right thing to do. We define social responsibility as a business’s intention, beyond its legal and economic obligations, to do the right things and act in ways that are good for society.13 Our defini- tion assumes that a business obeys the law and cares for its stockholders, but adds an ethical imperative to do those things that make society better and not to do those that make it worse. A socially responsible organization does what is right because it feels it has an ethical responsibility to do so. For example, according to our definition, home builder Prime Five Homes in Los Angeles, California, would be described as socially responsible. Prime Five Homes builds environmentally friendly homes, which they sell for profit. The company directs a portion of these proceeds to its nonprofit organiza- tion named Dream Builders Project. Dream Builders Project supports a variety of social causes including anti–human trafficking campaigns. CEO Mayer Dahan says: “The Dream Builders Project is setting new standards for the nonprofit industry, and acting as a seamless link for individuals and corporations to give back.”14 So how should we view an organization’s social actions? A U.S. business that meets federal pollution control standards or that doesn’t discriminate against employees over the age of 40 in job promotion decisions is meeting its social obligation because laws mandate these actions. However, when it provides on-site childcare facilities for employees or packages products using recycled paper, it’s being socially responsive. Why? Working parents and environmentalists have voiced these social concerns and demanded such actions. For many businesses, their social actions are better viewed as socially responsive, rather than socially responsible (at least according to our definition). However, such actions are still good for society. For example, Unilever recently met its “zero waste” target for operations in 600 factories, warehouses, and offices in 70 countries, using recycling and recovery techniques to keep all waste from landfills. France’s Sodexo will switch to using cage-free eggs only in all food operations by 2025.15 These types of actions are in response to societal concerns. social responsibility A business’s intention, beyond its legal and economic obligations, to do the right things and act in ways that are good for society Pfizer Consumer Healthcare employees volunteered with Habitat of Humanity in response to the needs of residents who lost their homes during Hurricane Sandy on the U.S. East Coast. This disaster-relief effort of rebuilding homes destroyed by the storm is part of Pfizer’s Advil Relief in Action initiative that celebrates volunteers who work to improve the lives of others. Source: Diane Bondareff/Invision for Pfizer Consumer Healthcare/AP Images If your professor has assigned this, go to www.mymanagementlab.com to watch a video titled: Honest Tea: Corporate Social Responsibility and to respond to questions. Should Organizations Be Socially Involved? Other than meeting their social obligations (which they must do), should organizations be socially involved? One way to look at this question is by examining arguments for and against social involvement. Several points are outlined in Exhibit 5-1.16 Numerous studies have examined whether social involvement affects a company’s economic performance.17 Although most found a small positive relationship, no gen- eralizable conclusions can be made, because these studies have shown that relation- ship is affected by various contextual factors such as firm size, industry, economic conditions, and regulatory environment.18 Another concern was causation. If a study showed that social involvement and economic performance were positively related, Watch It 1! M05_ROBB5839_14_GE_C05.indd 181 10/07/17 4:16 PM http://www.mymanagementlab.com 182 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace this correlation didn’t necessarily mean that social involvement caused higher eco- nomic performance—it could simply mean that high profits afforded companies the “luxury” of being socially involved.19 Such methodological concerns can’t be taken lightly. In fact, one study found that if the flawed empirical analyses in these studies were “corrected,” social responsibility had a neutral impact on a company’s finan- cial performance.20 Another found that participating in social issues not related to the organization’s primary stakeholders was negatively associated with shareholder value.21 A reanalysis of several studies concluded that managers can afford to be (and should be) socially responsible.22 Another way to view social involvement and economic performance is by looking at socially responsible investing (SRI) funds, which provide a way for individual inves- tors to support socially responsible companies. Typically, these funds use some type of social screening; that is, they apply social and environmental criteria to invest- ment decisions. For instance, SRI funds usually will not invest in companies involved social screening Applying social criteria (screens) to investment decisions AGAINST Dilution of purpose Pursuing social goals dilutes business’s primary purpose—economic productivity. Costs Many socially responsible actions do not cover their costs and someone must pay those costs. Too much power Businesses have a lot of power already; if they pursue social goals, they will have even more. Lack of skills Business leaders lack the necessary skills to address social issues. Lack of accountability There are no direct lines of accountability for social actions. Public expectations Public opinion now supports businesses pursuing economic and social goals. Long-run profits Socially responsible companies tend to have more secure long-run profits. Ethical obligation Businesses should be socially responsible because responsible actions are the right thing to do. Public image Businesses can create a favorable public image by pursuing social goals. Better environment Business involvement can help solve difficult social problems. Discouragement of further governmental regulation By becoming socially responsible, businesses can expect less government regulation. Balance of responsibility and power Businesses have a lot of power and an equally large amount of responsibility is needed to balance against that power. Stockholder interests Social responsibility will improve a business’s stock price in the long run. Possession of resources Businesses have the resources to support public and charitable projects that need assistance. Superiority of prevention over cures Businesses should address social problems before they become serious and costly to correct. FOR Violation of profit maximization Business is being socially responsible only when it pursues its economic interests. Exhibit 5-1 Arguments For and Against Social Responsibility M05_ROBB5839_14_GE_C05.indd 182 10/07/17 4:16 PM Chapter 5 Socially-Conscious Management 183 in liquor, gambling, tobacco, nuclear power, weapons, price fixing, fraud, or in com- panies that have poor product safety, employee relations, and environmental track records. The number of socially screened mutual funds has grown from 55 to 205, and assets in these funds have grown to more than $10.6 trillion—an amount that equals the combined GDPs of Brazil and India.23 But more important than the total amount invested in these funds is that the Social Investment Forum reports that the perfor- mance of most SRI funds is comparable to that of non-SRI funds.24 So what can we conclude about social involvement and economic performance? It appears that a company’s social actions don’t hurt its economic performance. Given political and societal pressures to be socially involved, managers probably need to take social issues and goals into consideration as they plan, organize, lead, and control. GREEN management and sustainability Nike Inc. launched an app called Making, which allows its design engi- neers to see the environmental effects of their material choices on water, energy and waste, and chemistry.25 The Fairmont Hotel chain generated a lot of buzz over its decision to set up rooftop beehives to try to help strengthen the population of honeybees, which have been mysteriously abandoning their hives and dying off by the millions worldwide. This Colony Collapse Disorder could have potentially disastrous consequences since one-third of the food we eat comes from plants that depend on bee pollination. At Toronto’s Fairmont Royal York, six hives are home to some 360,000 bees that forage in and around the city and produce a supply of award-winning honey.26 The hotel chain now maintains beehives at 16 of its hotels. Bee honey is an ingredi- ent in some of the menu items, including honey walnut bread, and in the Beetini, the hotel’s house cocktail.27 Did you know that planning a driving route with more right- hand turns than left can save you money? UPS does. That’s just one of many stats the global logistics leader can quote about how research-based changes in its delivery route design contribute to the sustainability of the planet.28 Being green is in! Until the late 1960s, few people (and organizations) paid attention to the envi- ronmental consequences of their decisions and actions. Although some groups were concerned with conserving natural resources, about the only reference to saving the environment was the ubiquitous printed request “Please Don’t Litter.” However, a number of environmental disasters brought a new spirit of environmentalism to indi- viduals, groups, and organizations. Increasingly, managers have begun to consider the impact of their organization on the natural environment, which we call green management. What do managers need to know about going green? How Organizations Go Green Managers and organizations can do many things to protect and preserve the natural environment.30 Some do no more than what is required by law; that is, they fulfill their social obligation. However, others have radically changed their products and produc- tion processes. For instance, the Swedish packaging company Tetra Pak is pioneer- ing a new technique for using bioplastic materials in its shelf-stable packaging. This breakthrough is helping the company reduce its carbon footprint and reduce the use of traditional fossil fuel-derived plastics as it produces more than 180 billion packages yearly. Emirates Airlines isn’t simply investing in solar power and special lighting to reduce energy use and emissions, it’s explaining its efforts in a yearly environmental sustainability report.31 Although interesting, these examples don’t tell us much about how organizations go green. One model uses the terms shades of green to describe the different environmental approaches that organizations may take.32 (See Exhibit 5-2.) The first approach, the legal (or light green) approach, is simply doing what is required legally. In this approach, which illustrates social obligation, organizations exhibit little environmental sensitivity. They obey laws, rules, and regulations without legal challenge and that’s the extent of their being green. LO5.2 green management Managers consider the impact of their organization on the natural environment FYI • 75 percent of workplaces have at least one green technology practice.29 M05_ROBB5839_14_GE_C05.indd 183 10/07/17 4:16 PM 184 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace As an organization becomes more sen- sitive to environmental issues, it may adopt the market approach and respond to environ- mental preferences of customers. Whatever customers demand in terms of environmen- tally friendly products will be what the orga- nization provides. For example, SC Johnson Company collaborated with a European company to develop an environmentally friendly alternative to the original formula- tion of Saran Wrap, which had come under criticism for containing polyvinyl chlo- ride (PVC). Even though the reformulated Saran Wrap product does not work as well as the original in keeping food odors within the wrapping, S. C. Johnson decided not to return to the original formulation despite consumer preferences. S. C. Johnson’s CEO Fisk Johnson III based this decision on the belief that trustworthiness is the most impor- tant quality that any company has.34 This is a good example of social responsiveness, as is the next approach. In the stakeholder approach, an orga- nization works to meet the environmental demands of multiple stakeholders such as employees, suppliers, or community. For instance, Hewlett-Packard and Panasonic have several corporate environmental pro- grams in place for their supply chain (suppliers), product design and product recycling (customers and society), and work operations (employees and community). Finally, if an organization pursues an activist (or dark green) approach, it looks for ways to protect the earth’s natural resources. The activist approach reflects the highest degree of environmental sensitivity and illustrates social responsibility. For example, Belgian company Ecover produces ecological cleaning products in a near-zero-emis- sions factory. This factory (the world’s first ecological one) is an engineering marvel with a huge grass roof that keeps things cool in summer and warm in winter and a water treatment system that runs on wind and solar energy. The company chose to build this facility because of its deep commitment to the environment. Evaluating Green Management Actions As businesses become “greener,” they often release detailed reports on their environ- mental performance. More than 7,500 companies around the globe now voluntarily report their efforts in promoting environmental sustainability using the guidelines developed by the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI). These reports, which can be found on the GRI website (www.globalreporting.org), describe the numerous green Environmental Sensitivity Low HighExhibit 5-2 Green Approaches Source: Based on R. E. Freeman, J. Pierce, and R. Dodd, Shades of Green: Business Ethics and the Environment (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995). Yvon Chouinard is a self-taught blacksmith who, in 1957, started crafting mountain-climbing pitons he and other climbing enthusiasts used as anchors on risky climbs.33 His hardware became so popular that he would go on to found the outdoor-clothing com- pany Patagonia. As his company grew, Chouinard realized that everything his company did had an effect—mostly nega- tive—on the environment. Today, he defines the company’s mission in eco-driven terms: “To use business to inspire and implement solu- tions to the environmental crisis.” Chouinard has put environmental activism at the forefront of his company. Since 1985, Patagonia has donated 1 percent of its annual sales to grassroots environmental groups and has gotten more than 1,300 companies to follow its lead as part of its “1% for the Planet” group. He recognizes that “every product, no matter how much thought goes into it, has a destructive impact on Earth.” But nonetheless, he keeps doing what he does be- cause “it’s the right thing to do.” What can you learn from this leader making a difference? LEADER making a DIFFERENCE So ur ce : B ra d Ba rk et /G et ty Im ag es M05_ROBB5839_14_GE_C05.indd 184 10/07/17 4:16 PM http://www.globalreporting.org Chapter 5 Socially-Conscious Management 185 actions of these organizations. A recent study revealed that 90 percent of the world’s 250 largest companies reported information about their corporate responsibility ini- tiatives.35 Also, 154 U.S. companies voluntarily signed the American Business Act on Climate Pledge to demonstrate their additional commitment to promoting environ- mental sustainability.36 Among the companies signing the pledge, Berkshire Hathaway Energy promised to retire more than 75 percent of its coal-fueled generating capacity in Nevada by 2019. Another way organizations show their commitment to being green is through pursuing standards developed by the nongovernmental International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Although ISO has developed more than 18,000 international standards, it’s probably best known for its ISO 9000 (quality management) and ISO 14000 (environmental management) standards. Organizations that want to become ISO 14000 compliant must develop a total management system for meeting environ- mental challenges. In other words, it must minimize the effects of its activities on the environment and continually improve its environmental performance. If an organiza- tion can meet these standards, it can state that it’s ISO 14000 compliant—an accom- plishment achieved by organizations in over 155 countries. One final way to evaluate a company’s green actions is to use the Global 100 list of the most sustainable corporations in the world (www.corporateknights.com).37 To be named to this list—announced each year at the renowned World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland—a company has displayed a superior ability to effectively man- age environmental and social factors. In 2016, European companies led the list with 53 Global 100 companies representing a variety of industries.38 North American companies REALlet’s get The Scenario: Carol Borg is concerned about the waste at the coffee shop where she works as the assistant manager. She has made suggestions to the store manager on how the store could have less of a negative impact on the environment by taking steps such as encouraging customers to recycle their paper cups or by using ceramic cups for customers who aren’t taking their coffee to go. However, the store manager insists that these ideas are too costly and refuses to invest in new recycling bins or ceramic cups. What can Carol say to convince her manager that these are worthwhile investments? Change is never easy, but a well-researched cost-benefit analysis that details the achievable cost savings and risk management strategy can change the challenge to “Go Green” into a positive opportunity. Knowing the numbers is important: provide specifics on how much money the company would save, statistics on what competitors have done (are you a leader or behind the curve?), what—if any— government benefits are available, and how the change will be positive for the company’s reputation and marketing opportunities in the community. Proposing a pilot program to test the green options will also allow for a practical comparative analysis of both practices and demonstrate that there’s proof in the pudding—or coffee! Karen Heger Manager, Organizational Development and Training So ur ce : K ar en S . G . H eg er M05_ROBB5839_14_GE_C05.indd 185 10/07/17 4:16 PM http://www.corporateknights.com 186 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace followed with 27. The remaining 20 spots were earned by companies from Asia, Africa, and Australia. The top three spots were taken by BMW (Germany), Dassault Systemes (France), and Outoec (Finland). Other companies on the 2016 list included Marks & Spencer Group (United Kingdom) and Coca-Cola Enterprises (USA). MANAGERS and ethical behavior One hundred fifty years. That was the maximum prison sentence handed to financier Bernard Madoff, who stole billions of dollars from his clients, by a U.S. district judge who called his crimes “evil.” In Britain, which has been characterized by some critics as a “nanny state because of its purported high level of social control and surveillance,” a controversy arose over the monitor- ing of garbage cans. Many local governments have installed monitoring chips in municipally distributed trash cans. These chips match cans with owners and can be used to track the weight of the bins, leading some critics to fear that the country is moving to a pay-as-you-go system, which they believe will discriminate against large families. A government report says that Iceland, hit hard by both the global economic meltdown and a pesky volcano, was “victimized by politicians, bankers, and regulators who engaged in acts of extreme negligence.”39 When you hear about such behaviors—especially after the high-profile financial misconduct at Enron, WorldCom, Lehman Brothers, and other organizations—you might conclude that businesses aren’t ethical. Although that’s not the case, managers—at all levels, in all areas, in all sizes and kinds of organizations—do face ethical issues and dilemmas. For instance, is it ethical for a pharmaceutical sales representatives to provide doc- tors with lavish gifts as an inducement to buy? Would it make a difference if the bribe came out of the sales rep’s commission? Is it ethical for someone to use a company car for private use? How about using company e-mail for personal correspondence or using the company phone to make personal phone calls? As an employee, would it be all right to award a lucrative contract to a company in which you hold significant financial interest? What if you managed an employee who worked all weekend on an emergency situation and you told him to take off two days sometime later and mark it down as “sick days” because your company had a clear policy that overtime would not be compensated for any reason?40 Would that be okay? How will you handle such situations? As managers plan, organize, lead, and control, they must consider ethical dimensions. What do we mean by ethics? We’re defining it as the principles, values, and beliefs that define right and wrong decisions and behavior.41 Many decisions managers make require them to consider both the process and who’s affected by the result.42 To better understand the ethical issues involved in such decisions, let’s look at the factors that determine whether a person acts ethically or unethically. Factors That Determine Ethical and Unethical Behavior Whether someone behaves ethically or unethically when faced with an ethical dilemma is influenced by several things: his or her stage of moral development and other mod- erating variables, including individual characteristics and the organization’s structural design, which we will discuss in a later section of the chapter, and the intensity of the ethical issue. (See Exhibit 5-3.) People who lack a strong moral sense are much less likely to do the wrong things if they’re constrained by organizational rules or job descriptions that disapprove of such behaviors. Conversely, intensely moral individuals can be corrupted by an organizational structure that permits or encourages unethical practices. 43 Let’s look more closely at these factors. STAGE OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT Research divides moral development into three levels, each having two stages.44 At each successive stage, an individual’s moral judgment becomes less dependent on outside influences and more internalized. ethics Principles, values, and beliefs that define what is right and wrong behavior LO5.3 M05_ROBB5839_14_GE_C05.indd 186 10/07/17 4:16 PM Chapter 5 Socially-Conscious Management 187 At the first level, the preconventional level, a person’s choice between right and wrong is based on personal consequences from outside sources, such as physical punishment, reward, or exchange of favors. At the second level, the conventional level, ethical decisions rely on maintaining expected standards and living up to the expecta- tions of others. At the principled level, individuals define moral values apart from the authority of the groups to which they belong or society in general. The three levels and six stages are described in Exhibit 5-4. What can we conclude about moral development?45 First, people proceed through the six stages sequentially. Second, there is no guarantee of continued moral develop- ment. Third, the majority of adults are at stage four: They’re limited to obeying the rules and will be inclined to behave ethically, although for different reasons. A manager at stage three is likely to make decisions based on peer approval; a manager at stage four will try to be a “good corporate citizen” by making decisions that respect the organization’s rules and procedures; and a stage five manager is likely to challenge organizational practices that he or she believes to be wrong. INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS Two individual characteristics—values and per- sonality—play a role in determining whether a person behaves ethically. Each person comes to an organization with a relatively entrenched set of personal values, which represent basic convictions about what is right and wrong. Our values develop from a young age based on what we see and hear from parents, teachers, friends, and oth- ers. Thus, employees in the same organization often possess very different values.46 Although values and stage of moral development may seem similar, they’re not. Values are broad and cover a wide range of issues; the stage of moral development is a mea- sure of independence from outside influences. Two personality variables have been found to influence an individual’s actions according to his or her beliefs about what is right or wrong: ego strength and locus of control. Ego strength measures the strength of a person’s convictions. People with high ego strength are likely to resist impulses to act unethically and instead follow their convictions. That is, individuals high in ego strength are more likely to do what they think is right and be more consistent in their moral judgments and actions than those with low ego strength. ego strength A personality measure of the strength of a person’s convictions Ethical Dilemma Stage of Moral Development Structural Variables Individual Characteristics Issue Intensity Moderators Ethical/Unethical Behavior Exhibit 5-3 Factors That Determine Ethical and Unethical Behavior Exhibit 5-4 Stages of Moral Development Source: L. Kohlberg, “Moral Stages and Moralization: The Cognitive-Development Approach,” in Moral Development and Behavior: Theory, Research, and Social Issues, ed. T. Lickona (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1976), pp. 34–35. values Basic convictions about what is right and wrong FYI • An organization devoted to global ethics says that societies share five core moral values— honesty, respect, responsibility, fairness, and compassion.47 M05_ROBB5839_14_GE_C05.indd 187 10/07/17 4:16 PM 188 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace Locus of control is the degree to which people believe they con- trol their own fate. People with an internal locus of control believe they control their own destinies. They’re more likely to take responsibility for consequences and rely on their own internal standards of right and wrong to guide their behavior. They’re also more likely to be consistent in their moral judgments and actions. People with an external locus of control believe what happens to them is due to luck or chance. They’re less likely to take personal responsibility for the consequences of their behavior and more likely to rely on external forces.48 STRUCTURAL VARIABLES An organization’s structural design can influence whether employees behave ethically. Those structures that minimize ambiguity and uncertainty with formal rules and regulations and those that continuously remind employees of what is ethical are more likely to encourage ethical behavior. Other structural variables that influence ethical choices include goals, perfor- mance appraisal systems, and reward allocation procedures. Although many organizations use goals to guide and motivate employees, those goals can create some unexpected problems. One study found that people who don’t reach set goals are more likely to engage in unethical behavior, even if they do or don’t have economic incentives to do so. The researchers concluded that “goal setting can lead to unethical behavior.”49 Examples of such behaviors abound—from companies shipping unfinished products just to reach sales goals or “managing earnings” to meet financial analysts’ expectations, to schools excluding certain groups of students when reporting standardized test scores to make their “pass” rate look better.50 An organization’s performance appraisal system also can influence ethical behavior. Some systems focus exclusively on outcomes, while others evaluate means as well as ends. When employees are evaluated only on outcomes, they may be pressured to do whatever is necessary to look good on the outcomes and not be concerned with how they got those results. Research suggests that “success may serve to excuse unethical behaviors.”51 The danger of such thinking is that if managers are more lenient in correcting unethical behav- iors of successful employees, other employees will model their behavior on what they see. Closely related to the organization’s appraisal system is how rewards are allocated. The more that rewards or punishment depend on specific goal outcomes, the more employees are pressured to do whatever they must to reach those goals—perhaps to the point of compromising their ethical standards. New doctors take the Hippocratic Oath, which pledges that they will do no harm and they will follow ethical standards. However, in recent years, the news has been filled with stories about surgeons who have performed unnecessary surgeries. Dr. John Santa indicated that financial considerations explain why many unnecessary surgeries take place: “Doctors’ income can hinge largely on the number of surgeries they do—and the revenue those procedures generate.”52 Tragically, unnecessary surgeries cause many patients to sustain major injuries or death. ISSUE INTENSITY A student who would never consider breaking into an instructor’s office to steal an accounting exam doesn’t think twice about asking a friend who took the same course from the same instructor last semester what questions were on an exam. Simi- larly, a manager might think nothing about taking home a few office supplies, yet be highly concerned about the possible embezzlement of company funds. These examples illustrate the final factor that influences ethical behavior: the intensity of the ethical issue itself.53 As Exhibit 5-5 shows, six characteristics determine issue intensity or how impor- tant an ethical issue is to an individual: greatness of harm, consensus of wrong, proba- bility of harm, immediacy of consequences, proximity to victim(s), and concentration of effect. These factors suggest that: • the larger the number of people harmed • the more agreement that the action is wrong • the greater the likelihood that the action will cause harm • the more immediately the consequences of the action will be felt locus of control A personality attribute that measures the degree to which people believe they control their own fate Juliana Rotich has high ego strength. A native of Kenya, she believes in the transformational power of technology to address social problems. Determined to speed up the digital revolution in Africa, Rotich and her team of innovators have developed open disaster- mapping software, formed a technology hub in Nairobi, and created a new Internet connectivity device to overcome problems of poor reception and power outages in Africa. Source: Robert Schlesinger/Picture Alliance/ Robert Schles/Newscom M05_ROBB5839_14_GE_C05.indd 188 10/07/17 4:16 PM Chapter 5 Socially-Conscious Management 189 • the closer the person feels to the victim(s) • the more concentrated the effect of the action on the victim(s)… the greater the issue intensity or importance. When an ethical issue is important, employees are more likely to behave ethically. Exhibit 5-5 Issue Intensity Ethics—If your instructor is using Pearson MyLab Management, log onto mymanagementlab.com and test your knowledge about being ethical. Be sure to refer back to the chapter opener! Ethics in an International Context Are ethical standards universal? Although some common moral beliefs exist, social and cultural differences between countries are important factors that determine ethical and unethical behavior.54 Should Coca-Cola employees in Saudi Arabia adhere to U.S. ethical standards, or should they follow local standards of acceptable behavior? If Airbus (a European com- pany) pays a “broker’s fee” to an intermediary to get a major contract with a Middle Eastern airline, should Boeing be restricted from doing the same because such prac- tices are considered improper in the United States? (Note: In the United Kingdom, the Law Commission, a governmental advisory body, has said that bribing officials in foreign countries should be a criminal offense. It said that claims of “it’s local custom” should not be a reason for allowing it.55) British defense giant BAE, which has been the target of various bribery and corruption allegations, was ordered to “submit to the supervision of an ethics monitor and pay nearly $500 million to resolve the corruption allegations.”56 In the case of payments to influence foreign officials or politicians, U.S. manag- ers are guided by the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA), which makes it illegal to knowingly corrupt a foreign official. However, even this law doesn’t always reduce ethical dilemmas to black and white. In some countries, government bureaucrat sal- aries are low because custom dictates that they receive small payments from those they serve. Payoffs to these bureaucrats “grease the machinery” and ensure that things get done. The FCPA does not expressly prohibit small payoffs to foreign government employees whose duties are primarily administrative or clerical when such payoffs are an accepted part of doing business in that country. Any action other than this is illegal. In 2013 (latest numbers available), the U.S. Department of Justice brought 12 FCPA enforcement actions, collecting approximately $143.1 million in fines.57 Among the 12 It’s Your Career M05_ROBB5839_14_GE_C05.indd 189 10/07/17 4:16 PM 190 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace companies, the average fine was $11.9 million. Within the first two months in 2016, five enforcement actions levied $838.7 million in fines.58 VimpelCom, the Dutch tele- communications provider, is required to pay a $795 million fine because it violated the FCPA to win business in Uzbekistan.59 It’s important for individual managers working in foreign cultures to recognize the social, cultural, and political-legal influences on what is appropriate and acceptable behavior.60 And international businesses must clarify their ethical guidelines so that employees know what’s expected of them while working in a foreign location, which adds another dimension to making ethical judgments. If your professor has assigned this, go to www.mymanagementlab.com to watch a video titled: Global Ethics and Siemens and to respond to questions. Another guide to being ethical in international business is the United Nations Global Compact, which is an initiative created by the United Nations outlining prin- ciples for doing business globally in the areas of human rights, labor, the environment, and anti-corruption (see Exhibit 5-6). More than 12,000 participants and stakeholders Exhibit 5-6 The Ten Principles of the United Nations Global Compact  The UN Global Compact asks companies to embrace, support, and enact, within their sphere of influence, a set of core values in the areas of human rights, labor standards, the environment, and anti-corruption: Human Rights Principle 1: Business should support and respect the protection of internationally proclaimed human rights within their sphere of influence; and Principle 2: Make sure they are not complicit in human rights abuses. Labor Standards Principle 3: Business should uphold the freedom of association and the effective recognition of the right to collective bargaining; Principle 4: The elimination of all forms of forced and compulsory labor; Principle 5: The effective abolition of child labor; and Principle 6: The elimination of discrimination in respect to employment and occupation. Environment Principle 7: Business should support a precautionary approach to environmental challenges; Principle 8: Undertake initiatives to promote greater environmental responsibility; and Principle 9: Encourage the development and diffu- sion of environmentally friendly tech- nologies. Anti-Corruption Principle 10: Business should work against corruption in all its forms, including extortion and bribery. Source: United Nations Global Compact (www.unglobalcompact.org). Copyright © 2012 United Nations Global Compact. Watch It 2! M05_ROBB5839_14_GE_C05.indd 190 10/07/17 4:16 PM http://www.mymanagementlab.com http://www.unglobalcompact.org Chapter 5 Socially-Conscious Management 191 from over 170 countries have committed to the UN Global Compact, making it the world’s largest voluntary corporate citizenship initiative.61 The goal of the UN Global Compact is a more sustainable and inclusive global economy. Organizations making this commitment do so because they believe that the world business community plays a significant role in improving economic and social conditions. In addition, the Organiza- tion for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has made fighting bribery and corruption in international business a high priority. The centerpiece of its efforts is the Anti-Bribery Convention (or set of rules and guidelines), which was the first global instrument to combat corruption in cross-border business deals. To date, significant gains have been made in fighting corruption in the 41 countries that have ratified it.62 ENCOURAGING ethical behavior The City of Los Angeles, California is suing Wells Fargo Bank based on allegations that the company has engaged in unlawful and fraudulent conduct: Bank employees routinely opened customer accounts without their authoriza- tion, and those accounts came with monthly fees. Los Angeles City Attorney Michael Feuer maintains that bank management was regularly “abusing employees and telling them ‘to do whatever it takes’ to reach quotas on the number of new accounts they must open.”63 You have to wonder what the firm’s managers were thinking or doing while such ethically questionable decisions and actions were taking place, when they could have reconsidered whether sales targets were realistic. Managers can do a number of things if they’re serious about encouraging ethical behaviors—hire employees with high ethical standards, establish codes of ethics, lead by example, and so forth. By themselves, such actions won’t have much of an impact. But if an organization has a comprehensive ethics program in place, it can potentially improve an organization’s ethical climate. The key variable, however, is potentially. There are no guarantees that a well-designed ethics program or publically espoused values will lead to the desired outcome. For instance, Enron, often referred to as the “poster child” of corporate wrongdoing, outlined values in its final annual report LO5.4 REALlet’s get The Scenario All through university, Finlay Roberts wasn’t sure what he really wanted to do. But now he had found what he thought was a great job, one where he could enhance his leadership skills in a competitive environment with teams of employees who sold security systems over the phone. What he soon discovered, though, was that competing to meet sales goals often led to unethical actions. After learning about ethics in pretty much every management class he took, Finlay wanted to show his employees that he was committed to an ethical workplace. What advice would you give Finlay? One of the cornerstones to professional success is to maintain and demonstrate strong ethics—often by exceeding the standards set by the organization. One potential path for Finlay is to remember that damaging the company’s brand can risk destroying his career, but missing sales/performance targets will only impede his career. Over the long run, professionals with strong reputations will outlast those with questionable character. Justin Kidwell Management Consultant So ur ce : J us tin K id w el l M05_ROBB5839_14_GE_C05.indd 191 10/07/17 4:16 PM 192 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace that most would consider ethical—communication, respect, integrity, and excellence. Yet the way top managers behaved didn’t reflect those values at all.64 Here’s another example: A recent study of United States Army management practices describes a “culture where deceptive information is both accepted and commonplace” where “offi- cers become ethically numb.”65 It’s quite disturbing and inconsistent with one of the organization’s values: “Do what’s right, legally and morally. Integrity is a quality you develop by adhering to moral principles. It requires that you do and say nothing that deceives others.”66 Now let’s look at some specific ways that managers can encourage ethical behavior and create a comprehensive ethics program. Employee Selection Wanting to reduce workers’ compensation claims, Hospitality Management Corp. did preemployment integrity testing at one hotel to see if the tests could “weed out appli- cants likely to be dishonest, take dangerous risks or engage in other undesirable behav- iors.” After six months, claims were down among new hires.67 The selection process (interviews, tests, background checks, and so forth) should be viewed as an opportunity to learn about an individual’s level of moral development, personal values, ego strength, and locus of control.68 However, a carefully designed selection process isn’t foolproof, and even under the best circumstances, individuals with questionable standards of right and wrong may be hired. That means having other ethics controls in place. We learned in Chapter 7 that an organization’s culture consists of the shared orga- nizational values. These values reflect what the organization stands for and what it believes in as well as create an environment that influences employee behavior ethically or unethically. When it comes to ethical behavior, a culture most likely to encourage high ethical standards is one that’s high in risk tolerance, control, and conflict toler- ance. Employees in such a culture are encouraged to be aggressive and innovative, are aware that unethical practices will be discovered, and feel free to openly challenge expectations they consider to be unrealistic or personally undesirable. Because shared values can be powerful influences, many organizations are using values-based management, in which the organization’s values guide employees in the way they do their jobs. For instance, Timberland is an example of a company using values-based management. With a simple statement, “Make It Better,” employees at Timberland know what’s expected and valued; that is, they find ways to “make it bet- ter”—whether it’s creating quality products for customers, performing community ser- vice activities, designing employee training programs, or figuring out ways to make the company’s packaging more environmentally friendly. As it says on the company’s web- site, “Everything we do at Timberland grows out of our relentless pursuit to find a way to make it better.” At Corning, Inc. one of the core values guiding employee behavior is integrity. Employees are expected to work in ways that are honest, decent, and fair. Tim- berland and Corning aren’t alone in their use of values-based management. A survey of global companies found that a large number (more than 89 percent) said they had a written corporate values statement.70 This survey also found that most of the companies believed their values influenced relationships and reputation, the top-performing com- panies consciously connected values with the way employees did their work, and top managers were important to reinforcing the importance of the values throughout the organization. Middle management plays an important role as well. One survey revealed that more than 98 percent of middle management is somewhat or extremely active in ensuring that daily business decisions and behaviors are in line with company values.71 Thus, an organization’s managers do play an important role here. They’re respon- sible for creating an environment that encourages employees to embrace the culture and the desired values as they do their jobs. In fact, research shows that the behavior of managers is the single most important influence on an individual’s decision to act ethically or unethically.72 People look to see what those in authority are doing and use that as a benchmark for acceptable practices and expectations. values-based management The organization’s values guide employees in the way they do their jobs FYI • 70 percent of middle managers’ performance is based, in part, on ethics and compliance.69 M05_ROBB5839_14_GE_C05.indd 192 10/07/17 4:16 PM Chapter 5 Socially-Conscious Management 193 But establishing an ethics culture is not an easy task. After the financial crisis in 2008, which resulted largely because of unethical practices of financial services com- panies, U.S. government regulators set out to change the compliance culture in those firms. Compliance with rules is expected to promote ethical practices. Despite good intentions, regulators have made little progress because there has been little agreement on what composes a culture of compliance or how to measure it. Susan Devers from LRN Advisory Services Group, an ethics and compliance consulting firm, said: “A lot of people think [culture] is another checklist item.”73 In addition, she endorses regula- tors’ efforts, saying “it’s good that regulators are focused on it … because it shows they are moving beyond checklists.”74 Finally, as we discussed in Chapter 7, a strong culture exerts more influence on employees than does a weak one. If a culture is strong and supports high ethical standards, it has a powerful and positive influence on the decision to act ethically or unethically. For example, IBM has a strong culture that has long stressed ethical deal- ings with customers, employees, business partners, and communities.78 To reinforce the importance of ethical behaviors, the company developed an explicitly detailed set of guidelines for business conduct and ethics. And the penalty for violating the guide- lines? Disciplinary actions, including dismissal. IBM’s managers continually reinforce the importance of ethical behavior and reinforce the fact that a person’s actions and decisions are important to the way the organization is viewed. Codes of Ethics and Decision Rules George David, former CEO and chairman of Hartford, Connecticut–based United Tech- nologies Corporation (UTC), believed in the power of a code of ethics. That’s why UTC has always had one that was quite explicit and detailed. Employees know the company’s Let’s start off with the bad news about the state of eth- ics in the U.S. workplace: • 60 percent of misdeeds reported by workers involved someone with managerial authority. • 24 percent of those observed misdeeds involved senior managers. • In organizations with weak ethical cultures, 88 per- cent of workers reported seeing misconduct.75 Now, how about some better news: • In organizations with strong ethical cultures, only 20 percent of workers reported seeing misconduct.76 • Companies on Ethisphere’s World’s Most Ethical Companies list had 20 percent greater profits and 6 percent better shareholder returns than did other companies.77 Ethics is a part of an organization’s culture. And it’s becoming ever more critical for businesses to “do things around here” ethically. Society expects it. Customers de- mand it. And with the speed and spread of news globally —bad and good—you can’t hide! So what are the critical aspects of an ethical culture? Certainly, they encompass things like whether an organization’s employees are trustworthy, reliable, fair, honest, compassionate, and Building an Ethical Culture That LastsF U T U R E V I S I O N respectful in dealings with customers, peers, and other stakeholders. But it’s also whether managers at all lev- els talk about ethics and model appropriate behavior. Is ethical behavior reinforced? However, the responsibility for doing things ethically isn’t just on managers’ backs. In ethical cultures, organizational colleagues support one another in making ethical decisions and in doing ethi- cal work. It can be an infectious type of atmosphere in which good people do good and the organization where they work prospers by achieving those greater profits and better shareholder returns. A win-win in anyone’s book! This vision of an ethical workplace isn’t just for the future; it’s also important for today. If your professor has chosen to assign this, go to www.mymanagementlab.com to discuss the follow- ing questions. TALK ABOUT IT 1: Why do you think organizations with weak ethical cultures have four times as many workers witnessing misconduct? TALK ABOUT IT 2: “Society expects it (ethical practices). Customers demand it.” Discuss why you agree or disagree with this. M05_ROBB5839_14_GE_C05.indd 193 10/07/17 4:16 PM http://www.mymanagementlab.com 194 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace behavioral expectations, especially when it comes to ethics. UBS AG, the Swiss bank, also has an explicit employee code crafted by the CEO that bans staff from helping clients cheat on their taxes.79 However, not all organizations have such explicit ethical guidelines. Uncertainty about what is and is not ethical can be a problem for employees. A code of ethics, a formal statement of an organization’s values and the ethical rules it expects employees to follow, is a popular choice for reducing that ambiguity. Research shows that 97 percent of organizations with more than 10,000 employees have a written code of ethics. Even in smaller organizations, nearly 93 percent have one.80 And codes of ethics are becoming more popular globally. Research by the Institute for Global Ethics says that shared values such as honesty, fairness, respect, responsibility, and caring are pretty much universally embraced.81 In addition, a survey of businesses in 22 countries found that 78 percent have formally stated ethics standards and codes of ethics; and more than 85 percent of Fortune Global 200 companies have a business code of ethics.82 What should a code of ethics look like? It should be specific enough to show employees the spirit in which they’re supposed to do things, yet loose enough to allow for freedom of judgment. A survey of companies’ codes of ethics found their content tended to fall into three categories, as shown in Exhibit 5-7.83 Unfortunately, codes of ethics may not work as well as we think they should. A survey of employees in U.S. businesses found that 41 percent of those surveyed had code of ethics A formal statement of an organization’s primary values and the ethical rules it expects its employees to follow Exhibit 5-7 Codes of Ethics  Cluster 1. Be a Dependable Organizational Citizen 1. Comply with safety, health, and security regulations. 2. Demonstrate courtesy, respect, honesty, and fairness. 3. Illegal drugs and alcohol at work are prohibited. 4. Manage personal finances well. 5. Exhibit good attendance and punctuality. 6. Follow directives of supervisors. 7. Do not use abusive language. 8. Dress in business attire. 9. Firearms at work are prohibited. Cluster 2. Do Not Do Anything Unlawful or Improper That Will Harm the Organization 1. Conduct business in compliance with all laws. 2. Payments for unlawful purposes are prohibited. 3. Bribes are prohibited. 4. Avoid outside activities that impair duties. 5. Maintain confidentiality of records. 6. Comply with all antitrust and trade regulations. 7. Comply with all accounting rules and controls. 8. Do not use company property for personal benefit. 9. Employees are personally accountable for company funds. 10. Do not propagate false or misleading information. 11. Make decisions without regard for personal gain. Cluster 3. Be Good to Customers 1. Convey true claims in product advertisements. 2. Perform assigned duties to the best of your ability. 3. Provide products and services of the highest quality. Source: From “An Empirical Study of Codes of Business Ethics: A Strategic Perspective,” by F.R. David, paper presented at the 48th Annual Academy of Management Conference, Anaheim, California, August 1988. Copyright © 1988 Fred David. M05_ROBB5839_14_GE_C05.indd 194 10/07/17 4:16 PM Chapter 5 Socially-Conscious Management 195 observed ethical or legal violations in the previous 12 months, including such things as conflicts of interest, abusive or intimidating behavior, and lying to employees. And 37 percent of those employees didn’t report observed misconduct.84 Does this mean that codes of ethics shouldn’t be developed? No. However, in doing so, managers should use these suggestions:85 1. Organizational leaders should model appropriate behavior and reward those who act ethically. 2. All managers should continually reaffirm the importance of the ethics code and consistently discipline those who break it. 3. The organization’s stakeholders (employees, customers, and so forth) should be considered as an ethics code is developed or improved. 4. Managers should communicate and reinforce the ethics code regularly. 5. Managers should use the five-step process (see Exhibit 5-8) to guide employees when faced with ethical dilemmas. Leadership at the Top In 2011, Tim Cook was named CEO of Apple Inc. Although it’s an extremely successful company, Apple is viewed by some as the epitome of greedy capitalism with no concern for how its products are manufactured. Cook, who was named one of the 100 Most Influential People in Business Ethics by Ethisphere, has increased the company’s focus on supply chain ethics and compliance issues. It was the first technology company to join the Fair Labor Association, which means that organization can now review the labor practices within the company’s supply chain. In addition, at a recent annual stockhold- ers’ meeting with investors and journalists, Cook, who was challenged by a spokesperson from a conservative think tank to explain how the company’s sustainability efforts were in the best interests of shareholders, bluntly and clearly said that Apple wasn’t just about making a profit and that “We want to leave the world better than we found it.”86 Doing business ethically requires a commitment from managers at all levels, but espe- cially the top level. Why? Because they’re the ones who uphold the shared values and set the cultural tone. They’re role models in terms of both words and actions, though what they do is far more important than what they say. If top managers, for example, take company resources for their personal use, inflate their expense accounts, or give favored treatment to friends, they imply that such behavior is acceptable for all employees. Top managers also set the tone by their reward and punishment practices. The choices of whom and what are rewarded with pay increases and promotions send a strong signal to employees. As we said earlier, when an employee is rewarded for achieving impressive results in an ethically questionable manner, it indicates to others that those ways are acceptable. When an employee does something unethical, manag- ers must punish the offender and publicize the fact by making the outcome visible to everyone in the organization. This practice sends a message that doing wrong has a price and it’s not in employees’ best interests to act unethically! Job Goals and Performance Appraisal Employees in three Internal Revenue Service offices were found in the bathrooms flushing tax returns and other related documents down the toilets. When questioned, they openly admitted doing it, but offered an interesting explanation for their behavior. The employ- Step 1: What is the ethical dilemma? Step 2: Who are the affected stakeholders? Step 3: Which personal, organizational, and external factors are important in this decision? Step 4: What are possible alternatives? Step 5: What is my decision and how will I act on it? Exhibit 5-8 A Process for Addressing Ethical Dilemmas M05_ROBB5839_14_GE_C05.indd 195 10/07/17 4:16 PM 196 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace ees’ supervisors had been pressuring them to complete more work in less time. If the piles of tax returns weren’t processed and moved off their desks more quickly, they were told their performance reviews and salary raises would be adversely affected. Frustrated by few resources and an overworked computer system, the employees decided to “flush away” the paperwork on their desks. Although these employees knew what they did was wrong, it illustrates how powerful unrealistic goals and performance appraisals can be.87 Recall the allegations about Wells Fargo management putting undue pressure on employees to meet lofty sales quotas. Under the stress of unrealistic goals, otherwise ethical employees may feel they have no choice but to do whatever is necessary to meet those goals. Also, goal achievement is usually a key issue in performance appraisal. If performance appraisals focus only on economic goals, ends will begin to justify means. To encourage ethical behav- ior, both ends and means should be evaluated. For example, a manager’s annual review of employees might include a point-by-point evaluation of how their decisions measured up against the company’s code of ethics as well as how well goals were met. Ethics Training More organizations are setting up seminars, workshops, and similar ethics training programs to encourage ethical behavior. Such training programs aren’t without con- troversy, as the primary concern is whether ethics can be taught. Critics stress that the effort is pointless because people establish their individual value systems when they’re young. Proponents note, however, that several studies have shown that values can be learned after early childhood. In addition, they cite evidence that shows that teaching ethical problem solving can make an actual difference in ethical behaviors;89 that train- ing has increased individuals’ level of moral development;90 and that, if nothing else, ethics training increases awareness of ethical issues in business.91 How can ethics be taught? Let’s look at an example involving global defense con- tractor Lockheed Martin, one of the pioneers in the case-based approach to ethics training.92 Lockheed Martin’s employees take annual ethics training courses delivered by their managers. The main focus of these short courses features department or job- specific issues. In each department, employee teams review and discuss the cases and then apply an “Ethics Meter” to “rate whether the real-life decisions were ethical, unethical, or somewhere in between.” For example, one of the possible ratings on the Ethics Meter, “On Thin Ice,” is explained as “bordering on unethical and should raise a red flag.” After the teams have applied their ratings, man- agers lead discussions about the ratings and examine why the company’s core ethics principles were or were not applied in the cases. In addition to its ethics training, Lockheed Martin has a widely used written code of ethics, an ethics helpline that employees can call for guidance on ethical issues, and ethics officers based in the company’s various business units. Independent Social Audits The fear of being caught can be an important deterrent to unethical behavior. Independent social audits, which evaluate decisions and management practices in terms of the organization’s code of ethics, increase that likelihood. Such audits can be regular evaluations or they can occur randomly with no prior announcement. An effective ethics program probably needs both. To maintain integrity, auditors should be responsible to the company’s board of directors and present their findings directly to the board. This arrangement gives the auditors clout and lessens the opportunity for retaliation from those being audited. Because the Sarbanes-Oxley Act holds businesses to more rigorous standards of financial disclosure and corporate governance, more organiza- tions are finding the idea of independent social audits appealing. As the publisher of Business Ethics magazine stated, “The debate has shifted from whether to be ethical to how to be ethical.”93 FYI • 81 percent of companies provide ethics training.88 An innovative training video called “Ethics Idol” teaches Cisco Systems’ employees how to deal with ethical problems at work. Featured on Cisco’s intranet, the video presents ethical scenarios from Cisco’s Code of Business Conduct that are evaluated by judges, asks employees questions related to which judge’s answer they agree with, and then shows the official Cisco answer. Source: AP Photo/Paul Sakuma M05_ROBB5839_14_GE_C05.indd 196 10/07/17 4:16 PM Chapter 5 Socially-Conscious Management 197 SOCIAL responsibility and ethics issues in today’s world Today’s managers continue to face challenges in being socially responsible and ethical. Next, we examine three current issues: managing ethical lapses and social irresponsibility, social entrepreneurship, and promoting positive social change. Managing Ethical Lapses and Social Irresponsibility Even after public outrage over the Enron-era misdeeds, irresponsible and unethi- cal practices by managers in all kinds of organizations haven’t gone away, as you’ve observed with some of the questionable behaviors that took place at financial ser- vices firms such as Goldman Sachs and Lehman Brothers. But what’s more alarming is what’s going on “in the trenches,” in offices, warehouses, and stores. One survey reported that among 5,000 employees 45 percent admitted falling asleep at work; 22 percent said they spread a rumor about a coworker; 18 percent said they snooped after hours; and 2 percent said they took credit for someone else’s work.94 Another study revealed that employee theft accounts for 43 percent of revenue loss in retail stores in the United States and 28 percent worldwide.95 In the United States, that amounts to an annual loss of about $18 billion. The report also lists the reasons why there is so much employee theft. Key reasons include ineffective preemployment screening, less employee supervision, and easy sale of stolen merchandise. Some interesting recent research suggests that men are more likely to act unethi- cally than women in situations where failure could harm their sense of masculinity.96 The researchers suggest that the reason is that losing a “battle, particularly in contexts that are highly competitive and historically male oriented, presents a threat to masculine compe- tency. To ensure victory, men will sacrifice moral standards if doing so means winning.” Unfortunately, it’s not just at work that we see such behaviors; they’re prevalent throughout society. Studies show that most teenagers lie to their parents on more than 20 issues.97 This activity is prevalent in many countries, including the United States, Chile, the Philippines, Italy, and Uganda. In China, the government is testing the use of drones to detect whether students are cheating on their college entrance exams.98 Students feel extreme pressure to do well since performance on these exams deter- mines the quality of university that Chinese students can enter. What do such statistics say about what managers may have to deal with in the future? It’s not too far-fetched to say that organizations may have difficulty upholding high ethical standards when their future employees so readily accept unethical behavior. What can managers do? Two actions seem particularly important: ethical leader- ship and protecting those who report wrongdoing. ETHICAL LEADERSHIP Managers at Alibaba, the world’s largest e-commerce com- pany, recently discovered that four software engineers had created a program to get more than their fair share of an employee perk. The company gives each employee a free box of holiday mooncakes, and then sells leftover boxes at cost to employees. But after the engineers rigged the system to buy more than 100 boxes at the special low price, Ali- baba managers fired them, saying it was “another reminder to our staff that every game comes with rules.”99 As this example illustrates, managers must provide ethical leader- ship. As we said earlier, what managers do has a strong influence on employees’ deci- sions whether to behave ethically.100 When managers cheat, lie, steal, manipulate, take advantage of situations or people, or treat others unfairly, what kind of signal are they sending to employees (or other stakeholders)? Probably not the one they want to send. Exhibit 5-9 gives some suggestions on how managers can provide ethical leadership. LO5.5 If your professor has assigned this, go to www.mymanagementlab.com to complete the Writing Assignment MGMT 4: Ethics. Write It! M05_ROBB5839_14_GE_C05.indd 197 10/07/17 4:16 PM http://www.mymanagementlab.com 198 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace PROTECTION OF EMPLOYEES WHO RAISE ETHICAL ISSUES What would you do if you saw other employees doing something illegal, immoral, or unethical? Would you step forward? Many of us wouldn’t because of the perceived risks. That’s why it’s important for managers to assure employees who raise ethical concerns or issues that they will face no personal or career risks. These individuals, often called whistle-blowers, can be a key part of any company’s ethics program. For example, Sherron Watkins, who was a vice president at Enron, clearly outlined her concerns about the company’s accounting practices in a letter to chairman Ken Lay. Her statement that, “I am incredibly nervous that we will implode in a wave of accounting scandals” couldn’t have been more prophetic.101 However, surveys show that most observers of wrongdoing don’t report it, and that’s the attitude managers have to address.102 One of the reasons employees give for not blowing the whistle include the fear it might damage someone’s career. This is a difficult position for an employee to be in. A U.S. Senate report stated that “Whistle-blowers often face the difficult choice between telling the truth and the risking of committing career suicide.”103 Other reasons include fear that it would make it harder to work with that individual, fear that he/she (the whistle-blower) wouldn’t be taken seriously, fear of not having enough proof, thought someone else would report it, and fear of losing job or other retaliation.104 So, how can employees be protected so they’re willing to step up if they see unethical or illegal things occurring? One way is to set up toll-free ethics hotlines. For instance, Dell has an ethics hotline that employees can call anonymously to report infractions that the company will then investigate.105 In addition, managers need to create a culture where bad news can be heard and acted on before it’s too late. Michael Josephson, founder of the Josephson Institute of Ethics (www.josephsoninstitute.org) said, “It is absolutely and unequivo- cally important to establish a culture where it is possible for employees to complain and protest and to get heard.”106 Even if some whistle-blowers have a personal agenda they’re pursuing, it’s important to take them seriously. Another way is to have in place a “procedurally just process,” which means making sure the decision-making pro- cess is fair and that employees are treated respectfully about their concerns.107 Back- lash against whistle-blowers can be costly. For instance, Walter Tamosaitis, a former employee of Aecom (a contractor involved in the Hanford nuclear-weapons cleanup project) received a $4.1 million settlement of a lawsuit in which he claimed that the employer had punished him for speaking up.108 Finally, federal legislation offers some legal protection. According to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, any manager who retaliates against an employee for reporting violations faces a stiff penalty: a 10-year jail sen- tence.109 Antiretaliation protections against whistle-blowers have been strengthened by the more recent Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform Act. Unfortunately, despite this protection, fewer than two of every three employees felt they would be protected from retaliation, and about the same proportion fear losing their jobs if they do not meet performance targets.110 At the present time, it’s not a perfect solution, but it is a step in the right direction. whistle-blower Individual who raises ethical concerns or issues to others Exhibit 5-9 Being an Ethical Leader  • Be a good role model by being ethical and honest. • Tell the truth always. • Don’t hide or manipulate information. • Be willing to admit your failures. • Share your personal values by regularly communicating them to employees. • Stress the organization’s or team’s important shared values. • Use the reward system to hold everyone accountable to the values. If your professor has assigned this, go to www.mymanagementlab.com to complete the Simulation: Management and Ethics and get a better understanding of the challenges of managing ethically in organizations. Try It! M05_ROBB5839_14_GE_C05.indd 198 10/07/17 4:16 PM http://www.josephsoninstitute.org http://www.mymanagementlab.com Chapter 5 Socially-Conscious Management 199 Social Entrepreneurship The world’s social problems are many and viable solutions are few. But numerous people and organizations are trying to do something. For instance, take John Schoch, the CEO of Profile Products, which is a profitable manufacturer and distributor of products for soil and water management. He decided to invest some of the company’s resources to help address a global crisis—a lack of clean water. He established a nonprofit subsidiary of Profile Products that put millions of dollars into research and development of a product called ProCleanse, which is a water filtration device. Schoch has chosen to pursue a purpose as well as a profit.111 He is an example of a social entrepreneur, an individual or orga- nization who seeks out opportunities to improve society by using practical, innovative, and sustainable approaches.112 “What business entrepreneurs are to the economy, social entrepreneurs are to social change.”113 Social entrepreneurs want to make the world a better place and have a driving passion to make that happen. For example, Microsoft Corporation announced that it would donate $1 billion in cloud services to nonprofits and university research- ers. Microsoft’s goal is to provide the same computing tools that have allowed business firms to become more agile and tackle substantial technical challenges.114 Also, social entrepreneurs use creativity and ingenuity to solve problems. For instance, Seattle- based PATH (Program for Appropriate Technology in Health) is an international nonprofit organization that uses low-cost technology to provide needed health-care solutions for poor, developing countries. By collaborating with public groups and for-profit businesses, PATH has developed simple life-saving solutions such as clean birthing kits, credit card–sized lab test kits, and disposable vaccination syringes that can’t be reused. PATH has pioneered innovative approaches to solving global medical problems.115 What can we learn from these social entrepreneurs? Although many organizations have committed to doing business ethically and responsibly, perhaps there is more they can do, as these social entrepreneurs show. Maybe, as in the case of PATH, it’s simply a matter of business organizations collaborating with public groups or nonprofit orga- nizations to address a social issue. Or maybe, as in the case of Microsoft, it’s providing services where needed. Or it may involve nurturing individuals who passionately and unwaveringly believe they have an idea that could make the world a better place and simply need the organizational support to pursue it. Businesses Promoting Positive Social Change Since 1946, Target has contributed 5 percent of its annual income to support commu- nity needs, an amount that adds up to more than $3 million a week. And it’s not alone in those efforts. “Over the past two decades, a growing number of corporations, both within and beyond the United States, have been engaging in activities that promote positive social change.”116 Businesses can do this in a couple of ways: through corpo- rate philanthropy and through employee volunteer efforts. CORPORATE PHILANTHROPY Corporate philanthropy can be an effective way for companies to address societal problems.117 For instance, the breast cancer “pink” campaign and the global AIDS Red campaign (started by Bono) are ways that compa- nies support social causes.118 Many organizations also donate money to various causes that employees and customers care about. In 2014 (latest numbers available), the sum of corporate giving totaled over $18 billion in cash and products.119 Other corpora- tions have funded their own foundations to support various social issues. For example, Google’s foundation—called DotOrg by its employees—supports five areas: develop- social entrepreneur An individual or organization that seeks out opportunities to improve society by using practical, innovative, and sustainable approaches Social entrepreneur Saba Gul (left), founder of the high-end handbag company Popinjay, created an organization that provides opportunities for impoverished women in her home country of Pakistan to transform their lives. She trains, employs, and pays artisan women a fair wage to embroider silk designs that are incorporated in Popinjay handbags. Source: Rex Features/AP Images M05_ROBB5839_14_GE_C05.indd 199 10/07/17 4:16 PM 200 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace ing systems to help predict and prevent disease pandemics, empowering the poor with information about public services, creating jobs by investing in small and midsized businesses in the developing world, accelerating the commercialization of plug-in cars, and making renewable energy cheaper than coal. Each year, DotOrg donates $100 million in grants, 80,000 hours to its charitable causes, and $1 billion in products.120 EMPLOYEE VOLUNTEERING EFFORTS Employee volunteering is another popular way for businesses to be involved in promoting social change. For instance, Dow Corning sent a small team of employees to rural India helping women “examine stitchery and figure out prices for garments to be sold in local markets.”122 PCL Con- struction holds Habitat for Humanity home-building projects. And, for the past 30 years, it has sponsored volunteer days for participation in the Brother’s redevelop- ment Paint-A-Thon. PricewaterhouseCoopers employees renovated an abandoned school in Newark, New Jersey. Every VMWare employee is given five paid days off from work each year to volunteer in his or her community. Other businesses are encouraging their employees to volunteer in various ways. The Committee to Encourage Corporate Philanthropy says that more than 90 percent of its members had volunteer programs and almost half encouraged volunteerism by providing paid time off or by creating volunteer events. More than half of the companies provided a company-wide day of service domestically, and 30 percent offered a day of service internationally.123 Many businesses have found that such efforts not only benefit communities, but enhance employees’ work efforts and motivation.FYI North American companies made philanthropic contributions totaling $1.04 billion to companies located on the following continents:121 • $88.37 million to Africa • $374.47 million to Asia • $410.23 million to Europe • $168.36 million to Latin America and the Caribbean Pierre Andre Senizergues, CEO and founder of the action sports footwear and apparel firm Sole Technology, hands out new shoes to homeless people and at-risk children during an annual Los Angeles Mission event. Aimed at making our world a better place, the firm’s philanthropy includes giving time, money, shoes, and apparel to charities and supporting disaster relief efforts. Source: David McNew/Getty Images M05_ROBB5839_14_GE_C05.indd 200 10/07/17 4:16 PM Chapter 5 Socially-Conscious Management 201 Balancing Work and Personal LifeWORKPLACE CONFIDENTIAL Several business critics have proposed that business firms have a social responsibility to help employees balance their work demands with their family and personal commitments. A number of companies, usually large ones and often in high- tech industries, have responded by making work-life balance an important corporate goal. They’ve introduced flexible work hours; offered paid leaves for both new dads and moms; built on-site childcare facilities, and introduced similar policies that make it easier for employees to balance their personal life and work. But such workplace benefits are probably more the exception than the rule. Unfortunately, most of us face situations more accurately described as work-life imbalance. If you’re going to achieve balance, responsibility is most likely to fall largely on your own shoulders. So what can you do? In an ideal world, you would seek a progressive employ- er that sees the benefits of providing its employees with the flexibility to balance work and personal responsibilities. As we’ve noted, there are such firms. Fortune magazine pub- lishes an annual list of the 100 best companies to work for. Many of these companies make the Fortune list in large part because of their progressive human resource policies that include options to facilitate work-life balance. Our next suggestion asks you to assess your priorities. What trade-offs are you prepared to make between your work and personal life? Keep in mind that the answer to this ques- tion often changes over time. At age 25, your career might be your highest priority and working 70 hours a week might be a price you’re willing to pay to move up the career lad- der. At 35, you might not feel the same way. There is nothing wrong with going “all in” on your job. Just realize that there are trade-offs. If you have high career aspirations, just recog- nize that you will need to make personal sacrifices. Consider where you want to be in 5, 10, 20, and even 30 years. If you decide that pursuing a rich personal life outside of work is important to you, consider this fact when seeking a job. And per Chapter 7, choose an organization whose culture is com- patible with your values. If your non-work activities are your highest priority, choose an organization and a job where your preference will be honored. Take a look back at the opening of Chapter 1. It provides a brief summary of time-management techniques. To suc- cessfully manage conflicts that might arise between your work and non-work life, few activities are more valuable than effective use of your time. As noted in Chapter 1, time is a unique resource in that, if it’s wasted, it can never be replaced. Importantly, every one of us is allotted the same 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Some people just use their allotments better than others. That is, they do a better job of managing their time. For instance, you can reduce work-life conflicts by prioritizing both work and personal activities by importance and urgency. Besides prioritizing activities, here are three addition time- management suggestions: Follow the 10-90 principle. Most of us produce 90 per- cent of our results using only 10 percent of our time. It’s easy to get caught in an activity trap and confuse actions with accomplishments. Those who use their time well make sure that the crucial 10 percent gets highest priority. Know your productivity cycle. Each of us has a daily energy cycle that influences when we feel most productive or unproductive. Some of us are morning people, while oth- ers are late-afternoon or evening people. Don’t fight your natural cycle. Understand it and use it to your advantage. Handle your most demanding problems during the high part of your energy cycle, when you are most alert and pro- ductive. Relegate routine and undemanding tasks to your low periods. Group less important activities together. Set aside a regular time period each day to make phone calls, respond to e-mails, do follow-ups, and perform other kinds of “busy work.” Ideally, this should be during your low cycle. This avoids duplication, waste, and redundancy; it also prevents trivial matters from crowding out high-priority tasks. The following are a few additional practices that can help you balance your work-life commitments. • Set specific time targets for leaving work. Make it a habit to leave work at a set time each day. As this pattern is established, colleagues will become increasingly aware of your schedule and learn to interact with you during your specific work hours. • Separate work and personal cell phones. Use two sepa- rate cell phones or cell accounts. Respond to your work number during working hours and your personal number at other times. Turn off your business phone when you’re outside your work hours. Avoid checking e-mails or responding to work-related texts outside work hours. Don’t let your work hours be- come 24/7. In our digital world, it’s increasingly common for people to assume we’re always available. Make clear to others that you separate your personal life from your work. In reality, most “urgent” messages aren’t urgent. Most re- plies can be delayed 10 or 12 hours with minimal effects. • Our final suggestion recognizes that working for oth- ers always requires giving up some degree of control. No matter how progressive your employer, the employ- ment agreement implies a trade-off: You give up some of your freedom in return for compensation. You can potentially maximize control of your work-life conflicts by becoming your own boss. While this rarely lessens demands on your time, it can allow you to dictate how you will spend your time. You may end up working longer hours than you would if you worked for someone else, but that decision will be yours rather than someone else’s. You’ll be able to prioritize your commitments as you best see fit. Based on M. A. O’Connor, “Corporate Social Responsibility for Work/Fam- ily Balance,” St. John’s Law Review, Fall 2005, pp. 1193–1220; T. Kalliath and P. Brough, eds., “Achieving Work-Life Balance,” Journal of Management and Organization, Special Issue, July 2008, pp. 224–327; and B. Tracy, Time Management (New York: AMACOM, 2014). M05_ROBB5839_14_GE_C05.indd 201 10/07/17 4:16 PM 202 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace PREPARING FOR: Exams/Quizzes Chapter 5 CHAPTER SUMMARY by Learning Objective DISCUSS what it means to be socially responsible and what factors influence that decision. Social obligation, which reflects the classical view of social responsibility, is when a firm engages in social actions because of its obligation to meet certain economic and legal responsibilities. Social responsiveness is when a firm engages in social actions in response to some popular social need. Social responsibility is a business’s intention, beyond its economic and legal obligations, to pursue long-term goals that are good for society. Both of these reflect the socioeconomic view of social responsibility. Deter- mining whether organizations should be socially involved can be done by looking at arguments for and against it. Other ways are to assess the impact of social involvement on a company’s economic performance and evaluate the performance of SRI funds versus non-SRI funds. We can conclude that a company’s social responsibility doesn’t appear to hurt its economic performance. EXPLAIN green management and how organizations can go green. Green management is when managers consider the impact of their organization on the natural environment. Organizations can “go green” in different ways. The light green approach is doing what is required legally, which is social obligation. Using the market approach, organizations respond to the environmental preferences of their customers. Using the stakeholder approach, organizations respond to the environmental demands of multiple stakeholders. Both the market and stakeholder approaches can be viewed as social responsiveness. With an activist or dark green approach, an organization looks for ways to respect and preserve the earth and its natural resources, which can be viewed as social responsibility. Green actions can be evaluated by examining reports that companies compile about their environmental performance, by looking for compliance with global stan- dards for environmental management (ISO 14000), and by using the Global 100 list of the most sustainable corporations in the world. DISCUSS the factors that lead to ethical and unethical behavior. Ethics refers to the principles, values, and beliefs that define right and wrong decisions and behavior. The factors that affect ethical and unethical behavior include an indi- vidual’s level of moral development (preconventional, conventional, or principled), individual characteristics (values and personality variables—ego strength and locus of control), structural variables (structural design, use of goals, performance appraisal systems, and reward allocation procedures), and issue intensity (greatness of harm, consensus of wrong, probability of harm, immediacy of consequences, proximity to victims, and concentration of effect). Since ethical standards aren’t universal, managers should know what they can and cannot do legally as defined by the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. It’s also important to recognize any cultural differences and to clarify ethical guidelines for employees working in different global locations. Finally, managers should know about the prin- ciples of the Global Compact and the Anti-Bribery Convention. DESCRIBE management’s role in encouraging ethical behavior. The behavior of managers is the single most important influence on an individual’s decision to act ethically or unethically. Some specific ways managers can encourage LO5.1 LO5.2 LO5.3 LO5.4 M05_ROBB5839_14_GE_C05.indd 202 10/07/17 4:16 PM Chapter 5 Socially-Conscious Management 203 ethical behavior include paying attention to employee selection, creating an organizational culture that positively influences ethical behavior, having and using a code of ethics, recognizing the important ethical leadership role they play and how what they do is far more important than what they say, making sure that goals and the performance appraisal process don’t reward goal achievement without taking into account how those goals were achieved, and using ethics training and independent social audits. DISCUSS current social responsibility and ethics issues. Managers can manage ethical lapses and social irresponsibility by being strong ethical leaders and by protecting employees who raise ethical issues. The example set by man- agers has a strong influence on whether employees behave ethically. Ethical leaders also are honest, share their values, stress important shared values, and use the reward sys- tem appropriately. Managers can protect whistle-blowers (employees who raise ethical issues or concerns) by encouraging them to come forward, by setting up toll-free ethics hotlines, and by establishing a culture in which employees can complain and be heard without fear of reprisal. Social entrepreneurs play an important role in solving social problems by seeking out opportunities to improve society by using practical, innova- tive, and sustainable approaches. Social entrepreneurs want to make the world a better place and have a driving passion to make that happen. Businesses can promote posi- tive social change through corporate philanthropy and employee volunteering efforts. LO5.5 Pearson MyLab Management Go to mymanagementlab.com to complete the problems marked with this icon . REVIEW AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 5-1. Give reasons why you think an organization might not value social responsibility. 5-2. Many organizations around the world claim they are green. What criteria would you consider to objectively evaluate their green credentials? 5-3. How might the moral development of an individual affect their ethical stance? 5-4. How can internal and external locus of control influence work behaviors? 5-5. In April 2010, the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico caused the largest oil spill in history, at an estimated 4.9 million barrels of oil. Initial efforts to cap the well were declared successful; however, subsequent independent reports of continued oil leaks were ignored by BP (British Petroleum) and the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) until it was verified a month later. Did employees in BP and NOAA behave ethically in ignoring the reports? 5-6. What kind of protection can be afforded to whistle- blowers? Are these protective steps sufficient to encourage such actions in future? 5-7. “Ethical leaders are honest, share their values, stress important shared values, and use the reward system appropriately.” Observe your college professors. Would you consider them to be ethical leaders? Discuss. 5-8. What can an organization do to encourage ethical behaviour? Pearson MyLab Management If your professor has assigned these, go to mymanagementlab.com for the following Assisted-graded writing questions: 5-9. What is green management and how can organizations go green? 5-10. What would you include in an ethics training workshop? M05_ROBB5839_14_GE_C05.indd 203 10/07/17 4:16 PM 204 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace PREPARING FOR: My Career PERSONAL INVENTORY ASSESSMENTS P I A PERSONAL INVENTORY ASSESSMENT Ethical Leadership Assessment ETHICS DILEMMA A coworker takes credit for the excellent job you’ve performed. Frustrating! It’s probably happened to you or someone you know. How did it happen? Perhaps you shared an idea with a coworker and then hear her present it as her own in a meeting. Or perhaps you worked during the weekend to ensure that a project report is completed on time and your coworker takes credit for your initiative. Or maybe you resolved a conflict with a customer, but your department head reports the resolution as his own. 5-11. What are some of the possible reasons for others taking credit for your work? Are any of the reasons justifiable? Why or why not? 5-12. Do you think that those who take credit for your work know that what they’re doing is wrong? 5-13. How would you respond to your coworker or boss? Explain. SKILLS EXERCISE Developing Your Building Trust Skill About the Skill Trust plays an important role in the manager’s relationships with his or her employees.124 Given the importance of trust in setting a good ethical example for employees, today’s managers should actively seek to develop it within their work group. Steps in Practicing the Skill • Practice openness. Mistrust comes as much from what people don’t know as from what they do. Being open with employees leads to confidence and trust. Keep people informed. Make clear the criteria you use in making decisions. Explain the rationale for your decisions. Be forthright and candid about problems. Fully disclose all relevant information. • Be fair. Before making decisions or taking actions, consider how others will perceive them in terms of objectivity and fairness. Give credit where credit is due. Be objective and impartial in performance appraisals. Pay attention to equity perceptions in distributing rewards. • Speak your feelings. Managers who convey only hard facts come across as cold, distant, and unfeeling. When you share your feelings, others will see that you are real and human. They will know you for who you are and their respect for you is likely to increase. • Tell the truth. Being trustworthy means being credible. If honesty is critical to credibility, then you must be perceived as someone who tells the truth. Employees are more tolerant of hearing something “they don’t want to hear” than of finding out that their manager lied to them. • Be consistent. People want predictability. Mistrust comes from not knowing what to expect. Take the time to think about your values and beliefs, and let those values and beliefs consistently guide your decisions. When you know what’s important to you, your actions will follow, and you will project a consistency that earns trust. • Fulfill your promises. Trust requires that people believe that you are dependable. You need to ensure that you keep your word. Promises made must be promises kept. • Maintain confidences. You trust those whom you believe to be discreet and those on whom you can rely. If people open up to you and make themselves vulnerable by telling you something in confidence, they need to feel assured you won’t discuss it with others or betray that confidence. If people perceive you as someone who leaks personal confidences or someone who can’t be depended on, you’ve lost their trust. • Demonstrate competence. Develop the admiration and respect of others by demonstrating technical and professional ability. Pay particular attention to developing and displaying your communication, negotiation, and other interpersonal skills. Practicing the Skill Building trust in teams you work on for class projects is a great way to practice your skills in building trust. It’s important to quickly develop trust among your teammates if the project is to succeed. Using the steps above, create a Organizations need ethical leadership from all employees, but especially from managers. In this PIA, you’ll see how much thought and effort goes into your being ethical in your workplace behavior. M05_ROBB5839_14_GE_C05.indd 204 10/07/17 4:16 PM Chapter 5 Socially-Conscious Management 205 plan that you can use to more quickly build and maintain trust in team projects. Make a list of steps you can take at the beginning of the project to begin building trust. Next, make a list of behaviors you are willing to commit to during the team project in order to continue to build and maintain trust. For example, you may want to commit to responding to your teammates’ communications within a certain time period. Implement your plans with your next team project. WORKING TOGETHER Team Exercise Around half of all businesses in the United Kingdom have between 1 and 9 percent of their employees donating toward charities from their salaries. Only 10 percent reported between 10 and 24 percent of their employees doing this. In the United Kingdom, charitable donations attract a like-for- like payment from the government, making such donations twice as valuable. It has been estimated that around 735,000 employees donated to charities directly from their pay. Working together in groups of three or four, consider ways in which an employer could encourage their workers to make charitable donations. How can the schemes be run? Create a series of suggestions and share your ideas with the rest of the class. While there are proven ways to promote this kind of giving, is it reasonable to expect employees to get involved? MY TURN TO BE A MANAGER • Go to the Global Reporting Initiative website (www. globalreporting.org) and choose three businesses from the list that have filed reports. Look at those reports and describe/evaluate what’s in them. In addition, identify the stakeholders who might be affected and how they might be affected by the company’s action. • Identify three companies that are known for being socially responsible. List and compare the types of socially responsible behavior that each company engages in. • Research careers in sustainability. Visit the Occupational Information Network (O*Net) at www. onetcenter.org and search for careers using the terms “sustainability” or “green management.” Create a list of the types of jobs or careers you can pursue. Identify the skills and abilities that are required for a career in sustainability. • Find five different examples of organizational codes of ethics. Using Exhibit 5-7, describe what each contains. Compare and contrast the examples. • Using the examples of codes of ethics you found, create what you feel would be an appropriate and effective organizational code of ethics. In addition, create your own personal code of ethics you can use as a guide to ethical dilemmas. • Over the course of two weeks, see what ethical “dilemmas” you observe. These could be ones you face personally, or they could be ones that others (friends, colleagues, other students talking in the hallway or before class, and so forth) face. Write these dilemmas down and think about what you might do if faced with that dilemma. • Interview two different managers about how they encourage their employees to be ethical. Write down their comments and discuss how these ideas might help you be a better manager. A Novel Wellness Culture1CASE APPLICATION Menssana in corporesano. The one-thousand-year-old Latin saying represents the core idea of The Wellness Foundation, launched by Nerio Alessandri, founder of Italian wellness company Technogym. The goal is as simple as it is challenging: promoting a novel style of living in society, grounded in creating a perfect balance between physi- cal, mental, and social components. In Europe, only 9 percent of the population par- ticipate in regular physical activity. The sedentary lifestyle is responsible for harmful effects such as an increase in the number of chronic pathologies, a huge deficit in governments’ health budgets, and work absenteeism. The Wellness Foundation intends to address these problems by promoting scientific research, education, and tangible projects and by encouraging people of all generations to engage in regular physical ac- tivity. “Play Wellness,” for example, is one of the most important projects promoted by the foundation. It is geared toward 10,000 children between 3 and 9 years of age in the M05_ROBB5839_14_GE_C05.indd 205 10/07/17 4:16 PM http://www.globalreporting.org http://www.globalreporting.org http://www.onetcenter.org http://www.onetcenter.org 206 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace city of Cesena (Emilia Romagna, Italy). It consists of 2,700 hours of physical activity at school with professional instructors, training for school teachers on the benefits of physical activity for children’s growth, and the realization of end products detailing the benefits of physical activity for children. The project is financially supported by Technogym, the official supplier of gym equipment for the Olympic Games as well as for major luxury hotel chains in the world such as the Mandarin Oriental and Four Seasons. The company employs more than 2,000 employees and counts the Real Madrid football players among its clients as well as celebrities such as Madonna and George Clooney. The goodness of this initiative has gained international recognition through its involvement with the “Let’s Move!” campaign.125 DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 5-14. How can Technogym balance being socially responsible and focused on profits? 5-15. Would you describe Nerio Alessandri’s approach as a social obligation, social responsiveness, or social responsibility? Explain. 5-16. It’s time to think like a manager. Corporate social responsibility is wonderful, though often criticized as purely rhetorical and laden with subtle profit goals. How can a manager emphasize genuineness of corporate social responsibilities and activities in society? 5-17. Do you think the Wellness Foundation can boost Technogym’s turnover? Why or why not? 2 Defeating the System: Ethics at VolkswagenCASE APPLICATION In one of the worst business ethics scandals in history, the world learned in 2015 that Volks- wagen intentionally circumvented government exhaust emission tests for years by installing so called “defeat devices” on their clean diesel vehicles.126 This revelation was a shock to many given the company’s long-standing success in the auto industry. Volkswagen, one of the world’s most recognized brands, was founded in 1937. The company is headquartered in Germany but employs more than half a million people around the world. Researchers at West Virginia University (WVU) first discovered the violation when they started studying clean diesel engines. When they tested the performance of Volkswagen vehicles, they were surprised to find that on the road emissions exceeded government allowances by almost 40 times. Further investigation by the U.S. Environ- mental Protection Agency (EPA) found that the vehicles were actually equipped with software that could essentially trick emission testing systems. The diesel engines could detect when they were being tested for emissions and changed the vehicle’s performance to improve testing results. Once on the road, the vehicle would switch out of the test mode, emitting excessive nitrogen oxide pollutants, as the WVU researchers found. The EPA’s finding covered about 500,000 cars sold in the United States only. But Volkswagen later admitted that about 11 million cars worldwide were fitted with this software. It will be a long time before Volkswagen realizes all of the damage of this ethical blunder. There will be legal sanctions from governments, private lawsuits, and consumer bans that will impact the company for a long time to come. How could such a blatant ethical violation occur? It may take years to sort out who is to blame. CEO Martin Winterkorn, who resigned in response to the scandal, initially claimed not to know about the devices. While many high-ranking executives were sus- pended, no one is sure who knew about or authorized the software. In fact, some believe that the driven, performance-based culture may be more to blame than any individual. M05_ROBB5839_14_GE_C05.indd 206 12/07/17 2:45 PM Chapter 5 Socially-Conscious Management 207 Winterkorn, who reinforced the unique culture, has been described as a hard- driving perfectionist who was committed to securing the top spot among global car manufacturers. He was known to criticize employees publically, and this generated both fear among employees and the commitment to do whatever necessary to ensure the company’s success. The company’s culture has been described as “confident, cutthroat, and insular.” It is possible that arrogance led Volkswagen managers to assume that U.S. government or other officials wouldn’t discover the misleading emissions tests. What’s more problematic is Volkswagen’s response to the scandal. The company first suggested a technical problem with the cars, but finally admitted the software devices were designed to cheat the system. Initially, the company reported only a limited number of cars were affected; however, as more details were uncovered, the company admitted more cars were fitted with the device and that these actions occurred over a longer period of time than originally reported. The company’s faulty initial response to the scandal has clearly made the road ahead a bigger challenge for them. In fact, a recent poll of Americans’ attitude toward 100 large companies put Volkswagen in last place. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 5-18. Are you surprised that an organization as large as Volkswagen was caught engaging in such unethical behavior? Do you agree that the organization’s culture could have encouraged this behavior? 5-19. Are there structural variables that may have influenced the unethical behavior at Volkswagen? 5-20. Evaluate Volkswagen’s actions based on the factors in Exhibit 5-5. How would you describe the issue intensity of Volkswagen’s actions? 5-21. Moving forward, what do you think Volkswagen needs to do to avoid such an ethical lapse in the future? ENDNOTES 1. S. Welch, “The Uh-Oh Feeling: Sticky Situations at Work,” www .oprah.com/money/, from the November 2007 issue of O, the Oprah Magazine. 2. A. Tugend, “In Life and Business, Learning to Be Ethical,” New York Times online, www.nytimes.com. January 10, 2014. 3. A. Goodman, “The Dilemma: Addicted & Conflicted About Laughing at the Afflicted,” www.globalethics.org/newsline, June 3, 2013; and T. Lickona, Character Matters: How to Help Our Children Develop Good Judgment, Integrity, and Other Essential Virtues (New York: Touchstone Publishing, 2004). 4. M. L. Barnett, “Stakeholder Influence Capacity and the Variability of Financial Returns to Corporate Social Responsibility,” Academy of Management Review, July 2007, pp. 794–816; A. Mackey, T. B. Mackey, and J. B. Barney, “Corporate Social Responsibility and Firm Performance: Investor Preferences and Corporate Strategies,” Academy of Management Review, July 2007, pp. 817–835; and A. B. Carroll, “A Three-Dimensional Conceptual Model of Corporate Performance,” Academy of Management Review, October 1979, p. 499. 5. See K. Basu and G. Palazzo, “Corporate Social Performance: A Process Model of Sensemaking,” Academy of Management Review, January 2008, pp. 122–136; and S. P. Sethi, “A Conceptual Framework for Environmental Analysis of Social Issues and Evaluation of Business Response Patterns,” Academy of Management Review, January 1979, pp. 68–74. 6. M. Friedman, Capitalism and Freedom (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962); and Friedman, “The Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Profits,” New York Times Magazine, September 13, 1970, p. 33. 7. V. Vermaelen, “An Innovative Approach to Funding CSR Projects,” Harvard Business Review, June 2011, p. 28; S. Strom, “To Be Good Citizens, Report Says Companies Should Just Focus on Bottom Line,” New York Times online, www.nytimes.com, June 14, 2011; and A. Karnani, “The Case Against Social Responsibility,” Wall Street Journal, August 23, 2010, pp. R1+. 8. D. Gelles, “For Start-Ups, Altruism as an Alternative to Acquisition or I.P.O.,” New York Times online, www.nytimes. com, November 4, 2015. 9. S. Lohr, “First, Make Money. Also, Do Good,” New York Times online, www.nytimes.com, August 13, 2011; and S. Liebs, “Do Companies Do Good Well?” CFO, July 2007, p. 16. 10. See, for example, D. J. Wood, “Corporate Social Performance Revisited,” Academy of Management Review, October 1991, pp. 703–708; and S. L. Wartick and P. L. Cochran, “The Evolution of the Corporate Social Performance Model,” Academy of Management Review, October 1985, p. 763. 11. N. Bunkley, “Ford Backs Ban on Text Messaging by Drivers,” New York Times online, www.nytimes.com, September 11, 2009. 12. “Building Better Communities Worldwide,” The Boeing Company 2014 Corporate Citizenship Report, 2015, p. 52. 13. See, for example, R. A. Buchholz, Essentials of Public Policy for Management, 2d ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1990). 14. “Mayer Dahan: Where One Man’s Care & Dedication Sets a Clear Path for a Better Tomorrow,” U&C Lifestyle Magazine, www.upandcomingonline.com, January 2, 2016. M05_ROBB5839_14_GE_C05.indd 207 12/07/17 2:45 PM http://www.nytimes.com http://www.globalethics.org/newsline http://www.nytimes.com http://www.nytimes http://www.nytimes.com http://www.nytimes.com http://www.upandcomingonline.com http://www.oprah.com/money/ http://www.oprah.com/money/ 208 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace 15. Fiona Briggs, “Unilever Announces New Global Zero Waste to Landfill Achievement,” Retail Times, February 9, 2016, http:// www.retailtimes.co.uk/43948-2/ (accessed December 16, 2016); Karin Brulliard, “The Movement to Free Hens from Cages May Be Going Global,” Washington Post, July 25, 2016, https:// www.washingtonpost.com/news/animalia/wp/2016/07/25/the- movement-to-free-hens-from-cages-may-be-going-global/?utm _term=.03750da90cd6 (accessed December 16, 2016). 16. This section is based on J. D. Margolis and J. P. Walsh, “Misery Loves Companies: Rethinking Social Initiatives by Business,” Administrative Science Quarterly, vol. 48, no. 2, 2003, pp. 268–305; K. Davis and W. C. Frederick, Business and Society: Management, Public Policy, Ethics, 5th ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1984), pp. 28–41; and R. J. Monsen Jr., “The Social Attitudes of Management,” in Contemporary Management: Issues and Views, ed. J. M. McGuire (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1974), p. 616. 17. See, for instance, J. Surroca, J. A. Tribo, and S. Waddock, “Corporate Responsibility and Financial Performance: The Role of Intangible Resources,” Strategic Management Journal, May 2010, pp. 463–490; R. Garcia-Castro, M. A. Ariño, and M. A. Canela, “Does Social Performance Really Lead to Financial Performance? Accounting for Endogeneity,” Journal of Business Ethics, March 2010, pp. 107–126; J. Peloza, “The Challenge of Measuring Financial Impacts from Investments in Corporate Social Performance,” Journal of Management, December 2009, pp. 1518–1541; J. D. Margolis and H. Anger Elfenbein, “Do Well by Doing Good? Don’t Count on It,” Harvard Business Review, January 2008, pp. 19–20; M. L. Barnett, “Stakeholder Influence Capacity and the Variability of Financial Returns to Corporate Social Responsibility,” 2007; D. O. Neubaum and S. A. Zahra, “Institutional Ownership and Corporate Social Performance: The Moderating Effects of Investment Horizon, Activism, and Coordination,” Journal of Management, February 2006, pp. 108–131; B. A. Waddock and S. B. Graves, “The Corporate Social Performance–Financial Performance Link,” Strategic Management Journal, April 1997, pp. 303–319; J. B. McGuire, A. Sundgren, and T. Schneeweis, “Corporate Social Responsibility and Firm Financial Performance,” Academy of Management Journal, December 1988, pp. 854–872; K. Aupperle, A. B. Carroll, and J. D. Hatfield, “An Empirical Examination of the Relationship Between Corporate Social Responsibility and Profitability,” Academy of Management Journal, June 1985, pp. 446–463; and P. Cochran and R. A. Wood, “Corporate Social Responsibility and Financial Performance,” Academy of Management Journal, March 1984, pp. 42–56. 18. Peloza, “The Challenge of Measuring Financial Impacts from Investments in Corporate Social Performance.” 19. B. Seifert, S. A. Morris, and B. R. Bartkus, “Having, Giving, and Getting: Slack Resources, Corporate Philanthropy, and Firm Financial Performance,” Business & Society, June 2004, pp. 135–161; and McGuire, Sundgren, and Schneeweis, “Corporate Social Responsibility and Firm Financial Performance.” 20. A. McWilliams and D. Siegel, “Corporate Social Responsibility and Financial Performance: Correlation or Misspecification?,” Strategic Management Journal, June 2000, pp. 603–609. 21. A. J. Hillman and G. D. Keim, “Shareholder Value, Stakeholder Management, and Social Issues: What’s the Bottom Line?,” Strategic Management Journal, vol. 22, 2001, pp. 125–139. 22. M. Orlitzky, F. L. Schmidt, and S. L. Rynes, “Corporate Social and Financial Performance,” Organization Studies, vol. 24, no. 3, 2003, pp. 403–441. 23. “Performance & SRI,” The Forum for Sustainable and Responsible Investment, www.ussif.org, February 27, 2016. 24. “Sustainable & Responsible Mutual Fund Chart,” The Forum for Sustainable and Responsible Investment, www.ussif.org, February 27, 2016. 25. “Sustainability: Just Do It,” Industry Week, February 2014, pp. 22–23. 26. “Hive Mentality,” Body + Soul, December 2009, p. 26. 27. A. Zipkin, “Hotels Embrace Sustainability to Lure Guests and Cut Costs,” The New York Times online, www.nytimes.com, April 27, 2015. 28. S. Rosenbush and L. Stevens, “At UPS, the Algorithm Is the Drive,” The Wall Street Journal online, www.wsj.com, February 16, 2015; “The Total Package,” Bloomberg BusinessWeek, March 19–March 25, 2012, p. 6. 29. J. Yang and P. Trap, “Applying Green Tech at Work,” USA Today, May 13, 2013, p. 1B. 30. D. A. Lubin and D. C. Esty, “The Sustainability Imperative,” Harvard Business Review, May 2010, pp. 42–50; J. Pfeffer, “Building Sustainable Organizations: The Human Factor,” Academy of Management Perspectives, February 2010, pp. 34–45; R. Nidumolu, C. K. Prahalad, and M. R. Rangaswami, “Why Sustainability Is Now the Key Driver of Innovation,” Harvard Business Review, September 2009, pp. 56–64; A. A. Marcus and A. R. Fremeth, “Green Management Matters Regardless,” Academy of Management Perspectives, August 2009, pp. 17–27; D. S. Siegel, “Green Management Matters Only If It Yields More Green: An Economic/Strategic Perspective,” Academy of Management Perspectives, August 2009, pp. 5–16; and A. White, “The Greening of the Balance Sheet,” Harvard Business Review, March 2006, pp. 27–28. 31. Terry Slavin, “Tetra Pak Makes Pioneering Foray into Bioplastics,” Ethical Corporation Magazine, December 9, 2016, http://www.ethicalcorp.com/tetra-pak-makes-pioneering-foray- bioplastics (accessed December 14, 2016); “Emirates Group Releases Sixth Annual Environmental Report,” Gulf Times, December 15, 2016, http://www.gulf-times.com/story/524873/ Emirates-Group-releases-sixth-annual-environmental (accessed December 16, 2016). 32. The concept of shades of green can be found in R. E. Freeman, J. Pierce, and R. Dodd, Shades of Green: Business Ethics and the Environment (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995). 33. Leader Making a Difference box based on “Questions for Rick Ridgeway,” Fortune, September 16, 2013, p. 25; C. Winter, “Patagonia’s Latest Product: A Venture Fund,” Bloomberg BusinessWeek, May 13–19, 2013, pp. 23–24; One Percent for the Planet, http://www.onepercentfortheplanet.org/en/, June 12, 2012; S. Stevenson, “Patagonia’s Founder Is America’s Most Unlikely Business Guru,” Wall Street Journal Magazine, May 2012; “Responsible Company,” Wall Street Journal online, www.nytimes. com, April 25, 2012; T. Henneman, “Patagonia Fills Payroll with People Who Are Passionate,” Workforce Management Online, November 4, 2011; M. J. Ybarra, “Book Review: The Fun Hog Expedition Revisited,” Wall Street Journal, February 19, 2010, p. W8; K. Garber, “Not in the Business of Hurting the Planet,” US News & World Report, November 2009, p. 63; and T. Foster, “No Such Thing as Sustainability,” Fast Company, July/August 2009, pp. 46–48. 34. F. Johnson, “SC Johnson’s CEO on Doing the Right Thing, Even When It Hurts Business,” Harvard Business Review, www.hbr.org, April 2015. 35. “Currents of Change: The KPMG Survey of Corporate Responsibility Reporting,” KPMG, www.kpmg.com, 2015. 36. “White House Announces Additional Commitments to the American Business Act on Climate Package,” White House, www .whitehouse.gov, December 1, 2015. 37. The Global 100 list is a collaborative effort of Corporate Knights Inc. and Innovest Strategic Value Advisors. Information from Global 100 website, www.global100.org, January 22, 2014. 38. “Spotlight on the 2016 Global 100,” Corporate Knights, www .corporateknights.com, January 20, 2016. M05_ROBB5839_14_GE_C05.indd 208 12/07/17 2:45 PM http://www.retailtimes.co.uk/43948-2/ http://www.retailtimes.co.uk/43948-2/ http://www.ussif.org http://www.ussif.org http://www.nytimes.com http://www.wsj.com http://www.onepercentfortheplanet.org/en/ http://www.hbr.org http://www.kpmg.com http://www.global100.org https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/animalia/wp/2016/07/25/themovement-to-free-hens-from-cages-may-be-going-global/?utm_term=.03750da90cd6 https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/animalia/wp/2016/07/25/themovement-to-free-hens-from-cages-may-be-going-global/?utm_term=.03750da90cd6 https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/animalia/wp/2016/07/25/themovement-to-free-hens-from-cages-may-be-going-global/?utm_term=.03750da90cd6 https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/animalia/wp/2016/07/25/themovement-to-free-hens-from-cages-may-be-going-global/?utm_term=.03750da90cd6 http://www.ethicalcorp.com/tetra-pak-makes-pioneering-foraybioplastics http://www.ethicalcorp.com/tetra-pak-makes-pioneering-foraybioplastics http://www.nytimes.com http://www.nytimes.com http://www.corporateknights.com http://www.corporateknights.com http://www.gulf-times.com/story/524873/Emirates-Group-releases-sixth-annual-environmental http://www.gulf-times.com/story/524873/Emirates-Group-releases-sixth-annual-environmental Chapter 5 Socially-Conscious Management 209 39. C. Hausman, “Financial News Focuses on Questions of Ethics,” Ethics Newsline, www.globalethics.org/newsline, April 20, 2010; C. Hausman, “Privacy Issues Prominent in Week’s Tech News,” Ethics Newsline, www.globalethics.org/newsline, March 9, 2010; and H. Maurer and C. Lindblad, “Madoff Gets the Max,” Bloomberg BusinessWeek, July 13 and 20, 2009, p. 6. 40. This last example is based on J. F. Viega, T. D. Golden, and K. Dechant, “Why Managers Bend Company Rules,” Academy of Management Executive, May 2004, pp. 84–90. 41. K. Davis and W. C. Frederick, Business and Society, p. 76. 42. F. D. Sturdivant, Business and Society: A Managerial Approach, 3rd ed. (Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin, 1985), p. 128. 43. M. C. Gentile, “Keeping Your Colleagues Honest,” Harvard Business Review, March 2010, pp. 114–117; J. R. Edwards and D. M. Cable, “The Value of Value Congruence,” Journal of Applied Psychology, May 2009, pp. 654–677; G. Weaver, “Ethics and Employees: Making the Connection,” Academy of Management Executive, May 2004, pp. 121–125; V. Anand, B. E. Ashforth, and M. Joshi, “Business as Usual: The Acceptance and Perpetuation of Corruption in Organizations,” Academy of Management Executive, May 2004, pp. 39–53; J. Weber, L. B. Kurke, and D. W. Pentico, “Why Do Employees Steal?,” Business & Society, September 2003, pp. 359–380; V. Arnold and J. C. Lampe, “Understanding the Factors Underlying Ethical Organizations: Enabling Continuous Ethical Improvement,” Journal of Applied Business Research, Summer 1999, pp. 1–19. 44. L. K. Treviño, G. R. Weaver, and S. J. Reynolds, “Behavioral Ethics in Organizations: A Review,” Journal of Management, December 2006, pp. 951–990; T. Kelley, “To Do Right or Just to Be Legal,” New York Times, February 8, 1998, p. BU12; J. W. Graham, “Leadership, Moral Development, and Citizenship Behavior,” Business Ethics Quarterly, January 1995, pp. 43–54; L. Kohlberg, Essays in Moral Development: The Psychology of Moral Development, vol. 2 (New York: Harper & Row, 1984); and L. Kohlberg, Essays in Moral Development: The Philosophy of Moral Development, vol. 1 (New York: Harper & Row, 1981). 45. See, for example, J. Weber, “Managers’ Moral Reasoning: Assessing Their Responses to Three Moral Dilemmas,” Human Relations, July 1990, pp. 687–702. 46. W. C. Frederick and J. Weber, “The Value of Corporate Managers and Their Critics: An Empirical Description and Normative Implications,” in Business Ethics: Research Issues and Empirical Studies, ed. W. C. Frederick and L. E. Preston (Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1990), pp. 123–144; and J. H. Barnett and M. J. Karson, “Personal Values and Business Decisions: An Exploratory Investigation,” Journal of Business Ethics, July 1987, pp. 371–382. 47. K. Strom-Gottfried, “A Personal Take on Global Ethics,” Ethics Newsline, globalethics.org, March 25, 2013; and “Creating Value Skeptics,” Ethics Newsline, globalethics.org, August 13, 2012. 48. M. E. Baehr, J. W. Jones, and A. J. Nerad, “Psychological Correlates of Business Ethics Orientation in Executives,” Journal of Business and Psychology, Spring 1993, pp. 291–308; and L. K. Treviño and S. A. Youngblood, “Bad Apples in Bad Barrels: A Causal Analysis of Ethical Decision-Making Behavior,” Journal of Applied Psychology, August 1990, pp. 378–385. 49. M. E. Schweitzer, L. Ordonez, and B. Douma, “Goal Setting as a Motivator of Unethical Behavior,” Academy of Management Journal, June 2004, pp. 422–432. 50. M. C. Jensen, “Corporate Budgeting Is Broken—Let’s Fix It,” Harvard Business Review, June 2001, pp. 94–101. 51. R. L. Cardy and T. T. Selvarajan, “Assessing Ethical Behavior Revisited: The Impact of Outcomes on Judgment Bias,” paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management, Toronto, 2000. 52. P. Eisler and B. Hansen, “Doctors Perform Thousands of Unnecessary Surgeries,” USA Today online, www.usatoday, June 20, 2013. 53. T. Barnett, “Dimensions of Moral Intensity and Ethical Decision Making: An Empirical Study,” Journal of Applied Social Psychology, May 2001, pp. 1038–1057; and T. M. Jones, “Ethical Decision Making by Individuals in Organizations: An Issue- Contingent Model,” Academy of Management Review, April 1991, pp. 366–395. 54. W. Bailey and A. Spicer, “When Does National Identity Matter? Convergence and Divergence in International Business Ethics,” Academy of Management Journal, December 2007, pp. 1462–1480; and R. L. Sims, “Comparing Ethical Attitudes Across Cultures,” Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 13, no. 2, 2006, pp. 101–113. 55. BBC News Online, “Legal Review of Overseas Bribery,” November 29, 2007. 56. C. Hausman, “British Defense Giant BAE Must Hire Ethics Monitor and Pay Huge Penalties Under Corruption Settlement,” Ethics Newsline, www.globalethics.org, February 15, 2010. 57. “FCPA Digest,” www.fcpaprofessor.com, January 2016. 58. “SEC Enforcement Actions: FCPA Cases,” U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, www.sec.gov, accessed February 28, 2016. 59. “VimpelCom to Pay $795 Million in Global Settlement for FCPA Violations,” Securities and Exchange Commission (press release 2016-34), www.sec.gov, February 18, 2016. 60. L. Paine, R. Deshpande, J. D. Margolis, and K. E. Bettcher, “Up to Code: Does Your Company’s Conduct Meet World- Class Standards?,” Harvard Business Review, December 2005, pp. 122–133; G. R. Simpson, “Global Heavyweights Vow ‘Zero Tolerance’ for Bribes,” Wall Street Journal, January 27, 2005, pp. A2+; A. Spicer, T. W. Dunfee, and W. J. Bailey, “Does National Context Matter in Ethical Decision Making? An Empirical Test of Integrative Social Contracts Theory,” Academy of Management Journal, August 2004, pp. 610–620; J. White and S. Taft, “Frameworks for Teaching and Learning Business Ethics Within the Global Context: Background of Ethical Theories,” Journal of Management Education, August 2004, pp. 463–477; J. Guyon, “CEOs on Managing Globally,” Fortune, July 26, 2004, p. 169; A. B. Carroll, “Managing Ethically with Global Stakeholders: A Present and Future Challenge,” Academy of Management Executive, May 2004, pp. 114–120; and C. J. Robertson and W. F. Crittenden, “Mapping Moral Philosophies: Strategic Implications for Multinational Firms,” Strategic Management Journal, April 2003, pp. 385–392. 61. United Nations Global Compact, website, http://www. unglobalcompact.org/ParticipantsAndStakeholders/index.html, February 28, 2016. 62. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, “OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions,” www.oecd.org, April 21, 2014. 63. P. Rudegeair, “Los Angeles Sues Wells Fargo Over Sales Tactics,” The Wall Street Journal online, www.wsj.com, May 5, 2015. 64. Enron example taken from P. M. Lencioni, “Make Your Values Mean Something,” Harvard Business Review, July 2002, p. 113;. 65. B. Starr, “Army Officers Routinely Lie and Deceive, Study Finds,” www.cnn.com, February 2, 2015. 66. “The United States Army–Army Values,” www.army.mil/values/, accessed February 21, 2016. 67. B. Roberts, “Your Cheating Heart,” HR Magazine, June 2011, pp. 55–60. 68. J. R. Edwards and D. M. Cable, “The Value of Value Congruence,” Journal of Applied Psychology, May 2009, pp. 654–677; and Treviño and Youngblood, “Bad Apples in Bad Barrels,” p. 384. M05_ROBB5839_14_GE_C05.indd 209 12/07/17 2:45 PM http://www.globalethics.org/newsline http://www.globalethics.org/newsline http://www.globalethics.org http://www.fcpaprofessor.com http://www.sec.gov http://www.sec.gov http://www.oecd.org http://www.wsj.com http://www.cnn.com http://www.army.mil/values/ http://www.unglobalcompact.org/ParticipantsAndStakeholders/index.html http://www.unglobalcompact.org/ParticipantsAndStakeholders/index.html 210 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace Ethical and Environmental Policies: A Financial Management Perspective,” Journal of Business Ethics, May 2000. 86. L-M. Eleftheriou-Smith, “Apple’s Tim Cook: ‘Business Isn’t Just About Making Profit,’” Independent online, www.independent. co.uk, March 2, 2014; and P. Elmer-Dewitt, “Apple’s Tim Cook Picks a Fight with Climate Change Deniers,” Fortune online www .tech.fortune.com, March 1, 2014. 87. V. Wessler, “Integrity and Clogged Plumbing,” Straight to the Point, newsletter of VisionPoint Corporation, Fall 2002, pp. 1–2. 88. National Business Ethics Survey of the U.S. Workforce, 2013, Ethics Resource Center, www.ethics.org/nbes, 2014. 89. T. A. Gavin, “Ethics Education,” Internal Auditor, April 1989, pp. 54–57. 90. L. Myyry and K. Helkama, “The Role of Value Priorities and Professional Ethics Training in Moral Sensitivity,” Journal of Moral Education, 2002, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 35–50; W. Penn and B. D. Collier, “Current Research in Moral Development as a Decision Support System,” Journal of Business Ethics, January 1985, pp. 131–136. 91. J. A. Byrne, “After Enron: The Ideal Corporation,” Business Week, August 19, 2002, pp. 68–71; D. Rice and C. Dreilinger, “Rights and Wrongs of Ethics Training,” Training & Development Journal, May 1990, pp. 103–109; and J. Weber, “Measuring the Impact of Teaching Ethics to Future Managers: A Review, Assessment, and Recommendations,” Journal of Business Ethics, April 1990, pp. 182–190. 92. E. White, “What Would You Do? Ethics Courses Get Context,” Wall Street Journal, June 12, 2006, p. B3; and D. Zielinski, “The Right Direction: Can Ethics Training Save Your Company,” Training, June 2005, pp. 27–32. 93. G. Farrell and J. O’Donnell, “Ethics Training as Taught by Ex-Cons: Crime Doesn’t Pay,” USA Today, November 16, 2005, p. 1B+. 94. “Survey Reveals How Many Workers Commit Office Taboos,” Ethics Newsline, www.globalethics.org, September 18, 2007. 95. A. Fisher, “U.S. Retail Workers Lead the World in Theft from Employers,” Fortune online, www.fortune.com, January 26, 2015. 96. C. Hausman, “Men Are Less Ethical than Women, Claims Researcher,” Ethics Newsline, www.globaletehics.org/newsline, June 25, 2012; and C. May, “When Men Are Less Moral than Women,” ScientificAmerican.com, June 19, 2012. 97. N. Darling, “Why You Lied to Your Parents (and What They Really Knew),” Psychology Today, www.psychologytoday.com, April 19, 2015. 98. “China Uses Drone to Catch Cheaters on College Entrance Exams,” CBS News online, www.cbsnews.com, June 8, 2015. 99. Pei Li and Alyssa Abkowitz, “Over the Moon: Alibaba Engineers Fired for Mooncake Hacking.” Wall Street Journal, September 14, 2016, http://blogs.wsj.com/chinarealtime/2016/09/14/over-the- moon-alibaba-engineers-fired-for-mooncake-hacking/ (accessed December 16, 2016); “Alibaba Fires Employees for Mooncake Fraud,” AsiaOne, September 14, 2016, http://news.asiaone.com/ news/asia/alibaba-fires-employees-mooncake-fraud (accessed December 16, 2016). 100. S. S. Wiltermuth and F. J. Flynn, “Power, Moral Clarity, and Punishment in the Workplace,” Academy of Management Journal, August 2013, pp. 1002–1023; M. Crossnan, D. Mazutis, G. Seijts, and J. Gandz, “Developing Leadership Character in Business Programs,” Academy of Management Learning and Education, June 2013, pp. 285–305; D. M. Mayer, K. Aquino, R. L. Greenbaum, and M. Kuenze, “Who Displays Ethical Leadership, and Why Does It Matter? An Examination of Antecedents and Consequences of Ethical Leadership,” Academy of Management Journal, February 2012, pp. 151–171; and F. O. Walumbwa, D. M. Mayer, P. Wang, H. Wang, K. Workman, and A. L. Christensen, 69. “LRN Global Ethics Survey,” March 6, 2015 to March 11, 2015. 70. P. Van Lee, L. Fabish, and N. McCaw, “The Value of Corporate Values,” Strategy & Business, Summer 2005, pp. 52–65. 71. “LRN Global Ethics Survey,” March 6, 2015 to March 11, 2015. 72. F. O. Walumba and J. Schaubroeck, “Leader Personality Traits and Employee Voice Behavior: Mediating Roles of Ethical Leadership and Work Group Psychological Safety,” Journal of Applied Psychology, September 2009, pp. 1275–1286; G. Weaver, “Ethics and Employees: Making the Connection,” May 2004; G. Weaver, L. K. Treviño, and P. L. Cochran, “Integrated and Decoupled Corporate Social Performance: Management Commitments, External Pressures, and Corporate Ethics Practices,” Academy of Management Journal, October 1999, pp. 539–552; G. R. Weaver, L. K. Treviño, and P. L. Cochran, “Corporate Ethics Programs as Control Systems: Influences of Executive Commitment and Environmental Factors,” Academy of Management Journal, February 1999, pp. 41–57; R. B. Morgan, “Self- and Co-Worker Perceptions of Ethics and Their Relationships to Leadership and Salary,” Academy of Management Journal, February 1993, pp. 200–214; and B. Z. Posner and W. H. Schmidt, “Values and the American Manager: An Update,” California Management Review, Spring 1984, pp. 202–216. 73. S. Dockery, “Regulators’ Emphasis on ‘Culture’ Spurs Hunt to Measure It,” The Wall Street Journal online, www.wsj.com, February 4, 2016. 74. Ibid. 75. National Business Ethics Survey of the U.S. Workforce, 2013, Ethics Resource Center, www.ethics.org, March, 2014. 76. Ibid. 77. S. Watkins, “Set Example, Train Employees to Build Ethical Culture,” investors.com, February 28, 2013. 78. IBM Corporate Responsibility Report, 2007, www.ibm.com; and A. Schultz, “Integrating IBM,” CRO, March/April 2007, pp. 16–21. 79. K. Bart, “UBS Lays Out Employee Ethics Code,” Wall Street Journal online, www.wsj.com, January 12, 2010; J. L. Lunsford, “Transformer in Transition,” Wall Street Journal, May 17, 2007, pp. B1+; and J. S. McClenahen, “UTC’s Master of Principle,” Industry Week, January 2003, pp. 30–36. 80. M. Weinstein, “Survey Says: Ethics Training Works,” Training, November 2005, p. 15. 81. J. E. Fleming, “Codes of Ethics for Global Corporations,” Academy of Management News, June 2005, p. 4. 82. “Corporate Codes of Ethics Spread,” Ethics Newsline, www .globalethics.org, October 12, 2009; “Global Ethics Codes Gain Importance as a Tool to Avoid Litigation and Fines,” Wall Street Journal, August 19, 1999, p. A1; and J. Alexander, “On the Right Side,” World Business, January/February 1997, pp. 38–41. 83. F. R. David, “An Empirical Study of Codes of Business Ethics: A Strategic Perspective,” paper presented at the 48th Annual Academy of Management Conference, August 1988, Anaheim, California. 84. National Business Ethics Survey of the U.S. Workforce, 2013, Ethics Resource Center, www.ethics.org, March, 2014. 85. J. B. Singh, “Determinants of the Effectiveness of Corporate Codes of Ethics: An Empirical Study,” Journal of Business Ethics, July 2011, pp. 385–395; P. M. Erwin, “Corporate Codes of Conduct: The Effects of Code Content and Quality on Ethical Performance,” Journal of Business Ethics, April 2011, pp. 535–548; “Codes of Conduct,” Center for Ethical Business Cultures, www.cebcglobal.org, February 15, 2006; L. Paine, R. Deshpande, J. D. Margolis, and K. E. Bettcher, “Up to Code: Does Your Company’s Conduct Meet World-Class Standards”; and A. K. Reichert and M. S. Webb, “Corporate Support for M05_ROBB5839_14_GE_C05.indd 210 12/07/17 2:45 PM http://www.independent http://www.ethics.org/nbes http://www.globalethics.org http://www.fortune.com http://www.globaletehics.org/newsline http://www.psychologytoday.com http://www.cbsnews.com http://blogs.wsj.com/chinarealtime/2016/09/14/over-the-moon-alibaba-engineers-fired-for-mooncake-hacking/ http://blogs.wsj.com/chinarealtime/2016/09/14/over-the-moon-alibaba-engineers-fired-for-mooncake-hacking/ http://www.wsj.com http://www.ethics.org http://www.ibm.com http://www.wsj.com http://www.ethics.org http://www.cebcglobal.org http://news.asiaone.com/news/asia/alibaba-fires-employees-mooncake-fraud http://news.asiaone.com/news/asia/alibaba-fires-employees-mooncake-fraud http://www.tech.fortune.com http://www.tech.fortune.com http://www.globalethics.org http://www.globalethics.org Chapter 5 Socially-Conscious Management 211 “Linking Ethical Leadership to Employee Performance: The Roles of Leader-Member Exchange, Self-Efficacy, and Organizational Identification,” Organizational Behavior & Human Decision Processes, July 2011, pp. 204–213. 101. W. Zellner, “A Hero—and a Smoking-Gun Letter,” Business Week, January 28, 2002, pp. 34–35. 102. National Business Ethics Survey (Arlington, VA: Ethics Resource Center, 2007). 103. J. B. Stewart, “He Was a JPMorgan Chase Whistle-Blower. Then Came the Blowback,” New York Times online, www.nytimes.com, December 1, 2015. 104. R. Bell, “Blowing the Whistle, Blowing Your Career?,” Workforce, December 2013, p. 12; and A. Fredin, “The Unexpected Cost of Staying Silent,” Strategic Finance, April 2012, pp. 53–59. 105. S. Armour, “More Companies Urge Workers to Blow the Whistle,” USA Today, December 16, 2002, p. 1B. 106. J. Wiscombe, “Don’t Fear Whistleblowers,” Workforce, July 2002, pp. 26–27. 107. “ERC Releases New Research: Reporting Improves with a Procedurally Just Process,” Ethics Resource Center, www.ethics .org, May 30, 2013. 108. J. R. Emshwiller, “Settlement Reached in Hanford Whistleblower Suit,” Wall Street Journal online, www.wsj.com, August 13, 2015. 109. T. Reason, “Whistle Blowers: The Untouchables,” CFO, March 2003, p. 18; and C. Lachnit, “Muting the Whistle-Blower?,” Workforce, September 2002, p. 18. 110. R. Warner, “The ‘Do Whatever It Takes’ Attitude Gone Wrong,” Huffington Post online, www.huffingtonpost.com, July 20, 2015. 111. K. Flynn, “A New Pursuit for Social Entrepreneurship: Profits,” Forbes online, www.forbes.com, June 20, 2014. 112. This definition based on P. Tracey and N. Phillips, “The Distinctive Challenge of Educating Social Entrepreneurs: A Postscript and Rejoinder to the Special Issue on Entrepreneurship Education,” Academy of Management Learning & Education, June 2007, pp. 264–271; Schwab Foundation for Social Entrepreneurship, www.schwabfound.org, February 20, 2006; and J. G. Dees, J. Emerson, and P. Economy, Strategic Tools for Social Entrepreneurs (New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2002). 113. P. Margulies, “Linda Rottenberg’s High-Impact Endeavor,” Strategy + Business Online, Spring 2012; S. Moran, “Some Ways to Get Started as a Social Entrepreneur,” New York Times online, www.nytimes.com, June 22, 2011; P. A. Dacin, M. T. Dacin, and M. Matear, “Social Entrepreneurship: Why We Don’t Need a New Theory and How We Move Forward From Here,” Academy of Management Perspective, August 2010, pp. 37–57; and D. Bornstein, How to Change the World: Social Entrepreneurs and the Power of New Ideas (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004), inside cover jacket. 114. N. Wingfield, “Microsoft to Donate $1 Billion in Cloud Services to Nonprofits and Researchers,” New York Times online, www .nytimes.com, January 19, 2016. 115. K. H. Hammonds, “Now the Good News,” Fast Company, December 2007/January 2008, pp. 110–121; C. Dahle, “Filling the Void,” Fast Company, January/February 2006, pp. 54–57; and see PATH, website, www.path.org. 116. R. J. Bies, J. M. Bartunek, T. L. Fort, and M. N. Zald, “Corporations as Social Change Agents: Individual, Interpersonal, Institutional, and Environmental Dynamics,” Academy of Management Review, July 2007, pp. 788–793. 117. “The State of Corporate Philanthropy: A McKinsey Global Survey,” The McKinsey Quarterly online, www.mckinsey.com, February 2008. 118. R. Nixon, The Associated Press, “Bottom Line for (Red),” New York Times online, www.nytimes.com, February 6, 2008; and G. Mulvihill, “Despite Cause, Not Everyone Tickled Pink by Campaign,” Springfield News-Leader, October 15, 2007, p. 2E. 119. Giving in Numbers: 2015 Edition, Committee Encouraging Corporate Philanthropy, http://cecp.co/research.html. 120. “A Better World, Faster,” Google.org, website, https://www .google.org, accessed February 28, 2016. 121. “Giving Around the World: 2015 Edition,” CECP, http://cecp.co/. 122. A. Tergesen, “Doing Good to Do Well,” Wall Street Journal, January 9, 2012, p. B7. 123. Giving in Numbers: 2015 Edition, Committee Encouraging Corporate Philanthropy, available at http://cecp.co/research.html. 124. Skills Exercise based on F. Bartolome, “Nobody Trusts the Boss Completely—Now What?,” Harvard Business Review, March–April 1989, pp. 135–142; and J. K. Butler Jr., “Toward Understanding and Measuring Conditions of Trust: Evolution of a Condition of Trust Inventory,” Journal of Management, September 1991, pp. 643–663. 125. Case written by Marcello Russo, Assistant Professor, Rouen Business School, France; Saiqa Chaudhari, “Horwich school gets new state-of-the-art gym,” The Bolton News, November 18, 2014; “The Wellness Foundation” Web site, [www.wellnessfoundation. it]; Data: Special Eurobarometer 334, conducted by TNS Opinion & Social, survey co-ordinated by Directorate General Communication; “Sport and Physical Activity,” European Commission, March 2010 [http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/ archives/ebs/ebs_334_en.pdf]  M05_ROBB5839_14_GE_C05.indd 211 12/07/17 2:45 PM http://www.nytimes.com http://www.wsj.com http://www.huffingtonpost.com http://www.forbes.com http://www.schwabfound.org http://www.nytimes.com http://www.path.org http://www.mckinsey.com http://www.nytimes.com http://cecp.co/research.html http://cecp.co/ http://cecp.co/research.html http://www.wellnessfoundation.it http://www.wellnessfoundation.it http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_334_en.pdf http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_334_en.pdf http://www.ethics.org http://www.ethics.org http://www.nytimes.com http://www.nytimes.com https://www.google.org https://www.google.org It’s Your Career Chapter 6 Managing Change Learning to Manage Your Stress Are you stressed? Frequently stressed? With all the projects, deadlines, and pressure to get good grades, school can be an obvious source of stress. But the workplace can be (and will be!) just as stressful. Here are some statistics about workplace stress that will make you sit up and take notice: The average employee has 30 to 100 projects going on simultaneously; employees are interrupted seven times an hour and are distracted some 2.1 hours in a workday; and 40 percent of adults say that stressful events keep them awake at night.1 It’s no wonder we feel continually stressed. However, as you’ll see later in this chapter, too much stress can have adverse consequences on your physical, emotional, and psychological well-being. That’s why learning how to manage your stress is an important skill. Here are some suggestions for managing your stress: 1. Know your stress triggers. What produces the stress you face? Keep a record for a couple of weeks of situations, events, and people linked to the stress you’re feeling. What’s causing the most stress and how are you responding to it? Is it someone who continually changes deadlines or expectations? Is it someone who doesn’t do what they had promised to do? Is it continual interruptions or persistent noise? Examining your stress triggers may expose obvious sources of stress and may also highlight subtle but persistent causes of stress. Keeping a record of this can help you identify patterns and similarities in your stressors and how you react to them. 2. Develop healthy responses. Reduce stress by making healthy choices when you feel stress coming on. Alcohol, fast food, smoking, or continual snacking may help you feel better temporarily, but are probably not the healthiest choices you can make. Likewise, working long hours to finish a project might make you feel in control, but sleep deprivation can leave you vulnerable to even more stress. Also, when you’re stressed by Source: 13ree.design/Shutterstock A key to success in management and in your career is knowing how to manage your stress. M06_ROBB5839_14_GE_C06.indd 212 19/07/17 10:00 AM 213213 ● SKILL OUTCOMES 6.1 Describe making the case for change. 6.2 Compare and contrast views on the change process. 6.3 Classify areas of organizational change. 6.4 Explain how to manage change. ● Know how to be change ready by overcoming your resistance to change. 6.5 Discuss contemporary issues in managing change. ● Develop your skill in change management so you can serve as a catalyst for change. 6.6 Describe techniques for stimulating innovation. 6.7 Explain why managing disruptive innovation is important. Pearson MyLab Management® Improve Your Grade! When you see this icon, visit www.mymanagementlab.com for activities that are applied, personalized, and offer immediate feedback. Learning Objectives time constraints, it’s easy to skip physical activity (exercise), but regular exercise is a powerful stress reliever. Even short periods of exercise, which might be easier to fit into your schedule, can be beneficial. 3. Establish boundaries. Our 24/7 digital world can be—and is—overwhelming. That’s why you have to really fight the urge to keep checking your devices. But it’s important to establish those boundaries if you’re trying to manage your stress so you can be at your optimum best, whatever you’re doing. Commit to perhaps not checking your email from home in the evening or putting your phone on silent while spending time with your friends or partner. Create some boundaries between your work (or school) life and your personal life. 4. Improve time management skills. Take a look back at Chapter 1’s It’s Your Career chapter opener. Improving your time management skills can help you feel less overwhelmed and out of control. In today’s world, big companies and small businesses, universities and colleges, state and city governments, and even the military are forced to be innovative. Although in- novation has always been a part of the manager’s job, it has become even more impor- tant in recent years. In this chapter, we’ll describe why innovation is important, how managers can manage innovation, and the impact of disruptive innovation. Because innovation is often closely tied to an organization’s change efforts, let’s start by looking at change and how managers manage change. M06_ROBB5839_14_GE_C06.indd 213 10/07/17 4:19 PM http://www.mymanagementlab.com 214 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace THE CASE for change Most managers, at one point or another, will have to change some things in their workplace. We classify these changes as organizational change, which is any alteration of people, structure, or technology. Organizational changes need someone to act as a catalyst and assume the responsibility for managing the change process, as our opener described—that is a change agent. Change agents can be a manager within the organization but could also be a nonmanager—for example, a change specialist from the human resources department or even an outside consul- tant.2 For major changes, an organization often hires outside consultants to provide advice and assistance. Because they’re from the outside, they can provide an objective perspective that insiders may lack. But outside consultants have a limited understand- ing of the organization’s history, culture, operating procedures, and people. They’re also more likely to initiate drastic change than insiders because they don’t have to live with the repercussions after the change is implemented. In contrast, internal managers may be more thoughtful, but possibly overcautious, because they must live with the consequences of their decisions. Managers at the Ford Motor Company are taking on the role of change agent. Making changes has become necessary as peoples’ needs and preferences for travel are shifting. The company recently conducted a series of experiments to better understand customers’ and prospective customers’ needs and preferences.3 Ford’s experiments revealed differ- ences in how members of the younger generation prefer to get around compared to members of older generations. As a result, Ford is broaden- ing its scope from selling cars and trucks to include car-sharing services, offering foldable electric bikes that can be charged while in the vehicle, and an app that determines the best mode of transportation to a desti- nation (for example, driving part of the way, then, riding a bike for the remainder). Needless to say, the company has had to make some organi- zational changes as it has entered into the business of providing alterna- tive transportation modes. Ford’s managers are doing what managers everywhere must do—implementing change. If it weren’t for change, a manager’s job would be relatively easy. Planning would be simple because tomorrow would be no different from today. The issue of effective organizational design would also be resolved because the environment would not be uncertain and there would be no need to redesign the structure. Similarly, decision making would be dramatically streamlined because the outcome of each alternative could be predicted with almost certain accuracy. But that’s not the way it is. Change is an organizational reality.4 Organizations face change because external and internal factors create the forces for change (see Exhibit 6-1). Let’s review major external and internal factors associated with change. LO6.1organizational change Any alteration of people, structure, or technology in an organization change agent Someone who acts as a catalyst and assumes the responsibility for managing the change process Managers serve as effective change agents because they have a good understanding of their organization’s history, culture, procedures, employees, and customers. They act as catalysts in initiating change, lead and manage the change process, and develop plans to implement change. Source: Pressmaster/Shutterstock Exhibit 6-1 External and Internal Forces for Change External • Changing consumer needs and wants • New governmental laws • Changing technology • Economic changes Internal • New organizational strategy • Change in composition of workforce • New equipment • Changing employee attitudes M06_ROBB5839_14_GE_C06.indd 214 10/07/17 4:19 PM Chapter 6 Managing Change 215 External Factors CHANGING CONSUMER NEEDS AND WANTS Ford Motor Company understands the importance of being responsive to its customers. The company’s experiments will also enable them to attract a new breed of customers, helping to secure the company’s future. But sometimes a company may make changes that fail to meet customer pref- erences. Burger King recently learned that lesson by rapidly expanding its menu with items that were not popular with its customers. It had to drop its lower calorie fries called “Satisfries” and its apple cranberry salads after one year because of poor sales. Burger King’s president Jose Cil admitted “it’s not what our guests were looking for.”5 NEW GOVERNMENTAL LAWS Government laws require changes in how manag- ers must conduct business. Five broad categories of governmental laws include truth- in-advertising, employment and labor fair practices, environmental protection, privacy, and safety and health. For example, in Singapore, where some employers have difficulty filling jobs because of legal restrictions on foreign workers, the government offers sub- sidies for testing robots in the workplace. Now the Chilli Padi Nonya Café is one of several restaurants to test a robot in the dining room. In China, businesses managers must pay close attention to changing employment laws affecting the minimum wage and open-ended labor contracts, among other factors.6 CHANGING TECHNOLOGY What do the Chevrolet Volt and the Tesla Motors Model S have in common? Both are examples of electric-powered vehicles. Compared to gas-powered vehicles, electric cars have shorter driving ranges; however, ongoing research and development into improving battery capacity to extend their range is a high priority. While most electric vehicles rely on lithium-ion batteries, Toyota and Volkswagen are considering alternatives, including solid state batteries, in order to extend driving ranges.8 ECONOMIC CHANGES Managers must respond to changes in economic forces. Consider the impact of an economic recession. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, recessions are characterized by a general slowdown in economic activity, a downturn in the business cycle, and a reduction in the amount of goods and services produced and sold.9 The so-called Great Recession (2007–2009) was considered to be one of the more severe recessions felt worldwide. In the United States, the unemploy- ment rate jumped from 5 percent to 10.8 percent. In response, executives in many orga- nizations sought to protect profits by cutting costs, which often included mass employee layoffs. Although unavoidable, these management practices contributed to the severity of the recession because unemployed individuals are less able to purchase discretionary goods and services. Ironically, the increase in unemployment and subsequent drop in sales often led management to implement further cost-cutting practices. Economic changes, of course, are not limited to the U.S. context. Forecasts for slower economic growth in China have prompted China’s Labor Ministry to call for “steady and cautious control” over minimum wage increases.10 The rationale behind this practice is to help companies manage rising labor costs. With these actions come long-term risks: Chinese consumers’ ability to purchase many goods and services will likely diminish and companies will have to consider additional cost-cutting methods such as reductions in hiring. Internal Factors NEW ORGANIZATIONAL STRATEGY For decades, Walgreens’ strategy focused on increasing its number of retail stores. In most cities, you can find multiple Walgreens stores located just a couple of miles apart. The costs of maintaining so many stores are substantial, putting downward pressures on profit levels. Company management reconsidered its strategy of adding stores. In its place, the company refocused its FYI • 78 percent of U.S. chief executive officers are concerned that overregulation represents threats to their companies’ growth prospects.7 M06_ROBB5839_14_GE_C06.indd 215 10/07/17 4:19 PM 216 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace strategy to improving the customer service experience and providing more competi- tive product pricing. The latter became necessary particularly as large retailers like Walmart offer prescription medication and similar nonprescription items at a price advantage. CHANGE IN COMPOSITION OF WORKFORCE Through the decades, the U.S. workforce has become more diverse. In Chapter 3, we saw the challenges managers face when managing a workforce that is diverse based on surface-level variables, in- cluding age and race, as well as deep-level variables, including differences in values, personality, and work preferences. A key challenge entails orchestrating these differ- ences to maintain an inclusive culture that focuses on productivity. NEW EQUIPMENT In 1983, American engineer Charles Hull invented the first three-dimensional (3D) printer, which is based on the technology of transforming liquid polymers into solid objects.11 Only recently has this technology become highly refined. Now, more and more companies are using 3D printers to create product prototypes. For example, the medi- cal industry more easily creates customized prosthetics and implants.12 And, Apple uses 3D printer technology to create the casings for its laptops. Technological changes are particularly making their marks on health care. These technologies include advances in genomics, biotechnology, robotics, connected care, and artificial intelligence. Advances in robotic technology, for example, is changing how surgeons perform some surgical procedures. As a case in point, the world-renowned Cleveland Clinic offers robotically assisted heart surgery. This technology enables cardiothoracic surgeons to use computer consoles to control surgical instruments and minimize the invasiveness of some surgeries. CHANGING EMPLOYEE ATTITUDES A recent survey revealed that the attitudes of employees at organizations going through significant changes tend to be less favorable than at more stable companies.13 Where change is happening, the largest differences are in attitudes toward company leadership and company image. But, not all employees in changing organizations have less favorable attitudes. Those who prefer stability are less likely to try new technology or embrace change than employees who are open to change. Changing attitudes challenge managers to adopt methods to support employees through organizational changes. THE CHANGE process Two very different metaphors can be used to describe the change pro- cess.14 One metaphor envisions the organization as a large ship crossing a calm sea. The ship’s captain and crew know exactly where they’re going because they’ve made the trip many times before. Change comes in the form of an occasional storm, a brief distraction in an otherwise calm and predictable trip. In this calm waters metaphor, change is seen as an occasional disruption in the normal flow of events. In another metaphor, the organization is seen as a small raft navigating a raging river with uninterrupted white-water rapids. Aboard the raft are half a dozen people who have never worked together before, who are totally unfamiliar with the river, who are unsure of their eventual destination, and who, as if things weren’t bad enough, are traveling at night. In the white-water rapids metaphor, change is normal and expected and managing it is a continual process. These two metaphors present very different approaches to understanding and responding to change. Let’s take a closer look at each one. LO6.2 Architectural design firms benefit from new 3-D printing equipment by dramatically reducing the time it takes to create hand-made building models. Invented by Charles Hull, the equipment produces accurate, highly detailed, and full-color physical 3-D models printed from digital data that help architects, contractors, and clients envision building projects. Source: MBI/Alamy Stock Photo M06_ROBB5839_14_GE_C06.indd 216 10/07/17 4:19 PM Chapter 6 Managing Change 217 Calm Waters Versus White-Water Rapids Metaphors THE CALM WATERS METAPHOR At one time, the calm waters metaphor was fairly descriptive of the situation managers faced. It’s best understood by using Kurt Lewin’s three-step change process.15 (See Exhibit 6-2.) According to Lewin, successful change can be planned and requires unfreezing the status quo, changing to a new state, and refreezing to make the change permanent. The sta- tus quo is considered equilibrium. To move away from this equilibrium, unfreezing is nec- essary. Unfreezing can be thought of as preparing for the needed change. It can be done by increasing the driving forces, which are forces pushing for change; by decreasing the restraining forces, which are forces that resist change; or by combining the two approaches. Once unfreezing is done, the change itself can be implemented. However, merely introducing change doesn’t ensure that it will take hold. The new situation needs to be refrozen so that it can be sustained over time. Unless this last step is done, there’s a strong chance that employees will revert back to the old equilibrium state—that is, the old ways of doing things. The objective of refreezing, then, is to stabilize the new situation by reinforcing the new behaviors. Lewin’s three-step process treats change as a move away from the organization’s current equilibrium state. It’s a calm waters scenario where an occasional disruption (a “storm”) means planning and implementing change to deal with the disruption. Once the disruption has been dealt with, however, things continue on under the new changed situation. This type of environment isn’t what most managers face today. Still, we can find some illustrations of the calm water metaphor, for instance, the 2015 Germanwings Airlines plane crash. The copilot of a Germanwings international flight from Barcelona–El Prat Airport in Spain to Düsseldorf Airport in Ger- many intentionally crashed the plane into a mountain, killing all passengers and crew members. The captain left the cockpit for a short period. When he tried to re-enter the cockpit using a security code, he quickly learned that the copilot disabled this security measure using cockpit controls. Civil avia- tion authorities in several countries, including Australia, Germany, and New Zealand, responded to this tragic disruption by implementing new rules that require two crewmembers to be present in the cockpit of commercial air- craft at all times. Germanwings immediately complied with this ruling and continued to operate flights. WHITE-WATER RAPIDS METAPHOR An expert on weather patterns has said, “There are some times when you can predict weather well for the next 15 days. Other times, you can only really forecast a couple of days. Sometimes you can’t predict the next two hours.” Today’s business climate is turning out to be a lot like that two-hour weather scenario. “The pace of change in our economy and our culture is accelerating and our visibility about the future is declining.”16 As senior vice president and general manager of Connected Energy, a unit of Cisco, Laura Ipsen’s company works on developing energy ecosystems for the smart- grid market. She describes her job as follows, “My job is like having to put together a 1,000-piece puzzle, but I don’t have the box top with the picture of what it looks Unfreezing RefreezingChanging Exhibit 6-2 The Three-Step Change Process David Newman is the director of the new Target Technology Innovation Center in San Francisco. Target competes in a white-water rapids environment where major changes in technology and shopping behavior continue to reshape retailing. Newman and his team of innovators study evolving technologies and interactive devices to improve Target’s performance and customers’ shopping experiences online and in stores. Source: Jeff Chiu/AP Images M06_ROBB5839_14_GE_C06.indd 217 10/07/17 4:19 PM 218 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace like, and some of the pieces are missing.”17 Susan Whiting, chair of Nielsen Media Research, the company best known for its television ratings, recognizes that the media research business isn’t what it used to be. The Internet, video on demand, cell phones, iPads, digital video recorders, music and news streaming services, and other changing technologies have made data collection much more challenging. Whiting says, “If you look at a typical week I have, it’s a combination of trying to lead a company in change in an industry in change.”18 These examples illustrate what change is like in our second change metaphor— white-water rapids. It’s also consistent with a world that’s increasingly dominated by information, ideas, and knowledge.19 Here’s what managing change might be like for you in a white-water rapids envi- ronment. The college you’re attending has the following rules: Courses vary in length. When you sign up, you don’t know how long a course will run. It might go for 2 weeks or 15 weeks. Furthermore, the instructor can end a course at any time with no prior warning. If that isn’t challenging enough, the length of the class changes each time it meets: Sometimes the class lasts 20 minutes; other times it runs for 3 hours. And the time of the next class meeting is set by the instructor during this class. There’s one more thing: All exams are unannounced, so you have to be ready for a test at any time. To succeed in this type of environment, you’d have to respond quickly to chang- ing conditions. Students who are overly structured or uncomfortable with change wouldn’t succeed. Increasingly, managers are realizing that their job is much like what a student would face in such a college. The stability and predictability of the calm waters meta- phor don’t exist. Disruptions in the status quo are not occasional and temporary, and they are not followed by a return to calm waters. Many managers never get out of the rapids. Is the white-water rapids metaphor an exaggeration? Probably not! Although you’d expect a chaotic and dynamic environment in high-tech industries, even orga- nizations in non-high-tech industries are faced with constant change. Take the case of Dunkin’ Donuts. You might think that the food and beverage industry couldn’t be all that complex—after all, coffee and baked goods such as donuts and bagels appear to be fairly uncomplicated—but that impression would be wrong. Dunkin’ Donuts management has had several challenges to confront.20 First, there’s the challenge of developing products that will appeal to a wide range of global customers. For instance, the company has had to adjust its menu to appeal to its customers in other countries. For example, you can get a kai young donut in Thailand, which is a donut topped with dried, shredded chicken and Thai chili paste. Second, the company is struggling with increased operating costs due to the rising minimum wage in some parts of the United States, particularly in New York City where the rate is rising from $10.50 to $15.00 in 2018. This increase will translate into a 71 percent increase in the cost of employee compensation.21 Third, slow customer service has been a concern. Management has responded by organizing prep stations to be more efficient to meet on-the-go morning schedules.22 Today, any organization that treats change as the occasional disturbance in an otherwise calm and stable world runs a great risk. Too much is changing too fast for an organization or its managers to be complacent. It’s no longer business as usual. And managers must be ready to efficiently and effectively manage the changes facing their organization or their work area. Reactive versus Proactive Change Processes As students, you have taken many tests. Now think about a difficult course that you have taken and the experiences of your classmates taking the same class. Most students find the material to be difficult and they’re concerned about performing poorly on the midterm exam. We might see two types of behavior patterns emerge. One group might go through the course struggling with the material in silence. They do nothing about it and later perform poorly on the midterm exam. Only M06_ROBB5839_14_GE_C06.indd 218 10/07/17 4:19 PM Chapter 6 Managing Change 219 after receiving the poor grade do they ask their professor for guidance to help them prepare for the final exam. These students are reacting to a situation (difficult course material). Another group of students takes the initiative right away when they realize the material is difficult to master. These students visit the professor during her office hours, participate in a study group, and work on practice problem sets together. This group of students has initiated preparation well ahead of the midterm exam, and represents an example of a proactive change process. We can find these same patterns in orga- nizations. The civil aviation authorities illustrate a reactive change process in direct response to the Germanwings crash, and the Ford Motor Company’s experiments describe a proactive change process. AREAS of change Have you seen (or used) the 3M Co.’s Command picture-hanging hooks (which can actually be used to hang many different items)? They’re an easy-to-use, relatively simple product consisting of plastic hooks and sticky foam strips. The manufacturing process, however, was far from simple. The work used to be done in four different states and take 100 days. However, a couple of years ago, the company’s former CEO decided to start “untangling its hairballs” by streamlin- ing complex and complicated production processes. Needless to say, a lot of changes had to take place. Today, those Command products are produced at a consolidated production “hub” in a third less time.23 3M Co. was up for the “hairball” challenge and focused its change efforts on its people and processes. Managers face four main areas of change: strategy, structure, technology, and people (see Exhibit 6-3). Changing strategy signifies a change in how managers ensure the success of the company. Changing structure includes any change in structural vari- ables such as reporting relationships, coordination mechanisms, employee empower- ment, or job redesign. Changing technology encompasses modifications in the way work is performed or the methods and equipment that are used. Changing people refers to changes in attitudes, expectations, perceptions, and behavior of individuals or groups. LO6.3 Structural components and structural design Technology Work processes, methods, and equipment People Attitudes, expectations, perceptions,and behavior—individual and group Structure Modifying the approach to ensuring the organization’s success Strategy Exhibit 6-3 Four Types of Change M06_ROBB5839_14_GE_C06.indd 219 10/07/17 4:19 PM 220 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace Strategy Failure to change strategy when circumstances dictate could undermine a company’s success. Let’s consider the example of Ryanair, which is a regional airline based in Europe. Just more than 30 years old, the airline started out with a strategy to differen- tiate itself from the competition by offering low-cost airfares. Lower fares came with spartan cabin décor, hefty fees for baggage handling, snacks, and the use of the rest- room facilities while onboard. The airline developed a poor reputation for customer service. It was a case of the customer almost never being right! Through the years, this strategy proved to undermine the airline’s reputation and financial performance because of competitors who didn’t skimp on amenities. With new, aggressive competi- tors, the company realized that a change in strategy was essential. At the center of the new strategy was raising customer service quality, including cutting out many extra fees. Michael O’Leary, Ryanair’s CEO admitted: “If I had only known that being nicer to our customers was good for business I would have done it years ago.”24 Had the company maintained its original strategy, Ryanair probably would no longer exist. Structure Jin Zhiguo, chairman of China’s Tsingtao Brewery, understands how important structural change can be. When the company shifted from a government-run company to a market- led company, many changes had to take place. He says, “Having worked for a state-owned enterprise, our people weren’t used to competing for jobs or to being replaced for perfor- mance.”25 The change from a bureaucratic and risk-averse company to one that could com- pete in a global market required structural changes such as decentralizing decision making. Unfortunately, not all bureaucratic organizations can change easily. For instance, the U.S. Postal Service has been losing substantial amounts of money for years. In fis- cal year 2015, the Postal Service reported a $5.1 billion loss, which extends the losing streak to the last nine years. There are many reasons for the Postal Service’s poor per- formance, including the growth of e-mail, competition from package delivery services such as FedEx, and the rapidly growing costs of providing health care to its retirees. The Postal Service’s leadership recognizes the need to grow the business, but that’s easier said than done. Postmaster General Megan Brennan said, “…we will also need the enactment of legislation that makes our retiree health benefit system affordable and that provides for increased pricing and product flexibility.”26 The influence of labor unions and various government regulations have created an organizational structure that is difficult to change, even though Postal Service management recognizes the necessity of doing so. Changes in the external environment or in organizational strategies often lead to changes in the organizational structure, but not always as we just learned about the U.S. Postal Service. Because an organization’s structure is defined by how work gets done and who does it, managers can alter one or both of these structural components. For instance, departmental responsibilities could be combined, organizational levels eliminated, or the number of persons a manager supervises could be increased. More rules and procedures could be implemented to increase standardization. Or employees could be empowered to make decisions so decision making could be faster. Another option would be to make major changes in the actual structural design. For instance, when Hewlett-Packard acquired Compaq Computer, product divisions were dropped, merged, or expanded. Structural design changes also might include, for instance, a shift from a functional to a product structure or the creation of a project structure design. Avery-Dennis Corporation, for example, revamped its structure to a new design that arranges work around teams. Technology Managers can also change the technology used to convert inputs into outputs. Most early management studies dealt with changing technology. For instance, scientific man- agement techniques involved implementing changes that would increase production M06_ROBB5839_14_GE_C06.indd 220 10/07/17 4:19 PM Chapter 6 Managing Change 221 efficiency. Today, technological changes usually involve the introduction of new equipment, tools, or methods; automa- tion; or computerization. For example, software company Visia Solutions devel- oped a quality assurance program for Ford Motor Company. Assembly workers in Ford’s Valencia, Spain, manufacturing facility wear a small device on their wrists that enables them to ensure that vehicle specifications are correct. According to Ford of Europe’s manufacturing vice president, “The ability to simply consult a smartphone screen to check any aspect of a vehicle’s quality and specification helps to guarantee high- est levels of product quality, and improves work processes and manufacturing efficiency.”27 Automation is a technological change that replaces certain tasks done by people with tasks done by machines. Robotic technology has been incorporated in many business settings. For instance, FANUC America Corporation has developed robotic devices for use in many settings, including manufacturing and warehouse product distribution. Walk through any large home improvement store such as the Home Depot. Did you think that workers piled those dozens of 50-pound bags of cement onto the pallets? Probably not. Robotic equipment placed those bags onto pallets in preparation for shipment to the stores. The most visible technological changes have come from computerization. Most orga- nizations have sophisticated information systems. For instance, supermarkets and other retailers use scanners that provide instant inventory information and many are starting to accept mobile payments such as Apple Pay and PayPal. Also, most offices are computer- ized. At BP p.l.c., for example, employees had to learn how to deal with the personal vis- ibility and accountability brought about by an enterprise-wide information system. The integrative nature of this system meant that what any employee did on his or her computer automatically affected other computer systems on the internal network.28 At the Benetton Group SpA, computers link its manufacturing plants outside Treviso, Italy, with the com- pany’s various sales outlets and a highly automated warehouse. Now, product information can be transmitted and shared instantaneously, a real plus in today’s environment.29 People Changing people involves changing attitudes, expectations, perceptions, and behav- iors—something that’s not easy to do. Organizational development (OD) is the term used to describe change methods that focus on people and the nature and quality of interpersonal work relationships.30 The most popular OD techniques are described in Exhibit 6-4. Each seeks to bring about changes in the organization’s people and make them work together better. For example, executives at Scotiabank, one of Canada’s Big Five banks, knew that the success of a new customer sales and service strategy depended on changing employee attitudes and behaviors. Managers used different OD techniques during the strategic change, including team building, survey feedback, and intergroup development. One indicator of how well these techniques worked in getting people to change was that every branch in Canada implemented the new strategy on or ahead of schedule.31 Much of what we know about OD practices has come from North American research. However, managers need to recognize that some techniques that work for U.S. organizations may not be appropriate for organizations or organizational divi- sions based in other countries.32 For instance, a study of OD interventions showed that “multirater [survey] feedback as practiced in the United States is not embraced in Taiwan” because the cultural value of “saving face is simply more powerful than the value of receiving feedback from subordinates.”33 What’s the lesson for manag- ers? Before using the same OD techniques to implement behavioral changes, especially across different countries, managers need to be sure they’ve taken into account cultural characteristics and whether the techniques “make sense for the local culture.” organizational development (OD) Change methods that focus on people and the nature and quality of interpersonal work relationships Managers of Wellness Corporate Solutions use employee hikes and group office exercises as organizational development methods to bring about changes in employee attitudes and behaviors regarding physical fitness, nutrition, and mental health. The OD methods help employees learn how other employees think and work and improve the quality of their interpersonal work relationships. Source: Chikwendiu/The Washington Post/ Getty Images M06_ROBB5839_14_GE_C06.indd 221 10/07/17 4:19 PM 222 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace MANAGING change We know it’s better for us to eat healthy and to be active, yet few of us follow that advice. We resist making changes in our lifestyle. Volkswagen Sweden and ad agency DDB Stockholm did an experiment to see if they could get people to change their behavior and take the healthier option of using the stairs in- stead of riding an escalator.34 How? They put a working piano keyboard on a stairway in a Stockholm subway station to see if commuters would use it. The experiment was a resounding success as stair traffic rose 66 percent. The lesson—people can change if you make the change appealing. Change can be a threat to people in an organization. Organizations can build up iner- tia that motivates people to resist changing their status quo, even though change might be beneficial. Why do people resist change, and what can be done to minimize their resistance? Why Do People Resist Change? It’s often said that most people hate any change that doesn’t jingle in their pockets. This resistance to change is well documented.35 Why do people resist change? The main reasons include uncertainty, habit, concern over personal loss, and the belief that the change is not in the organization’s best interest.36 Change replaces the known with uncertainty. No matter how much you may dis- like attending college, at least you know what’s expected of you. When you leave col- lege for the world of full-time employment, you’ll trade the known for the unknown. Employees in organizations are faced with similar uncertainty. For example, when quality control methods based on statistical models are introduced into manufactur- ing plants, many quality control inspectors have to learn the new methods. Some may fear that they will be unable to do so and may develop a negative attitude toward the change or behave poorly if required to use them. Another cause of resistance is that we do things out of habit. Every day when you go to school or work, you probably go the same way, if you’re like most people. We’re crea- tures of habit. Life is complex enough—we don’t want to have to consider the full range of options for the hundreds of decisions we make every day. To cope with this complex- ity, we rely on habits or programmed responses. But when confronted with change, our tendency to respond in our accustomed ways becomes a source of resistance. LO6.4 MORE EFFECTIVE INTERPERSONAL WORK RELATIONSHIPS Process Consultation Survey Feedback Sensitivity Training Intergroup Development Team Building A method of changing behavior through unstructured group interaction. Activities that help team members learn how each member thinks and works. Changing the attitudes, stereotypes, and perceptions that work groups have about each other. A technique for assessing attitudes and perceptions, identifying discrepancies in these, and resolving the differences by using survey information in feedback groups. An outside consultant helps the manager understand how interpersonal processes are affecting the way work is being done. Exhibit 6-4 Popular OD Techniques M06_ROBB5839_14_GE_C06.indd 222 10/07/17 4:19 PM Chapter 6 Managing Change 223 The third cause of resistance is the fear of losing something already possessed. Change threatens the investment you’ve already made in the status quo. The more people have invested in the current system, the more they resist change. Why? They fear the loss of status, money, authority, friendships, personal convenience, or other economic benefits they value. Consider what happened when Commonwealth Bank in Australia introduced an “activity-based” workplace to improve teamwork. The com- pany replaced the traditional arrangement of permanent desk assignments with desks and meeting spaces assigned as needed from day to day. Recognizing that employees might feel disconnected from colleagues in this new work environment, bank manag- ers laid the groundwork a year in advance with informational meetings and communi- cations. After the changeover, managers continued to offer “settling in” support while employees became accustomed to the new workspace arrangement.37 A final cause of resistance is a person’s belief that the change is incompatible with the goals and interests of the organization. For instance, an employee who believes that a proposed new job procedure will reduce product quality can be expected to resist the change. This type of resistance actually can be beneficial to the organization if expressed in a positive way. Techniques for Reducing Resistance to Change When managers see resistance to change as dysfunctional, what can they do? Several strategies have been suggested in dealing with resistance to change. These approaches REALlet’s get The Scenario: Jayden Hunter doesn’t understand why it is so difficult for the dispatchers to adapt to the new company tracking system. Jayden is a manager at a trucking company and about six months ago the company implemented a new software system to track transportation assignments. However, he has found that the dispatchers aren’t using the new system, reverting back to the paper tracking system they used in the past because they say it is easier. What can Jayden do to convince his staff to give the new system a chance? Systems changes require a planned process as well as transparent and frequent communication. It is imperative that those who are most affected by the change—the users of the system—understand why the change is happening, how the change will benefit their roles and responsibilities (WIIFM—What’s In It For Me), and most importantly, how they are a part of the process. Since the change has already happened, opening communication about these three items is important and can be done through town hall meetings, which encourage discussion and provide answers, and focus groups, which can get to the heart of issues and determine solutions together rather than in a silo. When it’s clear employees are not on the same page as management, listening is half the battle to the solution, and then the rubber must hit the road: Enact agreed-upon solutions in a timely manner that allow for an effective and successful transition to the new system. Karen Heger Manager, Organizational Development and Training So ur ce : K ar en S . G . H eg er M06_ROBB5839_14_GE_C06.indd 223 10/07/17 4:19 PM 224 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace include education and communication, participation, facilitation and support, nego- tiation, manipulation and co-optation, and coercion. These tactics are summarized here and described in Exhibit 6-5. Managers should view these techniques as tools and use the most appropriate one, depending on the type and source of the resis- tance. Education and communication can help reduce resistance to change by helping employees see the logic of the change effort. This technique, of course, assumes that much of the resistance lies in misinformation or poor communication. The use of social media might be useful as part of an overall communication plan. A recent study found that 55 percent of participants who had experienced change in the workplace expressed a desire that their employer provide more social media engage- ment.38 In addition, 42 percent preferred having more face-to-face communication. These findings suggest that both the use of technology and conventional methods in communicating change should be part of a plan to deliver information about change. Participation involves bringing those individuals directly affected by the proposed change into the decision-making process. Their participation allows these individuals to express their feelings, increase the quality of the process, and increase employee commitment to the final decision. Facilitation and support involve helping employees deal with the fear and anxiety associated with the change effort. This help may include employee counseling, therapy, new skills training, or a short paid leave of absence. Negotiation involves exchanging something of value for an agreement to lessen the resistance to the change effort. This resistance technique may be quite useful when the resistance comes from a powerful source. Manipulation and co-optation refer to covert attempts to influence others about the change. It may involve distorting facts to make the change appear more attractive. Finally, coercion can be used to deal with resistance to change. Coercion involves the use of direct threats or force against the resisters. Technique When Used Advantage Disadvantage Education and communication When resistance is due to misinformation Clear up misunderstandings May not work when mutual trust and credibility are lacking Participation When resisters have the expertise to make a contribution Increase involvement and acceptance Time-consuming; has potential for a poor solution Facilitation and support When resisters are fearful and anxiety ridden Can facilitate needed adjustments Expensive; no guarantee of success Negotiation When resistance comes from a powerful group Can “buy” commitment Potentially high cost; opens doors for others to apply pressure too Manipulation and co-optation When a powerful group’s endorsement is needed Inexpensive, easy way to gain support Can backfire, causing change agent to lose credibility Coercion When a powerful group’s endorsement is needed Inexpensive, easy way to gain support May be illegal; may undermine change agent’s credibility Exhibit 6-5 Techniques for Reducing Resistance to Change It’s Your Career Change Readiness—If your instructor is using Pearson MyLab Management, log onto mymanagementlab.com and test your change readiness knowledge. Be sure to refer back to the chapter opener! M06_ROBB5839_14_GE_C06.indd 224 10/07/17 4:19 PM Chapter 6 Managing Change 225 CONTEMPORARY issues in managing change Change occurs in most workplaces. The pace of change varies substantially from place to place, and frequent change can create a stressful environ- ment for employees. That’s why Todd Thibodeaux, president and CEO of CompTIA, has furnished offices and conference rooms with game consoles. He encourages employees to play games, which he views as having few, if any, drawbacks. Thibodeaux maintains: “It’s an amazing team-building mechanism, particularly when people from around the company gather around a console in a single room.”39 And, Thibodeaux credits gaming for stress relief, which helps boost employee performance. Employee stress is one of the major critical concerns for managers today. In this section, we’re going to discuss stress and two other critical concerns—effectively implementing and leading change and creating a culture for change. Let’s look first at leading organiza- tional change. Leading Change Organizational change is an ongoing daily challenge. In a global study of organiza- tional changes in more than 2,000 organizations in Europe, Japan, and the United States, 82 percent of the respondents had implemented major information systems changes; 74 percent had created horizontal sharing of services and information; 65 percent had implemented flexible human resource practices; and 62 percent had introduced decentralized operational decisions.40 Each of these major changes entailed numerous other changes in structure, technology, and people. When changes are need- ed, who makes them happen? Who manages them? Although you may think it’s just top-level managers, actually managers at all organizational levels should be involved in the change process. Even with the involvement of all levels of managers, change efforts don’t always work the way they should. In fact, a global study of organizational change concluded that “hundreds of managers from scores of U.S. and European companies [are] satis- fied with their operating prowess . . . [but] dissatisfied with their ability to implement change.”42 How can managers make change happen successfully? They can (1) make the orga- nization change capable, (2) understand their own role in the process, and (3) give indi- vidual employees a role in the change process. Let’s look at each of these suggestions. In an industry where growth is slowing and competitors are becoming stronger, United Parcel Service (UPS) prospers. How? By embracing change! Managers spent a decade creating new worldwide logistics businesses because they anticipated slow- ing domestic shipping demand. They continue change efforts in order to exploit new opportunities.43 UPS is what we call a change-capable organization. What does it take to be a change-capable organization? Exhibit 6-6 summarizes the characteristics. The second component of making change happen successfully is for managers to recognize their own important role in the process. Managers can, and do, act as change agents. But their role in the change process includes more than being catalysts for change; they must also be change leaders. When organizational members resist change, it’s the manager’s responsibility to lead the change effort. But even when there’s no resistance to the change, someone has to assume leadership. That someone is managers. The final aspect of making change happen successfully revolves around getting all organizational members involved. Successful organizational change is not a one- person job. Individual employees are a powerful resource in identifying and address- ing change issues. “If you develop a program for change and simply hand it to your people, saying, ‘Here, implement this,’ it’s unlikely to work. But when people help to build something, they will support it and make it work.”44 Managers need to encour- age employees to be change agents—to look for those day-to-day improvements and changes that individuals and teams can make. For instance, a study of organizational LO6.5 FYI • Only 43 percent of change initiatives achieved the desired goal.41 M06_ROBB5839_14_GE_C06.indd 225 10/07/17 4:19 PM 226 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace change found that 77 percent of changes at the work group level were reactions to a specific, current problem or to a suggestion from someone outside the work group, and 68 percent of those changes occurred in the course of employees’ day-to-day work.45 Couple permanence with perpetual change. Because change is the only constant, companies need to figure out how to protect their core strengths during times of change. Build and deepen trust. People are more likely to support changes when the organization’s culture is trusting and managers have credibility and integrity. Integrate technology. Use technology to implement changes. Shelter breakthroughs. Change-friendly organizations have found ways to protect those breakthrough ideas. Encourage mavericks. Because their ideas and approaches are outside the mainstream, mavericks can help bring about radical change. Ensure diverse teams. Diversity ensures that things won’t be done like they’ve always been done. Actively support and encourage day-to-day improvements and changes. Successful change can come from the small changes as well as the big ones. Link the present and the future. Think of work as more than an extension of the past; think about future opportunities and issues and factor them into today’s decisions. Make learning a way of life. Change-friendly organizations excel at knowledge sharing and management. Support an entrepreneurial mindset. Many younger employees bring a more entrepreneurial mindset to organizations and can serve as catalysts for radical change. Exhibit 6-6 Change-Capable Organizations If your professor has assigned this, go to www.mymanagementlab.com to complete the Simulation: Change and get a better understanding of the challenges of managing change in organizations. Creating a Culture for Change Korean Air CEO Cho Yang-Ho had a challenging change situation facing him. He wanted to transform his airline’s image of an accident-prone airline from a developing country to that of a strong international competitor.46 His main focus was on improv- ing safety above all else, which meant making significant changes to the organization’s culture. What made his task even more challenging was Korea’s hierarchical culture that teaches Koreans to be deferential toward their elders and superiors. Cho says, “It (the hierarchical culture) exists in all Oriental culture.” His approach to changing his company’s culture involved implementing a “systems approach aimed at minimizing the personality-driven, top-down culture that is a legacy of Korean business managers who place emphasis on intuition and responding to orders.” The cultural change must have worked. Korean Air is now one of the world’s largest commercial cargo carriers, and it has earned a four-star rating (out of five possible stars) from a London aviation firm that rates airlines on quality. The fact that an organization’s culture is made up of relatively stable and perma- nent characteristics tends to make it very resistant to change.47 A culture takes a long time to form, and once established it tends to become entrenched. Strong cultures are particularly resistant to change because employees have become so committed to them. For instance, IBM was not amenable to change because it had developed an entrenched culture based on tradition. It didn’t take long for Lou Gerstner, who was CEO of IBM from 1993 to 2002, to discover the power of a strong culture. Gerstner, the first outsider to lead IBM, needed to overhaul the ailing, tradition-bound com- pany if it was going to regain its role as the dominant player in the computer industry. However, accomplishing that feat in an organization that prided itself on its long- standing culture was Gerstner’s biggest challenge. He said, “I came to see in my decade Try It! M06_ROBB5839_14_GE_C06.indd 226 10/07/17 4:19 PM http://www.mymanagementlab.com Chapter 6 Managing Change 227 at IBM that culture isn’t just one aspect of the game—it is the game.”48 Over time, if a cer- tain culture becomes a handicap, a manager might be able to do little to change it, espe- cially in the short run. Even under the most favorable conditions, cultural changes have to be viewed in years, not weeks or even months. UNDERSTANDING THE SITUATIONAL FACTORS What “favorable conditions” facilitate cultural change? One is that a dramatic crisis occurs, such as an unexpected financial setback, the loss of a major customer, or a dramatic technological innovation by a competitor. Such a shock can weaken the status quo and make people start thinking about the relevance of the current culture. Another condition may be that leadership changes hands. New top leadership can pro- vide an alternative set of key values and may be perceived as more capable of responding to the crisis than the old leaders were. Another is that the organization is young and small. The younger the organization, the less entrenched its culture. It’s easier for managers to communicate new values in a small organization than in a large one. Finally, the culture is weak. Weak cultures are more receptive to change than strong ones.51 MAKING CHANGES IN CULTURE If conditions are right, how do managers change culture? No single action is likely to have the impact necessary to change something ingrained and highly valued. Managers need a strategy for managing cultural change, as described in Exhibit 6-7. These suggestions focus on specific actions that managers can take. Following them, however, is no guarantee that the cultural change efforts will succeed. Organizational members don’t quickly let go of values that they understand and that have worked well for them in the past. Change, if it comes, will be slow. Also, managers must stay alert to protect against any return to old, familiar traditions. Employee Stress As a student, you’ve probably experienced stress—class projects, exams, even jug- gling a job and school. Then, there’s the stress associated with getting a decent job after graduation. But even after you’ve landed that job, stress isn’t likely to stop. For many employees, organizational change creates stress. An uncertain environment When the news broke late summer 2013 that Micro- soft’s CEO (Steve Ballmer) was stepping down, the search for his replacement was on. Analysts said that whoever the replacement was, that individual would face the challenge of “rebooting Microsoft’s corporate culture, in which charting the safe but profitable course . . . too often wins out over innovation . . . .”49 Satya Nadella is that person. Named CEO in February 2014, Nadella is a 22- year veteran of Microsoft. His new “slogan” is innovation, innovation, innovation. When asked what his plans are for the software giant, he answered with that one word, innovation. How does he plan to make innovation part of the culture? By “ruthlessly removing any obstacles that allow us to be innovative; every individual to innovate.”50 What can you learn from this leader making a difference? LEADER making a DIFFERENCE So ur ce : S tu ar t I se tt/ Po la ris /N ew sc om Set the tone through management behavior; top managers, particularly, need to be positive role models. Create new stories, symbols, and rituals to replace those currently in use. Select, promote, and support employees who adopt the new values. Redesign socialization processes to align with the new values. To encourage acceptance of the new values, change the reward system. Replace unwritten norms with clearly specified expectations. Shake up current subcultures through job transfers, job rotation, and/or terminations. Work to get consensus through employee participation and creating a climate with a high level of trust. Exhibit 6-7 Changing Culture M06_ROBB5839_14_GE_C06.indd 227 10/07/17 4:19 PM 228 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace characterized by time pressures, increasing workloads, mergers, and restructuring has created a large number of employees who are overworked and stressed.52 In fact, depending on which survey you look at, the number of employees experiencing job stress in the United States ranges anywhere from 40 percent to 80 percent.53 However, workplace stress isn’t just an American problem. Global studies indicate that some 50 percent of workers surveyed in 16 European countries reported that stress and job responsibility have risen significantly over a five-year period; 35 percent of Canadian workers surveyed said they are under high job stress; in Australia, cases of occupa- tional stress jumped 21 percent in a one-year period; more than 57 percent of Japanese employees suffer from work-related stress; some 83 percent of call-center workers in India suffer from sleeping disorders; and a study of stress in China showed that man- agers are experiencing more stress.54 Another interesting study found that stress was the leading cause of people quitting their jobs. Surprisingly, however, employers were clueless. They said that stress wasn’t even among the top five reasons why people leave and instead wrongly believed that insufficient pay was the main reason.55 WHAT IS STRESS? Stress is the adverse reaction people have to excessive pressure placed on them from extraordinary demands, constraints, or opportunities.56 Stress isn’t always bad. Although it’s often discussed in a negative context, stress can be posi- tive, especially when it offers a potential gain. For instance, functional stress allows an athlete, stage performer, or employee to perform at his or her highest level at crucial times. However, stress is more often associated with constraints and demands. A con- straint prevents you from doing what you desire; demands refer to the loss of some- thing desired. When you take a test at school or have your annual performance review at work, you feel stress because you confront opportunity, constraints, and demands. A good performance review may lead to a promotion, greater responsibilities, and a higher salary. But a poor review may keep you from getting the promotion. An extremely poor review might lead to your being fired. WHAT CAUSES STRESS? Stress can be caused by personal factors and by job-related factors called stressors. Clearly, change of any kind—personal or job-related—has the potential to cause stress because it can involve demands, constraints, or opportunities. Organizations have no shortage of factors that can cause stress. Pressures to avoid errors or complete tasks in a limited time period, changes in the way reports are filed, a demanding supervisor, and unpleasant coworkers are a few examples. Let’s look at five categories of organizational stressors: task demands, role demands, interpersonal demands, organization structure, and organizational leadership. Task demands are factors related to an employee’s job. They include the design of a person’s job (autonomy, task variety, degree of automation), working conditions, and the physical work layout. Work quotas can put pressure on employees when their “out- comes” are perceived as excessive.58 The more interdependence between an employee’s tasks and the tasks of others, the greater the potential for stress. Autonomy, on the other hand, tends to lessen stress. Jobs in which temperatures, noise, or other working conditions are dangerous or undesirable can increase anxiety. So, too, can working in an overcrowded room or in a visible location where interruptions are constant. Role demands relate to pressures placed on an employee as a function of the par- ticular role he or she plays in the organization. Role conflicts create expectations that may be hard to reconcile or satisfy. Role overload is experienced when the employee is expected to do more than time permits. Role ambiguity is created when role expec- tations are not clearly understood and the employee is not sure what he or she is to do. Sandi Peterson, group worldwide chairman of Johnson & Johnson, states the importance of goal setting to help employees understand their roles, particularly dur- ing organizational change: “Defining a clear set of goals for your team demonstrates that there is an end in sight. However, it’s crucial during this time to move through the transition in phases.”59 stress The adverse reaction people have to excessive pressure placed on them from extraordinary demands, constraints, or opportunities stressors Factors that cause stress role conflicts Work expectations that are hard to satisfy role overload Having more work to accomplish than time permits role ambiguity When role expectations are not clearly understood FYI • A recent study revealed that workplace stress is roughly as hazardous to one’s health as secondhand smoke.57 M06_ROBB5839_14_GE_C06.indd 228 10/07/17 4:19 PM Chapter 6 Managing Change 229 Interpersonal demands are pressures created by other employees. Lack of social support from colleagues and poor interpersonal relationships can cause considerable stress, especially among employees with a high social need. Organization structure can increase stress. Excessive rules and an employee’s lack of opportunity to participate in decisions that affect him or her are examples of struc- tural variables that might be potential sources of stress. Organizational leadership represents the supervisory style of the organization’s managers. Some managers create a culture characterized by tension, fear, and anxiety. They establish unrealistic pressures to perform in the short run, impose excessively tight controls, and routinely fire employees who don’t measure up. This style of leader- ship filters down through the organization and affects all employees. Personal factors that can create stress include family issues, personal economic problems, and inherent personality characteristics. Because employees bring their per- sonal problems to work with them, a full understanding of employee stress requires a manager to be understanding of these personal factors.60 Evidence also indicates that employees’ personalities have an effect on how susceptible they are to stress. The most commonly used labels for these personality traits are Type A and Type B. Type A personality is characterized by chronic feelings of a sense of time urgency, an excessive competitive drive, and difficulty accepting and enjoying leisure time. The opposite of Type A is Type B personality. Type Bs don’t suffer from time urgency or impatience. Until quite recently, it was believed that Type As were more likely to experience stress on and off the job. A closer analysis of the evidence, however, has produced new conclusions. Studies show that only the hostility and anger associated with Type A behavior are actually associated with the negative effects of stress. And Type Bs are just as susceptible to the same anxiety-producing elements. For managers, it is important to recognize that Type A employees are more likely to show symptoms of stress, even if organizational and personal stressors are low. WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF STRESS? We see stress in a number of ways. For instance, an employee who is experiencing high stress may become depressed, accident prone, or argumentative; may have difficulty making routine decisions; may be easily distracted, and so on. Employees in companies where downsizing is occurring tend to get ill at twice the rate of employees whose jobs are secure.61 As Exhibit 6-8 shows, stress symptoms can be grouped under three general categories: physical, psychologi- cal, and behavioral. All of these can significantly affect an employee’s work. In Japan, there’s a stress phenomenon called karoshi, which is translated literally as “death from overwork,” and karojisatsu, which refers to suicide related to overwork.62 During the late 1980s, “several high-ranking Japanese executives still in their prime years suddenly died without any previous sign of illness.”63 As Japanese multinational companies expand operations to China, Korea, and Taiwan, it’s feared that the karo- shi culture may follow. Recently, Yumi Nakata, a Japanese blogger, commented on one Type A personality People who have a chronic sense of urgency and an excessive competitive drive Type B personality People who are relaxed and easygoing and accept change easily SYMPTOMS OF STRESS Physical Behavioral Psychological Job-related dissatisfaction, tension, anxiety, irritability, boredom, and procrastination. Changes in productivity, absenteeism, job turnover, changes in eating habits, increased smoking or consumption of alcohol, rapid speech, fidgeting, and sleep disorders. Changes in metabolism, increased heart and breathing rates, raised blood pressure, headaches, and potential of heart attacks. Exhibit 6-8 Symptoms of Stress M06_ROBB5839_14_GE_C06.indd 229 10/07/17 4:19 PM 230 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace reason for karojisatsu: “Japan can be a very stressful society to live in as the employ- ment system is very rigid, and it is not easy for those who have been laid off to find another job.”64 Similar intense pressures are evident in China where guolaosi refers to “death by overwork.” Approximately 600,000 Chinese workers die from work-related stress each year.65 According to Yang Heqing, dean of the School of Labor Economics at the Capital University of Economics and Business in Beijing, “in China there is still the belief that you do things for the development of the good of the nation, for the devel- opment of the economy, to forget yourself.”66 HOW CAN STRESS BE REDUCED? As mentioned earlier, not all stress is dysfunc- tional. Because stress can never be totally eliminated from a person’s life, managers want to reduce the stress that leads to dysfunctional work behavior. How? Through controlling certain organizational factors to reduce job-related stress, and to a more limited extent, offering help for personal stress. Things managers can do in terms of job-related factors begin with employee selec- tion. Managers need to make sure an employee’s abilities match the job requirements. When employees are in over their heads, their stress levels are typically high. A realistic job preview during the selection process can minimize stress by reducing ambiguity over job expectations. Improved organizational communications will keep ambiguity- induced stress to a minimum. Similarly, a performance planning program such as MBO (management by objectives) will clarify job responsibilities, provide clear per- formance goals, and reduce ambiguity through feedback. Job redesign is also a way to reduce stress. If stress can be traced to boredom or to work overload, jobs should be redesigned to increase challenge or to reduce the workload. Redesigns that increase opportunities for employees to participate in decisions and to gain social support also have been found to reduce stress.67 For instance, at U.K. pharmaceutical maker Glaxo- SmithKline, a team-resilience program in which employees can shift assignments, depending on people’s workload and deadlines, has helped reduce work-related stress by 60 percent.68 And Royal Dutch Shell found that its resilience training program has been successful. Data show positive effects of training for up to four years.69 Stress from an employee’s personal life raises two problems. First, it’s difficult for the manager to control directly. Second, ethical considerations include whether the manager has the right to intrude—even in the most subtle ways—in an employee’s personal life. If a manager believes it’s ethical and the employee is receptive, the man- ager might consider several approaches. Employee counseling can provide stress relief. Employees often want to talk to someone about their problems, and the organization— through its managers, in-house human resource counselors, or free or low-cost outside professional help—can meet that need. Companies such as Marathon Petroleum, Tar- get, and PepsiCo provide extensive counseling services for their employees. A time management program can help employees whose personal lives suffer from a lack of planning to sort out their priorities.70 (See Chapter 1 opener on pages 38–39 for suggestions on efficiently managing your time.) Still another approach is organization- ally sponsored wellness programs. For example, Phillips 66 works with WebMD as their wellness partner and includes services such as WebMD Health Coaching. This service enables employees to have confidential phone meetings with a health expert. Oftentimes, corporate leaders endorse the use of wellness programs. Warren Buffett, chairman of Berkshire Hathaway, says, “There is no question that workplace wellness is worth it. The only question is whether you’re going to do it today or tomorrow. If you keep saying you’re going to do it tomorrow, you’ll never do it.”71 If your professor has assigned this, go to www.mymanagementlab.com to watch a video titled: East Haven Fire Department: Managing Stress and to respond to questions.Watch It 1! M06_ROBB5839_14_GE_C06.indd 230 10/07/17 4:19 PM http://www.mymanagementlab.com WORKPLACE CONFIDENTIAL Chapter 6 Managing Change 231 We asked several dozen recent college graduates whether they had experienced job stress and, if so, what was the source. Almost all said they had. Here are a few of their re- sponses: “I’ve got ridiculous deadlines to meet;” “They let several people in my department go, and two of us had to absorb their work;” “Business is slow and there are rumors of layoffs;” and “I hoped to take my two-week vacation next month but I can’t. Too much work to do.” These recent graduates don’t appear to be unusual. Numerous studies indicate that job stress is far and away the major source of stress for American adults. For instance, a recent survey found that 83 percent of American workers said they were stressed at work. And what was stressing them out? Their answers included unreasonable workloads, poor compensation, frustration with coworkers, commuting, working in a job that was not their first choice, poor work- life balance, lack of opportunity for advancement, and fear of being fired or laid off. Interestingly, those aged 18 to 29 indicated the highest stress levels due largely, they said, to work and job stability concerns. So if you’re among those stressing out at work, what can you do to help reduce that stress? Here’s what the experts suggest: Time management. Start with time management. As noted in Chapter 1, effective time management can allow you to be more efficient, get more things done, and help to reduce workload-based stress. We know that many people manage their time poorly. If you’re well-organized, you can often accomplish twice as much as the person who is poorly organized. So an understanding and utilization of basic time- management principles can help you better cope with ten- sions created by job demands. Work breaks. A growing body of research shows that simply taking breaks from work at routine intervals can facili- tate psychological recovery and significantly reduce stress. If you work at a desk or a fixed workstation, for both reducing stress and your general health, get up at least every half-hour and walk around for a few minutes. Deep-relaxation techniques. You can teach yourself to reduce tension through deep-relaxation techniques such as deep breathing. The objective is to reach a state of deep physical relaxation, in which you focus all your energy on release of muscle tension. Deep breathing is one of the simplest techniques for addressing stress. The technique requires you to avoid shal- low breaths and to learn to breathe from the abdomen. This technique works on neuromuscular functioning and leads to relaxing the neuromuscular system. An extension of deep breathing is progressive muscle relaxation. With this technique, you assume a comfortable position and begin to breathe deeply. Then you relax groups of muscles one at a time, beginning with the feet and working up. Deep relaxation for 15 to 20 minutes a day releases strain and provides a pronounced sense of peacefulness, as WORKPLACE CONFIDENTIAL well as significant changes in heart rate, blood pressure, and other physiological factors. Meditation. While meditation is another form of relaxation, we separate it out because of its wide popular- ity and long history as a stress-reducing practice. Meditation has been done for thousands of years and continues to be a well-recognized approach to stress reduction. It’s a group of self-regulated techniques you use to refocus your atten- tion through concentration to attain a subjective, even “bliss- ful,” state that proponents describe as calmness, clarity, and concentration. Although meditation is done in many forms, a popular Western variety has individuals blank out their mind and stop conscious thinking. This is often combined with a mantra or focusing on an object. Advocates of meditation report that it increases calmness and physical relaxation, improves psychological balance, and enhances overall health and well-being. Yoga. The American Yoga Association suggests that a few yoga exercises practiced daily help to regulate breath- ing and relax the body. Exercises, such as the sun saluta- tion sequence of poses, have been shown to be particularly helpful because they encourage you to breathe deeply and rhythmically. Imagery. When life and work seem to overwhelm you, try putting your mind in a more peaceful place. Think of the most peaceful and serene location that you can envision— such as a quiet Caribbean beach, a peaceful setting in a for- est, or a sailboat on a calm lake. Then close your eyes and imagine yourself there. So, using the beach example, imag- ine the waves gently coming ashore, the rhythmic sounds of the waves, the smell of salt air, and the warm sun on your skin. Then apply some of the relaxation techniques described previously. Physical exercise. Physicians have recommended non- competitive physical exercise—such as aerobics, Pilates, walking, jogging, swimming, and riding a bicycle—as a way to deal with excessive stress levels. These activities increase lung capacity, lower the resting heart rate, and provide a mental diversion from work pressures, effectively reducing work-related levels of stress. Social support network. Finally, friends, family, or work colleagues can provide an outlet when stress levels become excessive. Expanding your social support network provides someone to hear your problems and offer a perspective on a stressful situation more objective than your own. Source: C. J. Hobson and L. DeLunes, “Efficacy of Different Techniques for Reducing Stress: A Study Among Business Students in the United States,” International Journal of Management, August 2009, pp. 186–196; M. Clayton, Brilliant Stress Management: How to Manage Stress in Any Situation (New York: FT Press, 2012); “Work Stress on the Rise: 8 in 10 Americans Are Stressed About Their Jobs, Survey Finds,” HuffingtonPost Healthy Living, April 10, 2013; H. Hanna, Stressaholic: 5 Steps to Trans- form Your Relationship with Stress (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2014); and H. Anis- man, Stress and Your Health: From Vulnerability to Resilence (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2015). Coping with Job Stress M06_ROBB5839_14_GE_C06.indd 231 10/07/17 4:19 PM 232 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace STIMULATING Innovation Thomas A. Edison once said: “I find out what the world needs. Then I go ahead and try to invent it.”72 Today, innovation is the foundation of highly success- ful organizations. In fact, Ajay Banga, CEO of MasterCard, maintains that “innovation is the key to continued success.”73 In the dynamic, chaotic world of global competition, organiza- tions must create new products and services and adopt state- of-the-art technology if they’re going to compete successfully.74 What companies come to mind when you think of successful innovators? Maybe it’s Apple with its iPad, iPhone, iPod, Apple Pay, and its wide array of computers. Maybe it’s Google with its continually evolving Web platform. And Google is a good exam- ple of the new, faster pace of innovation. The company runs 50 to 200 online search experiments with users at any given time. In one instance, Google asked selected users how many search results they’d like to see on a single screen. The reply from the users was more, many more. So Google ran an experiment that tripled the number of search results per screen to 30. The result: traffic declined because “it took about a third of a second longer for search results to appear—a seemingly insignificant delay that nonetheless upset many of the users.”76 Google tried something new and quickly found out it wasn’t something they wanted to pursue. Even Procter & Gamble, the global household and personal products giant, is doing the “vast majority of our concept testing online, which has created truly substantial savings in money and time,” according to the company’s global consumer and market knowledge officer.77 What’s the secret to the success of these and other innovator champions? What can other managers do to make their organizations more innovative? In the following sec- tions, we’ll try to answer those questions as we discuss the factors behind innovation. Creativity Versus Innovation The definition of innovation varies widely, depending on who you ask. For instance, the Merriam-Webster dictionary defines innovation as “the introduction of something new” and “a new idea, method, or device; novelty.” The CEO of the company that makes Bubble Wrap says, “It means inventing a product that has never existed.” To the CEO of Ocean Spray Cranberries, it means “turning an overlooked commodity, such as leftover cranberry skins into a consumer snack like Craisins.”78 We’re going to define it by first looking at the concept of creativity. Creativity refers to the ability to combine ideas in a unique way or to make unusual associations between ideas.79 A creative orga- nization develops unique ways of working or novel solutions to problems. But creativ- ity by itself isn’t enough. The outcomes of the creative process need to be turned into useful products or work methods, which is defined as innovation. Thus, the innovative organization is characterized by its ability to generate new ideas that are implemented into new products, processes, and procedures designed to be useful—that is, to channel creativity into useful outcomes. When managers talk about changing an organization to make it more creative, they usually mean they want to stimulate and nurture innovation. Stimulating and Nurturing Innovation The systems model (see Management History Module, p. 75) can help us understand how organizations become more innovative.80 Getting the desired outputs (innova- tive products and work methods) involves transforming inputs. These inputs include creative people and groups within the organization. But having creative people isn’t enough. It takes the right environment to help transform those inputs into innovative products or work methods. This “right” environment—that is, an environment that stimulates innovation—includes three variables: the organization’s structure, culture, and human resource practices. (See Exhibit 6-9.) LO6.6 creativity The ability to combine ideas in a unique way or to make unusual associations between ideas innovation Taking creative ideas and turning them into useful products or work methods Innovation was the foundation of Thomas Edison’s highly successful business enterprise. To stimulate innovation, Edison established an industrial research and development facility for creating new products and adapting them to the needs of users. His invention of a long-lasting electric light bulb and a power grid system to generate and deliver electricity brought power and light to individual homes and offices through the United States. Source: Mondadori Portfolio/Getty Images FYI • Only 28 percent of organizations consider themselves innovative.75 M06_ROBB5839_14_GE_C06.indd 232 10/07/17 4:19 PM Chapter 6 Managing Change 233 STIMULATE INNOVATION Structural Variables • Organic Structures • Abundant Resources • High Interunit Communication • Minimal Time Pressure • Work and Nonwork Support Human Resource Variables • High Commitment to Training and Development • High Job Security • Creative People Cultural Variables • Acceptance of Ambiguity • Tolerance of the Impractical • Low External Controls • Tolerance of Risks • Tolerance of Conflict • Focus on Ends • Open-System Focus • Positive Feedback Exhibit 6-9 Innovation Variables The “Internet of Things” (IoT) allows everyday “things” to generate and store data about their own performance and share that information across the Internet.81 From industrial machines to kitchen appliances, the world of the IoT is growing quickly. With an estimated 21 billion IoT devices in our lives by the year 2020, the IoT is an innovation that businesses need to figure out how to embrace and benefit from. It is challenging to imagine how innovations resulting from the IoT could impact our daily lives. We already have wearable technology that tracks how many steps we take and gives us advice on how to change to more healthy behaviors. But what if your refrigerator could take inventory of its own contents and restock itself by ordering food online to be deliv- ered to your home? Or if your car knows you are on the way to a meeting and detects an upcoming traffic jam, so it sends a message to the meeting organizers to let them know you’ll be late? The possibilities that the IoT provides are endless. The IoT will not only provide us more products and services, but it also has potential to disrupt the The Internet of ThingsF U T U R E V I S I O N supply chain in every industry. It can improve efficiency of manufacturing, customer service, and distribution. Manufactured products can diagnose their own prob- lems and contact the manufacturer for solutions. These smart, connected products will challenge companies to rethink almost everything. Companies may need to change manufacturing processes, IT processes, logis- tics, marketing, and sales. Furthermore, these changes will require more intense coordination across these areas. So while the IoT is full of opportunities for busi- nesses, the changes ahead will also create many chal- lenges. If your professor has chosen to assign this, go to www.mymanagementlab.com to discuss the follow- ing questions. TALK ABOUT IT 1: Can you imagine some future innovations that the Internet of Things could create? TALK ABOUT IT 2: How can organizations pre- pare for the changes in processes that the Internet of Things will require? M06_ROBB5839_14_GE_C06.indd 233 10/07/17 4:19 PM http://www.mymanagementlab.com 234 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace STRUCTURAL VARIABLES An organization’s structure can have a huge impact on innovativeness. Research into the effect of structural variables on innovation shows five things.83 First, an organic-type structure positively influences innovation. Because this structure is low in formalization, centralization, and work specialization, it fa- cilitates the flexibility and sharing of ideas that are critical to innovation. Second, the availability of plentiful resources provides a key building block for innovation. With an abundance of resources, managers can afford to purchase innovations, can afford the cost of instituting innovations, and can absorb failures. For example, at Smart Bal- ance, Inc., the heart-healthy food developer uses its resources efficiently by focusing on product development and outsourcing almost everything else, including manufactur- ing, product distribution, and sales. The company’s CEO says this approach allows them to be “a pretty aggressive innovator” even during economic downturns.84 Third, frequent communication between organizational units helps break down barriers to in- novation.85 Cross-functional teams, task forces, and other such organizational designs facilitate interaction across departmental lines and are widely used in innovative orga- nizations. For instance, Pitney Bowes, the mail and documents company, uses an elec- tronic meeting place called IdeaNet, where its employees can collaborate and provide comments and input on any idea they think will help create new sources of revenue, improve profitability, or add new value for customers. IdeaNet isn’t just an electronic suggestion box or open forum; employees are presented with specific idea challenges. A recent one involved how to expand its mail service business into new segments. Hun- dreds of employees from multiple functions and business units weighed in with ideas, and eight promising ideas were generated.86 Fourth, innovative organizations try to minimize extreme time pressures on creative activities despite the demands of white- water rapids environments. Although time pressures may spur people to work harder and may make them feel more creative, studies show that it actually causes them to be less creative.87 Companies such as Google, 3M, and Hewlett-Packard actually urge staff researchers to spend a chunk of their workweek on self-initiated projects, even if those projects are outside the individual’s work area of expertise.88 Finally, studies have shown that an employee’s creative performance was enhanced when an organization’s structure explicitly supported creativity. Beneficial kinds of support included things like encouragement, open communication, readiness to listen, and useful feedback.89 FYI • 65 percent of companies innovate by integrating both the past and the future.82 If your professor has assigned this, go to www.mymanagementlab.com to watch a video titled: iRobot: Creativity and Innovation and to respond to questions. CULTURAL VARIABLES “Throw the bunny” is part of the lingo used by a prod- uct development team at toy company Mattel. It refers to a juggling lesson where team members learn to juggle two balls and a stuffed bunny. Most people easily learn to juggle two balls but can’t let go of that third object. Creativity, like juggling, is learning to let go—that is, to “throw the bunny.” And for Mattel, having a culture where people are encouraged to “throw the bunny” is important to its continued product innovations.90 Innovative organizations tend to have similar cultures.91 They encourage experi- mentation, set creativity goals, reward both successes and failures, and celebrate mis- takes. An innovative organization is likely to have the following characteristics. • Accept ambiguity. Too much emphasis on objectivity and specificity constrains creativity. • Tolerate the impractical. Individuals who offer impractical, even foolish, answers to what-if questions are not stifled. What at first seems impractical might lead to innovative solutions. Encourage entrepreneurial thinking.92 • Keep external controls minimal. Rules, regulations, policies, and similar organizational controls are kept to a minimum. Watch It 2! M06_ROBB5839_14_GE_C06.indd 234 10/07/17 4:19 PM http://www.mymanagementlab.com Chapter 6 Managing Change 235 • Tolerate risk. Employees are encouraged to experiment without fear of consequences should they fail.93 “Failure, and how companies deal with failure, is a very big part of innovation.”94 Treat mistakes as learning opportunities. You don’t want your employees to fear putting forth new ideas. In an uncertain economic environment, it’s especially important that employees don’t feel they have to avoid innovation and initiative because it’s unsafe for them to do so. A recent study found that one fear employees have is that their coworkers will think negatively of them if they try to come up with better ways of doing things. Another fear is that they’ll “provoke anger among others who are comfortable with the status quo.”95 In an innovative culture, such fears are not an issue. • Tolerate conflict. Diversity of opinions is encouraged. Harmony and agreement between individuals or units are not assumed to be evidence of high performance. • Focus on ends rather than means. Goals are made clear, and individuals are encouraged to consider alternative routes toward meeting the goals. Focusing on ends suggests that several right answers might be possible for any given problem.96 • Provide positive feedback. Managers provide positive feedback, encouragement, and support so employees feel that their creative ideas receive attention. • Exhibit empowering leadership. Be a leader who lets organizational members know that the work they do is significant. Provide organizational members the opportunity to participate in decision making. Show them you’re confident they can achieve high performance levels and outcomes. Being this type of leader will have a positive influence on creativity.97 These Google Inc. employees working at the company’s offices in Berlin, Germany, are encouraged to accept the inevitability of failure as part of the way to be innovative and successful. Google nurtures a culture of innovation that tolerates risks, encourages experimentation, and views mistakes as learning opportunities. Source: Krisztian Bocsi/Bloomberg/Getty Images REALlet’s get The Scenario: The challenge to find new candidates is at the top of Katie Franklin’s priority list. As a branch manager for a national temporary employee agency, Katie must lead her team to keep their database full of high-quality candidates to make sure the agency can quickly provide temporary employees to their clients on short notice. At the last staff meeting, Katie’s team had a lot of creative ideas on how to recruit new candidates. However, a few weeks later none of the ideas have been developed and implemented. Creative ideas are great, but without implementation, they can’t help the business. How can Katie help her employees turn their creative ideas into innovative new practices? Sounds like too many ideas with too little accountability. Bring the team back together and narrow the list of creative ideas down to a more manageable list, engaging the entire team in the dialogue. With only a few ideas to work through, delegate a leader and discuss the next best step for each one, jotting down a brief outline of action items, resources needed and due dates. Regularly check in with the team, removing roadblocks and discussing challenges. With employee time and resources at stake, if the idea is not producing results, you will want to know early on and put those resources toward the more successful ideas. Christina Moser Strategic Account Manager So ur ce : C hr is tin a M os er M06_ROBB5839_14_GE_C06.indd 235 10/07/17 4:19 PM 236 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace HUMAN RESOURCE VARIABLES In this category, we find that innovative orga- nizations actively promote the training and development of their members so their knowledge remains current; offer their employees high job security to reduce the fear of getting fired for making mistakes; and encourage individuals to become idea champions, actively and enthusiastically supporting new ideas, building support, overcoming resistance, and ensuring that innovations are implemented. Research finds that idea champions have common personality characteristics: extremely high self- confidence, persistence, energy, and a tendency toward risk taking. They also display characteristics associated with dynamic leadership. They inspire and energize others with their vision of the potential of an innovation and through their strong personal conviction in their mission. Denise Morrison, president and CEO of the Campbell Soup Company, is a good example of an idea champion. “There is power in helping people get excited about what they do, and inspiring and motivating them to unleash their full potential.”98 They’re also good at gaining the commitment of others to sup- port their mission. Ivanka Trump, EVP of development and acquisitions at Trump Organization, explains that “leadership is the ability to articulate a vision and unite a team of passionate people to bring that goal to life.”99 In addition, idea champions have jobs that provide considerable decision-making discretion. This autonomy helps them introduce and implement innovations in organizations.100 Innovation and Design Thinking We introduced you to the concept of design thinking in Chapter 2 on decision making. Undoubtedly, a strong connection exists between design thinking and innovation. “Design thinking can do for innovation what TQM did for quality.”101 Just as TQM provides a process for improving quality throughout an organization, design thinking can provide a process for coming up with things that don’t exist. When a business approaches innovation with a design-thinking mentality, the emphasis is on getting a deeper understanding of what customers need and want. The toy company LEGO, creator and manufacturer of LEGO building blocks since 1958, is an excellent example of an innovative company that employs design thinking. The company literally listens to what consumers prefer as well as what they don’t prefer. Ricco Rejnholdt Krog, a design director at LEGO, states: “We’re really listening [to the children], we’re paying attention to what they say.”102 He gave the example that LEGO made changes to a police station box set “after a Chinese child complained there weren’t enough get- away possibilities to make for exciting ‘cops and robbers’ play.”103 Moreover, LEGO leadership recognizes that children use digital technology—video games, iPads and smartphones—as part of their play activities.104 The company has since created a line of programmable robots, including the popular R3PTAR. A design-thinking mentality also entails knowing customers as real people with real problems—not just as sales targets or demographic statistics. But it also entails being able to convert those customer insights into real and usable products. For instance, at Intuit, the company behind TurboTax software, founder Scott Cook felt “the com- pany wasn’t innovating fast enough,”105 so he decided to apply design thinking. He called the initiative “Design for Delight,” and it involved customer field research to understand their “pain points”—that is, what most frustrated them as they worked in the office and at home. Then, Intuit staffers brainstormed (they nicknamed it “pain- storm”) a “variety of solutions to address the problems and experiment with custom- ers to find the best ones.” For example, one pain point uncovered by an Intuit team was how customers could take pictures of tax forms to reduce typing errors. Some younger customers, used to taking photos with their smartphones, were frustrated that they couldn’t just complete their taxes on their mobiles. To address this, Intuit devel- oped a mobile app called SnapTax, which the company says has been downloaded more than a million times since it was introduced in 2010. That’s how design thinking works in innovation. idea champion Individual who actively and enthusiastically supports new ideas, builds support, overcomes resistance, and ensures that innovations are implemented M06_ROBB5839_14_GE_C06.indd 236 10/07/17 4:19 PM Chapter 6 Managing Change 237 DISRUPTIVE Innovation Twenty-five years ago, every Main Street and shopping mall in the Unit- ed States had a bookstore. Chains like Borders and Barnes & Noble had hundreds of locations. In addition, there were literally thousands of small bookstores scattered across America. Then along came Amazon.com. Amazon offered book buy- ers a million-plus titles at super-low prices, all accessible without leaving the comfort of home. Amazon single-handedly disrupted the brick-and-mortar bookstore. Definition Disruptive innovation describes innovations in products, services or processes that radically change an industry’s rules of the game.106 Oftentimes, a smaller company with fewer resources successfully challenges established companies.107 Those smaller companies prove themselves to be disruptive by serving overlooked segments of pos- sible consumers with products or services at relatively low prices. Although the term “disruptive innovation” is relatively new, the concept isn’t. For instance, economist Joseph Shumpeter used the term “creative destruction” more than 70 years ago to describe how capitalism builds on processes that destroy old technologies but replaces them with new and better ones.108 That, in essence, is disruptive innovation. In practice, disruptive innovation has been around for centuries. Vanderbilt’s rail- roads disrupted the sailing-ship business. Alexander Bell’s telephone rang the death- knell for Western Union’s telegraphy. Ford and other automobile builders destroyed horse-drawn-buggy manufacturers. As Exhibit 6-10 illustrates, there is no shortage of businesses that have suffered at the expense of disruptive innovation. It’s helpful to distinguish disruptive innovation from sustaining innovation. When most of us think of innovations, we tend to think of things like the introduction of the high-definition television, back-up cameras on cars, fingerprint technology on LO6.7 disruptive innovation Innovations in products, services or processes that radically change an industry’s rules of the game Exhibit 6-10 Examples of Past Disruptive Innovators Established Business Disruptor Compact disc Apple iTunes Carbon paper Xerox copy machine Canvas tennis shoes Nike athletic shoes Portable radio Sony Walkman Sony Walkman Apple iPod Typewriters IBM PC Weekly news magazines CNN TV networks Cable and Netflix Local travel agencies Expedia Stockbrokers eTrade Traveler’s checks ATMs and Visa Encyclopedias Wikipedia Newspaper classified ads Craig’s List AM/FM radio stations Sirius XM Tax preparation services Intuit’s Turbo Tax Yellow Pages Google Paper maps Garmin’s GPS Paperback books Kindle Lawyers Legal Zoom Taxis Uber M06_ROBB5839_14_GE_C06.indd 237 10/07/17 4:19 PM 238 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace smartphones, or Double Stuf Oreos. These are examples of sustaining innovation because they sustain the status quo. They represent small and incremental changes in established products rather than dramatic breakthroughs. While the original televi- sion set disrupted the radio industry, high-def TV just improved the quality of the TV picture. Why Disruptive Innovation Is Important It’s often said that “success breeds success.” But success can also breed failure. How? Companies that are successful tend to grow. With growth comes expanded size. And as we’ll describe, large size frequently makes successful companies vulnerable to disrup- tive competitors. Large organizations create rules and regulations to standardize operations. They create multiple departments with defined areas of responsibility. And they create socialization processes—like new-employee orientations and corporate handbooks— that convey to employees “the way we do things around here.” The result is that these successful organizations establish entrenched cultures and values that, on one hand, guide employees, but, on the other hand, also act as constraints on change. Companies like Kodak, Polaroid, and Woolworths were iconic companies in their day that became hostage to their previous successes—and it led to their eventual decline. New ideas for products or services that differ significantly from the status quo are a threat to the established power structure within large companies. And as we’ll elaborate later, entrenched cultures tend to be threatened by disruptive ideas. For instance, when Ross Perot worked for IBM and suggested that the company move into the computer services’ business, he was told that IBM sold computer hardware, not services. Perot resigned, created EDS Corp. to provide computer support, and became a billionaire. Similarly, when Xerox engineers invented the computer mouse and the graphical user interface, which would ultimately become the standard for personal computers, Xerox executives dismissed these products with “we’re in the copying busi- ness,” and then literally gave the inventions to Steve Jobs and Apple. Jobs then featured these innovations on Apple’s Mac computer. The fact is that disruptive innovations are a threat to many established busi- nesses, and responding with sustaining innovations isn’t enough. Making incremental improvements to the BlackBerry smartphone, for instance, couldn’t help its manufac- turer compete against the far superior iOS and Android devices from Apple and Sam- sung. Of course, all “disruptive” innovations don’t succeed. The radical nature of the changes they initiate implies a high level of risk. The Segway “personal transporter” was introduced with much fanfare. It was hyped as a replacement to the automobile for short trips. It didn’t happen. Similarly, the Google Glass wearable computer was promoted as a hands-free disruptive replacement for a smartphone, but it failed in the marketplace. Who’s Vulnerable? So which businesses are most vulnerable to disruptive innovations? The answer, as alluded to previously, is large, established, and highly profitable organizations. Why? Because they have the most to lose and are most vested in their current markets and technologies. Successful organizations focus on what they do best. They repeat what has suc- ceeded in the past, and they put their resources into the ventures that have the highest probability of generating maximum profits. Small markets, which typically describe those applicable to early disruptive innovations, don’t fit with the growth needs of large organizations. Importantly, large organizations have distinct cultures and values that define their capabilities and limit their ability to move into new products or mar- kets. Sears’ management, for instance, might have seen a need for discount department stores in the 1970s, but it didn’t have the personnel, buying channels, structure, or low- cost locations to move into this market. Upstart Walmart didn’t have those limitations and was able to radically disrupt the market. Similarly, Tesla was able to conceive, sustaining innovation Small and incremental changes in established products rather than dramatic breakthroughs M06_ROBB5839_14_GE_C06.indd 238 10/07/17 4:19 PM Chapter 6 Managing Change 239 design, and produce an electric car in a time frame and at a quality level that could never have been done by a General Motors. Disruptive innovations, especially at the beginning, typically apply to emerging or small markets and project lower profits than a firm’s mainline products. And their novelty has little or no appeal to the organization’s most profitable customers. Ken Olson, founder of Digital Equipment Corporation, said in 1977, “there is no reason anyone would want a computer in their home.” What he was acknowledging was that he couldn’t see investing DEC resources into microcomputers when his company was making huge profits from selling much larger systems. And his customers were per- fectly happy with DEC’s larger systems. So large and successful companies are moti- vated to repeat what has succeeded in the past and invest in ideas that offer the highest probability of generating maximum profits—and those aren’t disruptive innovations. This is why, for instance, VW, Honda, and Toyota were able to disrupt the U.S. auto market by introducing compact cars. GM, Ford, and Chrysler were initially reluctant to pursue this market segment because they made their money making big cars. Which businesses or occupations are currently in the throes of disruptive inno- vation? Here’s a few: bank tellers (to ATMs), camera manufacturers (smartphones), financial services (to online providers), and travel agents (to online travel services). Which others may be vulnerable in the near future? General Motors (the Google car), actuaries (computer algorithms), maintenance personnel (robotics), truck drivers (self- driving vehicles), model builders (3-D printers), and pipeline workers and oil drillers (renewable energy) are vulnerable. Implications Disruptive innovation has the potential to upend entrepreneurs, corporate managers, and even your career plans. Let’s take a specific look at what the future might hold for each. FOR ENTREPRENEURS. Think opportunity! Entrepreneurs thrive on change and innovation. Major disruptions open the door for new products and services to replace established and mature businesses. If you’re looking to create a new business with a large potential upside, look for established businesses that can be disrupted with a cheaper, simpler, smaller, or more convenient substitute. “Despite their endowments in technology, brand names, manufacturing prowess, management experience, distribution muscle, and just plain cash, successful compa- nies populated by good managers have a genuinely hard time doing what does not fit their model for how to make money.”109 So lack of resources, which create high barriers of entry into established markets, isn’t a critical liability for entrepreneurs. The small size of new entrepreneurial firms typically comes with low overhead and a minimal cost structure, which can translate into a huge competitive advantage. Large companies come with big overhead; bureaucratic rules, regulations, and hierarchies that limit flexibility and speed of response; and entrenched cultures that are highly effective at killing ideas that don’t fit neatly into their current business models. FOR CORPORATE MANAGERS. For managers in large, successful businesses, the challenge to disruptive innovation is to create an appropriate response. Contrary to popular belief, management in these organizations is not powerless. They can become disruptive innovators themselves. But the evidence is overwhelming that their disrup- tive response must be carried out by a separate group that is physically and structurally disconnected from the businesses’ main operations. “With few exceptions, the only instances in which mainstream firms have successfully established a timely position in a disruptive technology were those in which the firms’ managers set up an autono- mous organization charged with building a new and independent business around the disruptive technology.”110 This can be achieved by either creating a new business from scratch or acquiring a small company and keeping it separate. These separate groups are frequently referred to as skunk works—defined as a small group within a large organization, given a high degree of autonomy and skunk works A small group within a large organization, given a high degree of autonomy and unhampered by corporate bureaucracy, whose mission is to develop a project primarily for the sake of radical innovation M06_ROBB5839_14_GE_C06.indd 239 10/07/17 4:19 PM 240 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace unhampered by corporate bureaucracy, whose mission is to develop a project primar- ily for the sake of radical innovation. These skunk works, in effect, are entrepreneurial operations running inside a large company. Their small size allows employees to be enthusiastic about their mission and to see the impact of their efforts. To be successful, however, they can’t carry the cultural values or cost structure of the main organization. They need enough autonomy so that they don’t have to compete with projects in the primary organization for resources. IBM succeeded in developing a personal computer by creating a product team and locating it in Florida—some 1,200 miles from IBM’s headquarters in Armonk, New York. Steve Jobs created a separate and autonomous unit at Apple to develop the Macintosh computer. And in 2010, Google created the X Lab, a semisecret facil- ity located a half mile from the company’s corporate headquarters, whose 50-member team was assigned the challenge of developing a self-driving car. In contrast, Johnson & Johnson has aggressively bought numerous small companies, kept them indepen- dent, and provided them with a large degree of autonomy. FOR CAREER PLANNING. What career advice can we offer you in a disruptive world? Here are some suggestions: Never get comfortable with a single employer. You can’t build your hopes on work- ing in one organization for your entire career. There are no longer any secure jobs, and the days of an organization providing employees with lifetime employment are mostly gone. So, your first loyalty should be to yourself and making yourself marketable. Keep your skills current. Disruptive technologies will continue to make estab- lished jobs and professions obsolete. To keep yourself marketable, you need to keep your skills current. Learning no longer ends when you finish school. You need to make a continual commitment to learning new things. You are responsible for your future. Don’t assume your employer is going to be looking out for your long-term interests. Your personal skill development, career progression, and retirement plans are all decisions that you need to make. Don’t delegate your future to someone else. You need to actively manage your career. Take risks while you’re young. Few people have achieved great results without taking a risk. They quit a secure job, or went back to school, or moved to a new city, or started a business. While risks don’t always pay off, setbacks or failures are much easier to recover from when you’re 25 than when you are 55. M06_ROBB5839_14_GE_C06.indd 240 10/07/17 4:19 PM Chapter 6 Managing Change 241 CHAPTER SUMMARY by Learning Objectives DESCRIBE making the case for change. Organizational change is any alteration of people, structure, or technology. A change agent acts as a catalyst and assumes responsibility for the change process. External forces that create the need for change include changing consumer needs and wants, new governmental laws, changing technology, and economic changes. Internal forces that create a need for change include a new organizational strategy, a change in the composition of the workforce, new equipment, and changing employee attitudes. COMPARE and contrast views on the change process. The calm waters metaphor suggests that change is an occasional disruption in the normal flow of events and can be planned and managed as it happens. Lewin’s three- step model says change can be managed by unfreezing the status quo (old behaviors), changing to a new state, and refreezing the new behaviors. In the white-water rapids metaphor, change is ongoing and managing it is a continual process. Organizations can take a reactive or a proactive change process approach. CLASSIFY areas of organizational change. Organizational change can focus on strategy, structure, technology, or people. Changing strategy signifies a change in how managers ensure the success of the company. Changing structure involves any changes in structural components or structural design. Changing technology involves introducing new equipment, tools, or methods; automation; or com- puterization. Changing people involves changing attitudes, expectations, perceptions, and behaviors. Organizational development is the term used to describe change methods that focus on people and the nature and quality of interpersonal relationships. EXPLAIN how to manage change. People resist change because of uncertainty, habit, concern over personal loss, and the belief that the change is not in the organization’s best interest. The techniques for reducing resistance to change include education and communi- cation (educating employees about and communicating to them the need for the change), participation (allowing employees to participate in the change process), facilitation and support (giving employees the support they need to implement the change), negotiation (exchanging something of value to reduce resistance), manipulation and co-optation (using negative actions to influence), and coercion (using direct threats or force). DISCUSS contemporary issues in managing change. Managers at all levels of the organization must lead the change process through mak- ing the organization change capable, understanding their own role in the process, and giving individual employees a role in the change process. An organization’s culture is made up of relatively stable and permanent characteristics, which makes it difficult to change. Managers can create a culture of change through understanding the situation- al factors that facilitate change. Managers must have a strategy for managing cultural change, which includes being positive role models; creating new stories, symbols, and rituals; selecting, promoting, and supporting employees who adopt the new values; re- designing socialization processes; changing the reward system; clearly specifying expec- tations; shaking up current subcultures; and getting employees to participate in change. Organizational change can cause employees to experience stress. Stress is the adverse reaction people have to excessive pressure placed on them from extraordinary LO6.1 LO6.2 LO6.3 LO6.4 LO 6.5 Chapter 6 PREPARING FOR: Exams/Quizzes M06_ROBB5839_14_GE_C06.indd 241 10/07/17 4:19 PM 242 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace demands, constraints, or opportunities. To help employees deal with stress, managers can address job-related factors by making sure an employee’s abilities match the job requirements, improve organizational communications, use a performance planning program, or redesign jobs. Addressing personal stress factors is trickier, but managers could offer employee counseling, time management programs, and wellness programs. DESCRIBE techniques for stimulating innovation. Creativity is the ability to combine ideas in a unique way or to make unusual associa- tions between ideas. Innovation is turning the outcomes of the creative process into useful products or work methods. Important structural variables that impact innova- tion include an organic-type structure, abundant resources, frequent communication between organizational units, minimal time pressure, and support. Important cultural variables include accepting ambiguity, tolerating the impractical, keeping external controls minimal, tolerating risk, tolerating conflict, focusing on ends not means, using an open-system focus, providing positive feedback, and being an empowering leader. Important human resource variables include high commitment to training and development, high job security, and encouraging individuals to be idea champions. A close and strong connection exists between design thinking and innovation. It involves knowing customers as real people with real problems and converting those insights into usable and real products. EXPLAIN why managing disruptive innovation is important. Disruptive innovation exists when a smaller company with fewer resources is able to suc- cessfully challenge established incumbent businesses. Disruptive innovation presents an as- set to organizations that recognize the market potential of the technology. Companies can become a victim of disruptive innovation when they choose to conduct business as usual. LO6.7 LO6.6 Pearson MyLab Management Go to mymanagementlab.com to complete the problems marked with this icon . REVIEW AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 6-1. Identify and discuss the four key internal forces of change. 6-2. With an example, explain the term organizational development. 6-3. What are the three ways to address people’s resistance to change? 6-4. Distinguish between role overload and role ambiguity with the help of examples. 6-5. What are the common techniques that can be used to minimize resistance to change? 6-6. Why do people resist change, even though they may carry the potential for a better tomorrow? Discuss. 6-7. Job stress is a major problem for employees working in many organizations today. What causes job stress and what can a manager do to reduce job-related stress for employees? Discuss. 6-8. Is it possible for managers to spot the warning signs of stress among their employees? Discuss. Pearson MyLab Management If your professor has assigned these, go to mymanagementlab.com for the following Assisted-graded writing questions: 6-9. Explain how you would handle employees fearful and anxious about change. 6-10. Describe the structural, cultural, and human resources variables that are necessary for innovation. M06_ROBB5839_14_GE_C06.indd 242 10/07/17 4:19 PM Chapter 6 Managing Change 243 PERSONAL INVENTORY ASSESSMENTS P I A PERSONAL INVENTORY ASSESSMENT PREPARING FOR: My Career Are You a Type A Personality? Do you think you’re a Type A personality? Take this PIA and find out so you can better control the negative aspects of being a Type A! ETHICS DILEMMA Change usually involves some kind of modification in the way a business does things. Invariably it means alterations in products or services, and processes. Research seems to suggest that organizations undergo some form of change every three years. Within that three-year cycle there are constant minor changes taking place. The fact is that change often means restructuring, redundancies, and alterations in working practices. Change can alter almost everything and challenges people’s perceptions.111 6-11. Why is it absolutely necessary to ensure that change is managed in an ethical way? 6-12. What is the role of a change agent and how does it ensure that change is achieved ethically? SKILLS EXERCISE Developing Your Change Management Skill About the Skill Managers play an important role in organizational change. That is, they often serve as a catalyst for the change—a change agent. However, managers may find that change is resisted by employees. After all, change represents ambiguity and uncertainty, or it threatens the status quo. How can this resistance to change be effectively managed? Here are some suggestions.112 Steps in Practicing the Skill • Assess the climate for change. One major factor in why some changes succeed while others fail is the readiness for change. Assessing the climate for change involves asking several questions. The more affirmative answers you get, the more likely it is that change efforts will succeed. Here are some guiding questions: a. Is the sponsor of the change high enough in the organization to have power to effectively deal with resistance? b. Is senior management supportive of the change and committed to it? c. Do senior managers convey the need for change, and is this feeling shared by others in the organization? d. Do managers have a clear vision of how the future will look after the change? e. Are objective measures in place to evaluate the change effort, and have reward systems been explicitly designed to reinforce them? f. Is the specific change effort consistent with other changes going on in the organization? g. Are managers willing to sacrifice their personal self- interests for the good of the organization as a whole? h. Do managers pride themselves on closely monitoring changes and actions by competitors? i. Are managers and employees rewarded for taking risks, being innovative, and looking for new and better solutions? j. Is the organizational structure flexible? k. Does communication flow both down and up in the organization? l. Has the organization successfully implemented changes in the past? m. Are employees satisfied with, and do they trust, management? n. Is a high degree of interaction and cooperation typical between organizational work units? o. Are decisions made quickly, and do they take into account a wide variety of suggestions? • Choose an appropriate approach for managing the resistance to change. In this chapter, six strategies have been suggested for dealing with resistance to change—education and communication, participation, facilitation and support, negotiation, manipulation and co-optation, and coercion. Review Exhibit 6-5 (p. 224) for the advantages and disadvantages and when it is best to use each approach. M06_ROBB5839_14_GE_C06.indd 243 10/07/17 4:19 PM 244 Part 2 Basics of Managing in Today’s Workplace • During the time the change is implemented and after the change is completed, communicate with employees regarding what support you may be able to provide. Your employees need to know you are there to support them during change efforts. Be prepared to offer the assistance that may be necessary to help them enact the change. Practicing the Skill Read through the following scenario. Write down some notes about how you would handle the situation described. Be sure to refer to the suggestions for managing resistance to change. You’re the nursing supervisor at a community hospital employing both emergency room and floor nurses. Each of these teams of nurses tends to work almost exclusively with others doing the same job. In your professional reading, you’ve come across the concept of cross-training nursing teams and giving them more varied responsibilities, which in turn has been shown to improve patient care while lowering costs. You call the two team leaders, Sue and Scott, into your office to discuss your plan to have the nursing teams move to this approach. To your surprise, they’re both opposed to the idea. Sue says she and the other emergency room nurses feel they’re needed in the ER, where they fill the most vital role in the hospital. They work special hours when needed, do whatever tasks are required, and often work in difficult and stressful circumstances. They think the floor nurses have relatively easy jobs for the pay they receive. Scott, leader of the floor nurses team, tells you that his group believes the ER nurses lack the special training and extra experience that the floor nurses bring to the hospital. The floor nurses claim they have the heaviest responsibilities and do the most exacting work. Because they have ongoing contact with the patients and their families, they believe they shouldn’t be pulled away from vital floor duties to help ER nurses complete their tasks. Now—what would you do? WORKING TOGETHER Team Exercise Let’s see how creative you can be! Form teams of 3–4 people. From the list below, choose one activity to complete (or your professor may assign you one). • How could you recycle old keys? Come up with as many suggestions as you can. (The more the better!) • Think about different uses for a golf tee. Be as creative as possible as you list your suggestions. • List different ways that a brick can be used. See how many ideas you can come up with. Think beyond the obvious. MY TURN TO BE A MANAGER • Choose two organizations you’re familiar with and assess whether these organizations face a calm waters or white- water rapids environment. Write a short report describing these organizations and your assessment of the change environment each faces. Be sure to explain your choice of change environment. • Reflect on a significant change you’ve experienced in your life (for example, moving to a new school, going to college, or a family problem such as a divorce). Did you resist the change? Why? Did you use any strategies to adjust to the change? What could you have done differently? Write your reflection and make note of how you could effectively manage future changes in your life. • Choose an organization with which you’re familiar (employer, student organization, family business, etc.). Describe its culture (shared values and beliefs). Select two o