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ct1APTER 18 . LEAN CONCEPTS-EMPHASIZING. THE pESI_G~ PROCESS: SECTION' 5.1.3 OF 210 Colleagues who are much involved in lean concepts were asked if they' had experience with their being applied in the original.design process.'The answer was ·no. Surely, there is such activity, but I have located only one initiative in; which lean-and safety, environmental, and health-considerations were integrated .into the design;ptocess. Even though applying lean concepts to eliminate waste, improve efficiency, and lower production costs has become popular l;}t the senior management level, it seems that most of the initiatives relate to redesigning existing systems and work methods. Nevertheless, that activity is a match for the provision in ZlO in Section 5.1 :3, whereby management is to have processes in place "to prevent or otherwise control hazards in the design and redesign stages.'!· · · · Safety professionals lia:ve opportunities· tb make contributions to operational results as they tactfully bufforcefully bring 'to mariag~rilenf's attention that: · . . : • An element of waste I that 'Should be :addressed in the lean· process is the waste arising from the direct and ancillary costs of accidents. • As is the case with hazards and their accompanying risks, operational waste can be most economically and effectively avoided in the design process. llle~educing waste is the base on which the lean concept is built. Simply stated, lean s creating . In a lean venture, activ't• more value for customers with fever resources. . . . 1 ies orpr ' roductive time ocesses that consume resources, add cost, or reqmre unp . . ' ' ©Ccond Editi ty Management: Focusing on Zl O and Serious lnJury Prevention, 2014 John ;t-ed A Manuele. : . ey & Sons, Inc. Published 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 341 l , - I II 1.• ' I ti I 342 LEAN CONCEPTs-EMPHASIZING THE DESIGN PROCESS: SECTION 5.1.3 OF 210 without creating value are eliminated. Direct accident costs are substantial, and th costs are a form of waste. Ancillary accident costs, such as those deriving from . ose ruption of work, facility. and equipment repair, idle time of workers, traini~nter. · · d rt t' . g of replacements, and investigation an repo prepara 100 time, may represent amount of waste equal to or greater than the direct costs. For incidents resulting ~n serious injury, particularly when property damage and business interruption ~: extensive, the ancillary cost and accompanying waste can be substantial. To encourage safety professionals to seek meaningful involvement in lean initiatives in this chapter we: ' • Comment on the absence of recognition in the literature that accidents produce waste and that their outcomes are a form of waste to be eliminated • Discuss the origin of lean concepts and how broadly they are being applied • List definitions pertinent to lean and relate them to injury and illness prevention • Discuss a successful merging ofleail, safety, health, and environmental concepts into a design process • Illustrate how the 5S concept is foundational in a lean application and how hazards and risks are reduced through 5S applications • Comment on lean.imple~entations in which hazards and risks were not addressed, the result being greater risks of injury and illness • Discuss a major educational work • Provide a simplified model of a value stream map that recognizes hazards and waste potential ON THE LEAN LITER_ATURE There is pienty to read r~garding lean; but there is a dearth of information in the liter- ature on how the waste deriving from accidents should be addressed. It is a rarity when consultants who advertise their l~an capabilities include the outcome of accidents as a · · · pular form of waste. An example of that scarcity is demonstrated in one of moSt po Thi books on le~, Lean Thinking, written by James P. Womack and Daniel T. Jonesdred: excerpt is taken from the bo0k's J·acket: ''This book has been sold in the bun an . . · • . · · what of thousands of copies m a dozen countries." How good 1s the book? ~s is executive who managed a process that adopted lean concepts says about it: Whil Th • ki g remains e there are many good books about lean techniques, Lean m n ·t,es the one of the best sources to understand "what is lean" because it des~n in the thought process, the overarching key principles that must be used as guides ·any.] 1. · f 1 nfidentl app 1cation o ean techniques and tools. [Comments made to me co . f onned that Nevertheless, the many readers of Lean Thinking would not be 10 te to be the outcomes of accidents are to be included in a list of the forms of was reduced. ORIGIN OF THE LEAN CONCEPT 343 &'nir}y recent publication that I recommend highly can be of But a 1"" th great value to t rofessionals and o er manag~ment personnel. It is unique. Robert B. Hafe safe Y Pthorof Lean Safety: Transforming Your Safety Culture with Lean .,, Y · theau fi b 'Id h' . management is . bed in 2010. Ha ey UI s is case m support of the interconnection of I d, PubliS • . ean an "'-'ID 40-plus years m vanous management roles in manufacturing .~ safety uv d' , none o, which was as a safety di~ector. . b k . '[his is a di~erent mterestmg oo m that it gives guidance, from an operations management v1ewpomt, on how to _make progress toward achieving a world-class safety manag~ment system by a~p~ymg lean ~on~ept,s. Hafey emphasizes that safety st be considered as a value within an organization s culture to achieve world-class !Il~ormance. He makes it clear that to eliminate waste and to improve safety the rocus at all operations levels has to be on improving the work process. He writes': The Key to understartding·this lean leadership style is the acceptance of the fact that the process is the problem, not the person. (p. 19) The book contains a large number of practical examples about process improve- ment for lean and safety. It also contains many lean and safety forms. Thus, this is as much a how-to book as it is a concept book. Throughout the book, Hafey promotes the five-why system for solving problems of every type, including accident investigation: In applying tlie five-why system, users ask why sequenti.ally until the problem's real causal factors are identified. This is a valuable book for safety professionals who want to become familiar with lean basics so as to be able to give· guidance as a contributor on a lean process team. It is a book of fundamentals and is not as complex as other texts on lean with which I am familiar. It is a good investment for continuing education. It is unique. Progressive safety professionals will recognize this shortcoming-the non-recognition of accidents as a source·of waste by the appliers of lean concepts-as an opportunity to educate all levels of inanagement on the advantage of including safety considerations as the lean process is applied. ' ORIGIN OF THE LEAN CONCEPT In much of the fiterature on lean Taiichi Ohno is recognized as the originator of the lea , 1 ' b hi bl n concept about 50 y· ears ago while at Toyota; and Toyota has een a g Y successful' · · · · d · h l't t re t apphet of the concept But occasionally reference 1s ma em t e 1 era u 0 con · ' h t d th firscepts utilized early in the twentieth century by Henry Ford, w O crea e sc~enti t "lean" auto production line; to Frank Bunker Gilbreth, who was a propo~e~t of contr 1 6c management and motion:•study· to Walter Shewhart, a pioneer in stat1St1cal 0 ; and t w ' . d for his work on qualit O • Edwards Deming, who achieved worl renown y management Whatever th . ·. th tr e for operational excene e ongms of lean the leaders at Toyota-as ey s ov . t nce-.c · .• • ' . Ii · tion concepts m 0 What is Call omb1~~d, refined, and converted thelf waste e mma ed lean ID the United States. . MPHASIZING THE DESIGN PROCESS: SECTION 6 1 344 LEAN coNCEPTS-E . . 3 OF 210 SARE BROADLY APPLICAB.LE_ LEAN CONCEPT - . . . literature on lean concepts des~ribes a~plications in m&n While the ongmal been adopted to reduce waste m a vanety of sitµations ufacturing the con~epts have larg" spectrum of service businesses, transportatio ' such as fo; unung systems, a .., .1. . (' 1 di . , n ~omp . acco u·on health care fac1 1t1es me u ng em1ties as sn, 11 an1e8 h sing constroc , ~\a as , ware ou ' . ) product quality improvement, and environmental m &roup h · ciao pracuces , · . anage P ysi 1 . . te non-value-added e-mails. How broadly have le~ cone · lllent, and to e muna ,, . h • b . epts b I ed . ? E tering "lean concepts mto a searc engme nngs up ov~r 13 OOo een emp oy • n , ,O(X) references. · . · h h · . Safety professionals, particularly those w o . ave environmental managemen s 'bilities may want to look into the .EPA entry on the Internet entitled Le · t respon I ' . . th Ti. lk' . . d " an and E •ronment Toolki.t. A major section m e oo it is captlone How to Incorp nv, S M . ,, Th orate Environmental Considerations into Value tream appmg. -. e methodology shown is the same as would be utilized fqr all aspects of safety. 1 DEFINITIONS Understandably, several terips as,sociated with the lean concept .we Japanese. Abbreviated definitions of those terms follow as they are applied in the design process discussed later in the chapter, as well as some other d~fiqitions that are used. This list.is somewhat.lengthy, intentionally. I~ reality, safety. professionals need to be familiar with tl;le t_erms used in the organizations to which they give counsel, and their meanings. TQey would pi:Qbably not need tQ pe thoroughly familiar with all of th~ terms in this list. ' , • 1 .' • Flow, as a goal in the le_an process, is achieved after w~t~-is.~emoved frqm the system and tpe improved process (value litream) J.Jlns s,moothly ~d efficiently with very little waste in the work of personnel or in equipment downtime. Jidoka refers specifically to machines or the production line itself being able to st0P automatically in abnormal conditions (e.g., when one machine breaks down,_ when heat rises beyond a set limit).· Jidoka applipatioqs do not allow d~fec~ve parts or products to go from one workstation to another. · ~• m lapjlllese mearu: "change f.or the. better". In ,\m~can ?~ish, tfie 't co~e to mean con9nual improvement. For the pu,:pose of tbi.s ,cbapter, ez;nph~is in applying the continual imp 1 rovement process is to e,~minate waste, Jlleamng those f · · , · ' ' · Muda. ac ivities that add to costs but do not provide .value. ot encompasses all acti 'ti th . , full therefore n addin val S vi es , at consu~e resourc.~s .w~t~ Y, . tinual reduc! ue. even type~ of waste were idqntified at Toyota for which con .on was to be obtained. . The Seven Wa,ftes Defects in prodµc~ . , , . • · consu(lle mate·n·a1 and' : or servic;es are obviously wasteful in. that ,theY require dd' · ' a Itional production and correction tim~- • • • • I DEFINITIONS 345 . . the excess production or acquisition of items beyond what is d,,cuon is · dd' · al · al · overf'ro .. d d. Where overproduction occurs, a 1tion cap1t mvestment actuallY nee e d costs are increased without adding value since more storage is necess1~=erial ban,dling are necessary. Overproducµon that results in space :1° terial handling adds to risks. e1'cessrve _ma wastes are those that require additional, and .unproductive moving rransporlatio~ in p~ess. Each time a product is moved there is added risk of of a produ~e product, equipment, and facilities, and harm to personnel. In the daJllage to ocess the product fills valuable space and requires time expenditures !lloving pr ' . ut adding value. . , . . ~•~0 fers to botp the unproductive time spent by workers waitjn.g , for waiting.: or components in a process to arrive and the time required for exces~ Illaten tion to flow through the system. An additional example is material or ~:::ation waiting to be worked on to complete a customer order. Similar ~:tes occur when incidents happen that could result in injury or damage to property. - f h · d d . addi . 'al 'tal l ntory buildup in excess o w at 1s nee e requires an · tion cap1 nv:tlay and produces waste because of the need for additi~nal storage space and ~andling time. Frequent handling of the inventory adds to the risk of injury. Motion refers to worker unproductive time and movement where the process is cumbersome, inefficient, and wasteful. This implies that the process may also be hazardous. · · · Overprocessing means 'using a· more expensive or otherwise valuable resource than is needed for the task. Ove'rprocessing also inclu<;tes costly rework. Poka yoke means "mistake-proofing" or "fool-proofing'\ the purpose being to design work and processes so that it is nearly impossible for people to make mistakes. An example is designing hose connections or electrical connections so that they can be put together in one way only, thereby reducing risk. This is an important but often ·neglected con~ept with respect to employee and product safety. Mura pertains to unevenness in the work flow: The goal is steady work flow. Muri relates to avoiding overburdening equipment' or employees: The goal is to ·reduce the workload to acceptable levels. For equipment, that might mean operating at 80% of the maximum specified limit ·For employees, designihg work method· tH · P ll s at are overly stressful and working excessive hours are to be avoided. defines · the operational situation after which much has been accomplished 1tnh a~plying the lean process and inventories can be ' maintained in relation to e pull" prod . . as represented by customer orders. Waste from having excessive (e.g. u: in inventory, and all that implies, is to be as low as reasonably practicable risk ~f ~:~t of excess space, the financ~Qg ,of the ~xc~ss inventory, the cost and Total p ~on?,l handling .of inv~ntory). , roductive M • · , is always abl . amtenance_ i~ to assure th11t all equipment used in a process be interru e to perform its tasks so that production or work processes will not pted. · \. l '• 346 ~ONCEPTS-EMPHASIZING THE DESIGN PROCESS: SECTION 5 1 LEAN · .3 OF z:10 MERGING LEAN AND DESIGN CONCEPTS . ·. , _ J The One exception with which I have become familiar, in which lean d · h · · · I d · ' Safety rro • nmental concerns were merge mto t e ongma es1gn proces . , and env . . . t .. s, 1nvo1 pharmaceutical company. For a maJor proJec ' new equ1p1?ent was to b Ves a d installed 'in an existing facility. In lean language, that would be a "be acquired an . . d . . . rownfi P lication. In a "greenfield" appbcation, es1gn engmeers mcorporate le eld" ap . 'li an cone into the design of an entirely new 1ac1 ty. . . ep~ What this pharmaceutical company has done 1s an excellent example of h and safety can be addressed in the design process concurrently. This is ow_ lean imaginative, and creative methodology. In_ a discussion with the senior e>:ec:a::' managed this project, he made the followmg comments. ho Often within an organization there are separate Quality, EHS and Operational Excellence/Lean functions. Each of these functions has its own distinct vocabu- lary, metrics, and evaluatiop processes and procedures. Viewed from ~ve, the purpose, motivation, and objectives of these fupctions have considerable overlap: Do it once; do it safely; do it with quality; do it cost-effectively. Responsibility for the overall management and delivery oJ a Design/Capital project is usually in tpe Operations function. Past pr,actic~ often has been for Operations to interface with Quality, EHS and Lean functions separately. This creates a signj.ficant. redundancy of effo~ and can raise the risk of an issue "falling in the cracks'~ between these functions. In a lean application, it was decided to gather all of the functions and construct a Value Stream Map covering the entire project. This creates a ''visual" map of the project from begiqning to end. It aIIows a clear identification, of functions and who is responsible and accounijlbJe for ~h step of tpe project. It identifies . opportunities to perform tasks in such a way that all of the oversight and approval criteria qf each function are satisfied simultaneously. A cross-functional integrated risk assessment tool was developed. Our theme w~Do it once: Do it right. If this cross-functional team is created and managed properly, the expected communication and responsibility requirements (ll"e clearly established. If the team is well managed, the r~ult is significant cross-functional cooperation and excellent results. Lean ·requires fr<;mt-line operator participation. Significant valuable input and b~y-in can be achieveq with their ~ctive participation in the project. nt Lean terminology was the base language for the managementandmeasureme of the proj~t. [From my nqtes]., N . --~ 1 operations personnel at this pharmaceutical location have had Jean traI tic~ ~~breviated version of this company's process follows. It is close to 'the th ~ref the ideal: S~ety professionals can learn from it. But first, the relationship to Zl 0 lean-design process is shown: 'f~BLE 18.1 ~ioninZlO Risk assessments t{ierarchY of controls oesign reviews Management of ch~ge Pr<>Curement r10NTOZ10 REI.A THE COMPANY'S LEAN-DESIGN PROCESS Section Designation 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 5.1.3 5.1.4 ' f z10 were prudent when they said in E.1.3 that: 'j11e writers o 347 . tandard is designed so it can be integrated with quality, environmental, 'Jb!S sth r managem.ent systems within an organization. andoe . . h integration would enhance the probability of a lean process being highly 50 \ful That was done in the case being discussed. This ·company's initiative ,is succes . • h . . al f th . . . . Jarly noteworthy mt at 1t mcorporates sever o e prov1S1ons m ZlO. Those partJCU . , provisions are ~oted in Table 18.1. ' . · . I CRITERIA FOR APPLYING THE LEAN-DESIGN PROCESS Use of this c6nipany's Lean-Design process begins when an assumption is made that a project is of such magnitude that it will require following the steps outlined in its Request for Capital Expenditure Procedure. For purch~ses below the capital expen- diture request level, the basics in the process are applied, but not as extensively. For example, if the machine shop supervisor put through a request to purchase a metal-cutting saw: • Safety considerations would be established and they would be reviewed by environmental, health, and safety professionals as ·well as by more than one level of IIianageinent.' · · ' • Those safety requirements wo~ld be included in the·p~chase b~der. • After receipt and installation of the equipment, a safety validatioi:i would be made. THE COMPANY'S LEAN-DESIGN PROCESS •I , ' The Concept Stag~ Fro ,. • ' • · · a er::: so~rce-research and development, 'engineering, any operations department, nctionaI group, maintenance, individual workers-an idea may be proposed l!I 348 LEAN CONCEPTS-EMPHASIZING THE DESIGN PROCESS: secr,o N 6.1,3 0 1'., ... ,o for process improvement: A broad range of brainstorming b~ a teazn it is concluded. that the idea. sh~ul~ be moved forwar~ ~d the ex. tak~s Place requires followmg the orgamzation s Request for Capital Ex.pe d' Penditure 1 · Ir · al · ht t · n Iture t>- eve1 a review and tentative approv 1s soug a a semor management 1 .--roced · · d eve1 A lire manager 1s ass1gne . · · · " ProJec; capital Expenditure Request and Element Champion R~vla - . W The Capital Expenditure Request would describe the design obiectiv . fi . d J es of the generally, make the busmess case or 1t, an request the necessary fu d' ProJect company, each of the 26 elements in its safety management system i n 1~g. In this Champion, most often som~one at an upper.management level. s as&igned tci a For example, the chief executive assumes direction and accomplishm ' . bility for two of thqse elements; four are assigned to another senior ment rf:esponsJ. . . anu acturi executive. At this stage, all of ~e safety management system element cham '· , ng become aware of the project, and a sign-off 1s required by e~ch of them. pions have Identify the Customers/Users In this context customer or user is every employee who may be affect~~ py the revi- sion in a process being proposed. It really means everyone. The purpose is to assure that all persons who could be affected are aware of the process change proposed and can provide input as ,~e. ~ctiv,~ty.proceeds. I~~ntifyiqg th,_e c.~~tmpers and users is considered a very important step in the lean process. · · · With respect to external cµstomers, the char89teristics of the produc;lS µianufactlµ'ed have been agreed upon, close estima,tes are made pf the p~oduct amounts that will be • . I, • purchased and over what time spans, inventories are kept 1,1nder tight control, and the delivery methods and times of delivery are arranged. · · ' · ' . ,:. . . Project Customers/Users Requirement Specification At this point a senior-level ma,yager prepares a document. expandin~. on the origin~ idea. The document contains enough detail to specify the outcomes ~xpected, an_ some criteria are established. Customer~ and u'sers (empJoyee&Y may submit tbelf specifications and their suggestions on how w~te can be eliminated. ' ' ' .. Value Stream 1 Map A al tr . ted thi . Thi . Ii . flowchart that includes v ue s earn map 1s cr~a at _ s _poi?~· , ~-1,s a pr~ , ?11nary . _. , • rial receipt every step of the production process' as corfceived at this time, from raw mate esses 10 to product going out the door. It is an important step in that it documents 1?~-~roc ry steP be considered in the waste elimination initiative. The value stre'am includes eve in a_pr~es~ t9 produc~ pr~quct Of 1proyi~e a sezyic~. 1 • id~s an 0ppor· . :VaI1,1e streruµ 11}-appipi is c1; vitaj s~p.jn the lean qoncept,, in that It PfO.V AddenduJJI A turuty for team brainstorming to identify activities that do not add value. THE COMPANY'S L EAN-DESIGN PROCESS 349 . chapter describes "A Simplified Initial Value Stream ,, iJ1 t!U5 streSJ11 mapping to: Map · Lean practitioners ose vatue d n.:r., major sources of non-value-added time in al • I e ui1 a v ue stream , Envision a less wasteful ~ture state. · D .,elop an implementatlon plan for future lean act· .. , e• , 1v1ties. proJect conceptual Design that preceded this step in the process influences the draftin of the . ;Jl_gn It shows the layout proposed, and building and util~ty . proJectconceptual desI · • · . i impacts, and contains specifics on the maJor eqmpment needed. Environmental health d afi . n·ons are addressed in this concept stage. All of the foliowing pe, anrs s elty c~nsider-a d • . . . onne review and . n off on the concept es1gn. operation executives· subiect tt . . s1g afi . . • ma er experts; envrron- 01ental, health, and s ety professionals; engmeers; maintenance personnel; and the t,ui!ding manager. · Since I knew that management did not rely entirely on the drawm· th t . . gs a came out of the CAD (computer-aided d~sign) system as the sources in the development of operating procedures, the executive who managed the process·was asked ho h . Thi . h h . w e came 10 that conclusion. s 1s w at e said. One of the shortcomings of CAD/Computer design and printed blueprints is that they do not allow for full real-life visualization of the process in actual physical/hu~an terms. The creation of physical mock-ups of key components of the plant, particularly where critical operator interface is involved, can greatly improve the design. . A physical mock-up will allow line-of-sight, ergonomic, safety, simplicity of maintenance, and lean productivity issues tci be identified that otherwise would be missed by relying on computer-generated designs. It is important to understand that people may have difficulty visualizing a computer-based design in real life. Mock-ups can be constructed out of plywood or cardboard for relatively little cost. They allow the actual plant operators to see and feel the critical steps of the process and apply lean concepts to the development of work instructions for each step of the process. Mock-ups allow for front-line input and participa- tion. Our experience was that many lean and safety improvements came from suggestions made by operators as tliey worked in the simulated mock-ups. That Participation creates a significant and valuable "buy-in." . Experience has shown that without exception, a Il!ock-up will re~eal a number of critical issues that otherwise would have been missed in the design process when using CAD as the only means of illustration. F~r_ther, mock-ups allow for the ·development of lean work practices and trairung procedures Parallel to the actual building and installation of the plant and speeds the ~tartup and debugging process significantly. [From my notes] : 4 350 LEAN CONCEPTS-EMPHASIZING THE DESIGN PROCESS: secr10 N s.1.ao"., <.1Q Change Control Provisions This company operates under the regulations of several go Therefore a rigid change control system is in place to assure thvetl'llrnenta1 .. . ' . . a all . "ntir and environmental requirements are met. At a semor managem quality 8 1es, . . I ent lev l ' afet control document is produced requmng approva by all dep~rt- e , a ch Y, I. . . I - .... ,ent he~-1 an. point, the head of the c9mp tance group, ts partt~u arly interested in s -:us, i\.t 1 ~e regulations are met. In 210, the comparable requirement is to hav eeing that~s . . 513 earn¾ change process m place: Section . . . agernentor Project Safety Clearance and Lean Review This is a summation step wi~ .respect to all of the foregojng. The desi n · · is reviewed by the environme~tal, health, and safety group and by th g d0culllen1 group. Determinations are made with respect to the need for furthers e£ compliance in individual p~eces of the process or because of their interrelation:~ty analysis specifications are expanded and become more specific. ps. Safety Although lean considerations hilVe been a part of this process from the b . . applying lean concepts is stressed mQre rigorously here by the proiect emginIUng, Th . fi 1· . . h J anager e purpose ts error-proo ng, w~ste e rmmatton, to ave the process stop wh th · equipment recognizes a fault, and to avoid rejects. All or some of the leans/~ e mentioned previously-Poka Yoke, Jidoka, Kaizen, or Muda-may be broug:t i ~s play, but the Muda concepts prevail throughout. Waste is to be as low as reasona~l; practicable. Also, since this company has been a meticulous applier of the SS system (defined in their usage as - Sorting, Simplific~tion, Systematic Cleaning, Standardization, and Sustairung), the 5S system concepts are overriding in the lean 'process. It was said by a senior executive at this location that "If the staff has not been educated in 5S c~ncep~s and belie~~ that their substance is ~o~e value, ··y~u can forget about lean. You must have established a stable environment in which waste elimination is ! i • ' a fundamental to _move into ~e next step .:to ~cc.omplish lean." Drafting Vendor Specifications Engineering persQnnel draft vendor ~pecifications. Manufacturing, environmental, health, and safety, and operating personnel may ,also-be involved. At this staget:~ munication begins with a selected vendor. Subject matt~r experts employed Y vendor may assist in.drafting specifications for the project. Conceptual Design Risk Assessment 1 . rn~ . . . k assess This review takes place at the concept and drawing level. Formal ns ments are methods, qualitative or quantitative are used as required. The ri~k asse~sonmen1al. d • . h the env1r ocumented and approved by a multifunctional team; of whic health, and safety personnel are a part. , THE COMPANY'S LEAN-DESIGN PROCESS 351 d nt reviewer, not a part of the project team, must also sign off on the Afl indepen e Several people at this location have been trained to do Failure Mode essJllents. os1' ass Analyses. g11d sff eets 11rn1narv Design 1'118 pre mbers work with the vendor to assure that the users' requirements are project te:::ables from the vendor inclu~e schematics, flow diagrams, drawings, (!let. 'fhe onent specifications, and operatmg procedures and training manuals. further coJllP , Stream Map: Waste Scavenger Hunt (Muda Check) va1ue tream map was created when the project was in the concept stage. At this A value \ntal phase, an additional flowchart is made to depict the design proposed. As developm viously Muda encompasses all activity that wastefully consumes resources stated pre ' does not add value. butA Muda check takes place ~s a waste _scavenger hunt t? fu~er reduc~ _pr~uct & 1 possibilities, overproduction, excessive product handling, idl~ and waitmg time de1ec 1 . . d hi ffi . . . perating personne , excessive mventory, an to ac eve e ciency m processmg :do the best probable use of employee skills. All personnel levels are involved. Proposed Design Safety/Risk Assessment: Create System Drawings Now that a proposed design is available, additional risk assessments as needed are made, prior to building the system. The environmental, health, and safety staff is prominently active in the risk assessments, along with other involved personnel. Use of formal risk assessment methods is more frequent at this stage. A final sign-off by the independent reviewer is necessary. At this point, the design is frozen, the vendor creates system drawings, and the vendor builds to drawings. Safety, Operational and Lean Review At the vendor's location, before the equipment.can be shipped, the purchaser's envi- ronmental, health, and safety personnel assure that all safety-related specifications have been met. . . , ~actory acceptance testing takes place at the vender's location and members of the ::iew ~eam (engineering, operations, maintenance, validation, et al_.) determine that ~U!~ment operates as expected and that waste is as low as reasonably practicable. Staffh sis a large part of the approval process prior to shipment of the equipment. The h as found that testing at the vendor's location has avoided many issues that would avetober 1 R . eso ved later on their shop floor. . · ev1ew by mai t . . h . . ff a th com , . . n enance is espec1:ally important here, as t err .sign-o auects e the tty s ability to apply a Total Preventive Maintenance initiative. With approval, uipment may•be shipped to the purchaser. LEAH CONCEPTS-EMPHASIZING THE DES/ON PAOcE ss: sec,,oN 352 S.130 Standard Operating Procedures . · "2:10 In reality, this function is done in parallel with the prev· . d d l . . ious step standard operatmg proce ures, eve opmg training modul s. It inv needs, drafting production records, and so on. es, defining re01Ves wtit· col'd L tng Faclllty Review and Approval After installation, with which the vendor is involved ext . ..& d A al . . . ens1ve1y . l\Ce~· ~,~& tests are pe, ,orme . pprov m operation 1s needed by th , site a ealth d ati e project cceplati environmental, h , an s ety personnel, before &cceptan teain, in 1 _ce validate that the equipment performs as intended, that the ce. :he Pllrpo~eu~,ng is achieved, and that environmental, health, and safety spec·fi. qu~.hty leveJ ex~ to I Cations have bee lC(J In Production nlllet At this stage, Kaizen--continual improvement-is a goverru quali · · · d Adh ng concept s ty IS mamtame . erence to standard operating proced . · Upetior . . th ,u . ures, Includ' pracbces, IS e norm. naste Is constantly sought after and redu d ing safe ce . 5S Review Since this organization has made applying the 5S system a core value a final • . • rev1ew1s made to assure that all 5S system elements have been maintained: Sorting, Simplifyin Systematic Cleaning, Standardization, and Sustaining. g, The 5S Concept Originators of this Lean/Design process were asked to critique this chapter for technical accuracy. This is one of the comments made: "We have found that 5S is one of the foundations of lean. As far as safety is concerned, nothing makes hazardous conditions and practices stick out more than a well-organized facility. ~ou should expand on 5S and how it can help improve safety performance." . his His premise required further inquiry into how the 5S program o~rates.:ng a facility. They say that their 5S program is an underlying reason for th:i::ie~ualllY· bundle of awards on employee safety, environmental management, and P lid impact Personnel who critiqued this chapter say that the 5S concept c~•bave ~s~utstanding on worker safety and that i( is folly, to expect good work pracuces an d disorderly, performance from workers -if the work environment is dismal, messy, an and operational discipline is lacking. Comment on the 5S system f~llo:~t needed, ~I Sorting, the.first step in a 5S application, is to get rid of everythithng t orderliness ist th d li When a · rnen e cluttering, and to achieve an atmosphere of .or er ness. and eqUIP d achieved in operational and storage areas-both for work in proces:d hazards an . e iffiprov , needed to do the work-efficiency and housekeeping ar . rminated- risks are reduced, and time wasted searching for work items is e 1 THE COMPANY'S LEAN-DESIGN PROCESS 353 . . the next step in the 5S process. If there is a place for everything l :klflg is 11 k d SifTIP !J: th se places are we mar e and labeled and known to the staff it is and o . ' tained, d t ols, parts, and the equtpment needed to do a job and to keep things reasier to~ ;fying in a disciplined ~anner promotes identification of hazardous e roerlY• SinidP makes it easier to get things done with less risk. 0 · ns an · th hird · 5S E · illlau0 • cleaning is e t step m • veryone 1s to be involved in the 5 syste~:aning endeavor. Workers in a ~nit are assigned ownership of and respon- systemauc the cleaning tasks. The purpose 1s to produce orderliness: Dirt, disorder, or ·i·"' for · · th · sibl "1 red in aisles and getting m e way or stored m a manner that makes their (hing5 st0 hazardous are not tolerated. The cleaning processes are to add to operational recovery t eliminate waste, and to reduce risk. tliciency, o h . 5S . e nd rdization, the fourt step m , 1s to adopt the best practices for equip- 5,a : machinery layout, and the design of equipment and work practices for men~:vity, mis~e-pr~ofing_, and continual i~pr?vement. Workers at all levels prod opportunities for mput mto the standardization procedure. Comments are :::;ht on th~ design of the work methods, for efficien,cy as well as to avoid risky situations. . . . s·nce at this location, accidents are recogmzed as a. form of waste, safety is an inte~al part of tb,e standardization process. Performru;ice standards and expecta- tions for predictable results are set. Oper~tiona\ breakdowns are to be few and far between. Causal factors for operating problems are studied and largely eliminated on an anticipatory basis. Up-front prevention is the thinking. Methods to identify possible breakdowns and how to respond with as little waste as practicable when they occur are a part of the standardization procedure. For maintenance personnel; that makes:their work easier: Thus, they are exposed to fewer hazardous situations; jerry-rigging for unusual work is not condoned. It is emphasized that maintaining tight control over ,the'management of change procedures is an integral patt •of.the· standardization element•in 5S. Sustaining what has been accomplished in the four previous steps is the fifth step in the 5S concept. This, they say, is the most difficult step after superiority is attained in the first four steps. It is expecte& that sorrie workers might revert to previous practices, particularly with respect to cluttering the workplace and avoiding cleanliness: Sustaining the concept clin be achieved only by continuous managemenHeaderslii p. ' · The CEO·in this company says that he knows he must, continudusly and person- ~lly, embrace the 5S concept and both talk the talk and walk the talk, repeatedly'. He : visible and involved as 'he holds his staff accountable for sustainin'g what they :ve achieved-an orderly and· stable work environment in which efficiency is at a gh level, -:vaste is 'as low as reasonably·practicable, and hazards and risks are at an acceptable level. , . ' . rea~om~ organizations have added a: sixth' S to their system to stress safety. But ih inte;· _if~ ~S system is installed and m.ahaged properly, safety is integrated -and to th:~n:~tt~ all of the first ?Ve ~t'e~s-:: It c~n be argued tha~ adding a separate S rnana Y m for safety creates the '1mpress1oh that safety 1s separate from the gement sy t s em and could produce adverse consequences. S-EMPHASIZING THE DESIGN PROCESS: SECTION S 1 3 354 LEAN CONCEPT . . OF= l10 REAL-WORLD OBSERVATIONS l attempts by organizations to improve operations by a . Unfortunate y, some 'd . u, t . . PPly 10 t . eluded safety cons1 erations. norse ye , existing syste~ g leAh concepts have no m Ii ti' th .,,s to c ... , . bee erridden in some lean app ca ons, e result beino that h on1txi 1 nsks have n O¥ . R fi · c, azar . . that ere addressed preVIously reappear. etro tting for correcti do 118 s1tuat1ons w . ful d • 0 n of th be difficult but is certainly waste an expens.we. . oSe hazards may . th ti hi h v- · -,.r , h b rved situations similar to ose or w c n.ev1n J.-,ewman anct 'h.. I ave o se . . . , '1tod B ffer caution in "Advice on mcorporating ergononuc safety initiati· _ore raun o ., Th . Ves int your continuous improvement process. ? say. _ o Unfortunately, "Lean'• doesn't n
CHAPTER 19 MANAGEMENT OF CHANGE: SECTION 5.1.3 OF 210 Section 5.1.3 in ANSI/AIHA Zl0-2012 is entitled "Design Review iµid Management of Change." As was said in Chapter 15, "Safety Design Reviews," the processes for design reviews and for management of change are major elements in a safety and health management system. Although they have some common characteristic,:s, they are implemented through djstinctively separate management processes. . , One of the reasons that the management ,of cliange process in addressed s_ep~ately is to promote .an understanding and application of the change analysis .concept on which it is based. In this chapter we: . . • Make the case that having an effective Management of Change System (MOC) in place as a distinct element in a safety and health management system will ~educe the potential for serious injuries and fatalities, one of the focus poi,its In this book. (Effective MOC system~._also reduce the potential for injuries, environmental damage, and other forms of damage at all levels of severity.) • Intr~~ce the change analysis concept and relate it to the management of change prov1s10ns in ZlO. , • Cite statistics in support of having effective MOC systems in place. ' Defi h ne t e purpose and methodology of a management of change system. • ~~ta~lish the significance of management of change as a m~thod to prevent serious InJunes and fatal 't1' · 1 es. Second &r afety Management: Focusing on ZJO and Serious Jnji1ry Prevention, © 2014 Jo:::ion. Fred A. Manuele. Wiley & Sons, Inc. Published 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 359 I ! I f :! 360 MANAGEMENT OF CHANGE: SECTION 5.1.3 OF 210 • Outline management of change procedures, keeping in .mind the staffing limitations at moderate-sized locations and their need to avoid burdensome paperwork. 4 ' • • • Provide guidelines on how to initiate and utilize a MOC system. • Emphasize the significance of communication and training. • Include examples of four management of change systems in place and provide access to six other real-world MOC systems. ON CHANGE ANALYSIS Change analysis is a commonly used process. Inquiry through an Internet search engine will show that the. liter.ature on change. analysis is abundarit. A few examples related to safety follow. OSHA say~ this abou•t change analysis in · Saf;ty, & Health . r , Management System eTool-Worksite Analysis: ' , : Anytime something new is brought into the workplace, whether it be a piece of equipment, different materials, a new process, or an entirely new building, new hazards may unintentionally be introduced. Before considering a change for a worksite, it should be analyzed thoroughly beforehand. Change analysis helps in heading off a problem before it develops. In the Aviation Ground Operations Safety Handbook, 6th edition, change analysis is listed within "The .. Risk Management Process" as a ·inethod "to detect the hazard implications of both planned and unplainied change." '(p·. 10) :, In MORT Safety'Assurance·Systems, ,William Johnson makes references to change analysis throughout the book as he discusses applying the "Management Oversight and Risk Tree (MORT)''. In System Safety for the 21st Century, Richard Stephans has a ch'apter entitled "Change Analysis." Provisions for design reviews and management of change are also contained in other standards and guidelines, perhaps by other names. For example, in Quality management systems-Requirements, ANSIIASQ Q9001-2000,-Section 7.3.7 is titled "Control of design and development changes." It reads as follows: l Design and development changes shall be identified and records maintained. The changes shall, be -reviewed, . verified and validated1 as appropriate, ,and approved before. iipplemeptation1.The i:eview, of design and
ADDENDUM A MOC EXAMPLE 1 ALPHA CORPORATION Pre-Job Plannlng and Safety Analysls Outllne I. Review the work to be done. Consider both productivity and safety: a. Break the job down into manageable tasks. b. How is each task to be done? c. In what order are tasks to be done? d. What equipment or materials are needed? e. Are any particular skills required? 2. Clearly assign responsibilities. 3. Who is to perform the pre-use of equipment tests? 4· Will the work require: a hot work permit; a confined entry permit, lockout/tagout ( of what equipment or machinery), other? 5· Will it be necessary to barricade for clear work zones? 6· Will aerial lifts be required? 7· What personal protective equipment will be needed? 8· Will fall protection be required? Second Ed' rifery Maiwgeme111: Focusing 0,1 Z/0 and Serious !lljury Prevelllion, © 20 14 Jo~on .. Fred A. Manuele. Wiley & Sons, Inc. Published 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 379 - 380 MOC EXAMPLE 1 9. What are the hazards in each task? Consider - Access Work at heights Work at depths Fall Hazards Worker position Worker posture Twisting, bending Weight of objects Elevated loads Welding Fire Explosion Electricity Chemicals Dusts Noise Weather Sharp objects Steam Vibration Stored energy Dropping tools Pressure Hot objects Forklift trucks Conveyors Moving equipment Machine guardin 10. Of the hazards identified, do any present severe risk of injury? g 11 . Develop hazard control measures, applying the Safety Decision Hierarchy, • Eliminate hazards and risks through system and work methods design and redesign • Reduce risks by substituting less hazardous methods or materials • Incorporate safety devices (fixed guards, interlocks) • Provide warning systems • Apply administrative controls (work methods, training, etc.) • Provide personal protective equipment 12. Is any special contingency planning necessary (people, procedures)? 13. What communication devices will be needed (two-way, hand signals)? 14. Review and test the communication system to notify the emergency team (phone number, responsibilities). 15. What are the workers to do if the work doesn't go as planned? 16. Considering all of the foregoing, are the risks acceptable? If not, what action should be taken? Upon Job Completion 17. Account for all personnel 18. Replace guards 19. Remove safety locks 20. Restore energy as appropriate 21. Remove barriers/devices to secure area 22. Account for tools 23. Tum in permits 24. Clean the area 25. Communicate to others affected that the job is done 26. Document all modifications to prints and appropriate files ADDENDUM B > MOC EXAMPLE 3 GAMMA CORPORATION Pre-Task Analysls Completed fo~ must be submitted and work must be authorized before activity is commenced Submitted by ________ Date ____ Location _____ _ Description of work ____________________ _ Commencement date ______ Expected completion date ____ _ Permits, special skills and licenses: Work must not be.•commenced if required Permits have not been received or if arrangements have not been made for the special skills and licenses required. ;:;:--_ Advanced S ,r . . Second Ed' ~ety Management: Focusing on ZJ O and Serious ln1ury Preventwn, © 2014 J ltion._ Fred A. Manuele. 0hn Wiley & Sons, Inc. Published 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 381 i : : 1~ 1 -. _, 382 MOC EXAMPLE 3 Permits Required Received Confined space __ Yes No __ Yes -No Electrical Yes No __ Yes -No Combustion equipment Yes No __ Yes __ No Excavation Yes No __ Yes __ No Hot work Yes No __ Yes __ No Lifting-rigging Yes No __ Yes __ No Fire systems Yes No __ Yes __ No Obtained Will special skills be required Yes No __ Yes __ No Will special licenses be needed Yes No __ Yes __ No Check off each of the following that apply. Each checke
CHAPTER 20 THE PROCUREMENT PROCESS: SECTION 5.1.4 OF 210 Although the requirements in ZIO for the procurement processes are plainly stated and easily understood, they are brief in relation to the enormity of what will be required to implement them. Little"help is given as to utilization of the procure- ment provisions. Advisory notes are brief. Documenting the procurement process is the subject of E5. l.4. Appendix I is a one-page informative description of the procurement process. • As is the case for the provisions in ZIO on safety design reviews, the purpose of Procurement processes is to avoid bringing hazards and their accompanying risks into the workplace. The standard reguires that processes be instituted so that reviews ~ade of products, materials, and other goods purchased and related services to ide~l!fy and evaluate health and safety risks before their introduction into the work ~ 0 VJronment. To fulfill the procurement provisions, safety specifications must be included· h In pure ase orders and contracts. in thisT? assist safety professionals as they give advice on implementing those provisions, chapter we: • Conunent briefly on prevalent purchasing practices • Establi b • . s the significance of the procurement processes Discuss the pre-work necessary to include safety specifications in the procure-lllent Process • Provide some resources Sctond F.di/ery t;1anagemem: Focusing 011 ZJO and Suious llljury Prevention . O 2014 John on. red A. Manuele. W-t1ey & Sons, Inc. Published 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 399 400 11-lE PROCUREMENT PROCESS: SECTION 5.1.4 OF 210 • Comment on the paucity of publicly available occupational health and s r . 'ti . a,ety purchasing spec1 cattons • Remark on the need, sometimes, to set specifications above published standards • Give examples of design specifications that become purchasing specifications THE REAL WORLD OF PURCHASING PRACTICES Unfortunately, the practice in many companies in the bid process for acquiring machinery, equipment, and materials is that purchasing departments are to choose the lowest-qualified bidder. For many years, safety professionals have told stories about how purchasing personnel have accepted the lowest bid on safety-related products or material~ only to find, after their receipt, that they did no,t fulfill opera- tional expectations and that safety needs were not met. Expensive retrofitting for safety purposes was necessary. · Retrofitting to accommodate safety needs starts with evaluating the deficiencies in the equipment as it is in operation: that is, identifying what was overlooked in the design process. Unfortunately, the resulting level of risk when safety requirements are addressed through retrofitting may be higher than would be the case if safety specifications were included in the bid or purcq,asing papers. As retrofitting proceeds, it's easy for decision makers to rationalize acceptance of higher risk levels. Nevertheless, the goal should be to achieve acceptable risk levels. Getting managements and purchasing personnel to adopt the procurement provisions in z19 will not .be easy. A safety profes.sional who proposes adding procurement provisions as an element in safety and health management systems and to have safety specifications included in a company's purchasing practices should expect the typical resistance to change: I.n most places, a culture change will be necessary for success. An oblique interpretation of the procurement requirements could be: Safety and health professionals, you are assigped the responsibility to convince managements and purchasing agents that, in the long term, it can be very expensive to buy cheap. ' SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROCUREMENT PROVISIONS I place great emphasis on having the procurement provisions in Z 10 becoming_ an el:: in safety and health management systems because doing so prevents introducmg h and risks into a workplace. This is the thinking that supports that position. Risks of injury derive from hazards. If hazards are properly addressed and avoided, eliminate, reduced or brought under control in the design process t that the risks deriving from them are at an acceptable level, the •potential or harm or damage and operational waste are minimized. 5 Thl ·1. f . d·nproces e og1ca extension o address mg hazards and risks in the esig d • n is to have the design specifications the organization decides upon inclu~:fe;Y purchase orders and contracts so that suppliers and vendors know what RESOURCES 401 •jjcations are to be met. That reduces the probability of bringing hazards ~pecithe workplace. into Jthough having safety specifications included in purchase orders or contracts is A ractice applied broadly, safety professionals are encouraged to consider the not 8 6~ to be achieved if they are. If the ideal is attained in the purchasing process and be~ and risks brought into the workplace are as low as reasonably practicable, the h ult is significant risk reduction, which means fewer injuries. res UnfortUnately, the only safety-related terminology in purchase orders and contracts roay be to meet all OSHA and other governmental requirements. PRE-WORK NECESSARY FOR PROCUREMENT APPLICATIONS As we say in Chapter 15, "Safety Design Reviews," there is a close relationship between establishing safety design specific!ltions and including safety specifications in procurement documents. The latter cannot be achieved successfully until the former bas been accomplished. . Once safety design specifications are established, the next step is to have them applied internally. Then, an appropriate extension is to have them incorporated into purchase orders and in contracts. It is common practice for vendors and suppliers of equipment to use their own, and possibly inadequate, $afety specifications if a purchaser has not established its requirements. That could end up being costly for the purchaser, especially if produc- tion schedules are delayed and the retrofitting expense to get systems operating as designed and for safety purposes is substantial. RESOURCES In Annex E, "Objectives/Implementation Plans," the following appears under Objectives for the Procurement provision: Distribute' approved policy; Train on ~!icy and procurement procedure; and Distribute safety requirements to be included ID Standard co'ntracts. (p. 44) ' That presumes that a procurement policy and safety requirements have been e51ablished and distributed and that training on their implementation is to be given. Procedurally, that's ' a ,good and recommended practice. Procurement is listed in Appendix_ L, ''Audit;' as one of the subjects to be reviewed when a safety audit is :~e. This audit guide says that in the audit process, the following are to be consid- as aspects of the procurement section in the standard. · Documents to Be Reviewed • Procedures for selection, evaluation, and management Reco,ds to Be Reviewed . ' Selected 1· supp 1er self-assessments • Selected supplier audits and ratings 402 THE PROCUREMENT PROCESS: SECTION 5.1.4 OF 210 • Selected supplier contracts • Incoming product inspection records • Product risk analyses Interviewee • Selected ~upplier management personnel • Hourly employees Observations • Selected purchased products to check associated procurement records Although the foregoing provides-somei guidance, what is proposed lacks the most important element in a procurement process, which is to establish the specifications that suppliers are expected to meet. Section 5, "Relationships with Suppliers," in ANSI/ ASSE Z590.3, Prevention Through Design: Guidelines for Addressing Occupational Hazards and Risks in Design and Redesign Processes, is informative with respect to the procurement provisions in Z 10. For one example: the standard says that in relationships with suppliers, "top management shall establish and document its occupational hazard and risk specifications." THE PAUCITY OF AVAILABLE HEALTH AND SAFETY · PURCHASING SPECIFICATIONS Several safety-related texts were reviewed to determine whether they give guidance on including safety specifications in the procurement process. They do not. Examples of some safety-related purchasing specifications posted on the Internet follow._There are others. • University of California, Environmental, Health. and Safety (EH&S) Laboratory Safety De!)ign Guide, 2nd edition. At http://us.yhs4.search.yahoo.cqm/yhs/ search?p=University+of+Califomia%2C+Environmental%2C+Health+and+Sa fety+%28EH%26S%29+Laboratory+Safety+Design+Guide&hspart=att&hsim p=yhs-att_OOl&type=att_lego_portal_home • Queen's University Environmental Health and Safety: Laboratory Flammable and Combustible Liquid Handling Procedures. At http://us.yhs4.search.yahoo: com/yhs/search;-ylt=A0oG7oNbrlhR.ysAu14PxQt.?p=%E2%80%A2%09Uru versity+of+Califomia%2C+Environmental%2C+Health+and+Safety+%28EH %26S%29+Laboratory+Safety+Design+Guide&type=att_lego_portal_home &hsimp=yhs-att_OO 1 &hspart=att&pstart= 1 &b= 11 • Duke University, Summary of Class 4 Laser Laboratory Design Guidance, at www. safety.duke.edu/RadSafety/laser-lab-design.pdf • Yale University's Procedure 3220, "Purchases of Restricted Items," among which are: OPPORTUNITIES IN ERGONOMICS 403 • yazardous materials: Materials that present special safety risks during trans- pcrt, stora~e, use,_ or disposal. :niese include, but are not limited to, certain highly toXIC, reactive, or otherwise hazardous chemicals, gases, and biological agents. • safety-Critical Equipment: Equipment that can present safety hazards to users (e.g., x-ray and laser equipment) as well as equipment used to control exposures to recognized hazards, and whose improper use could subject users to harm (e.g., fume hoods, biological safety cabinets, respirators, automated film pro- cessors). At http://us.yhs4.search.yahoo.com/yhs/search?p=%E2%80%A2%09 Yale+ University %E2 %80%99s+ Procedure+ 3 220+&hspart=att&hsimp= yhs-att_OOl &type=att_lego_portal_home • University of Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia. WHS Purchasing Guidelines (WHS, Workplace Health and Safety). Available at http://us.yhs4. search.yahoo.com/yhs/search?p=HRD-WHS•GUI-070.9+WHS+Purchasing+ Guidelines+ 2013+&hspart=att&hsimp=yhs-att_ 001 &type=att_lego _portal_ home. (The Guidelines are an ·addendum to this chapter.) • Toe Bedfordshire Community Safety Guide. At http://www.bedfoi:'d.gov.uk/ environment_and_planning/planning_town_and_country/what_is_plarining- policy/ documents_of_the_bdf/bedfordshire_community _safety.aspx It is interesting that the first five entities in the list above are universities, and the last is a municipality. Since they are governmental entities, the materials they pro- duce are almost always in the public domain. Examples of applications of safety-related design standards that become purchasing specifications are not easily acquired. Most companies consider their specifications proprietary and don't make them available to others freely. For a moderate-sized company with a limited engineering staff, writing design·and purchasing specifications will not be easy to do. It seems appropriate to suggest that organizations prevail on the business associ- atians of which they are members to undertake writing generic design specifications and purchasing specifications that relate to the hazards and risks inherent in their operations. Safety professionals should consider this inadequacy as an opportunity to be of service and make their presence felt. However, arrangements were made for an additional example of internal design specifications that are also purchasing specifications to be included as an addendum to this chapter. OPPORTUNITIES IN ERGONOMICS As is the case with ZlO's safety design review provisions, safety professionals who are ~ot involved in the design or purchasing processes should consider ergonomics as :ertile ground in which to get started. Some of the comments made in Chapter 15, /a_fety Design Reviews," are repeated here because they apply equally to ZlO's esign and procurement provisions. fi 404 lliE PROCUREMENT PROCESS: SECTION 5.1.4 OF 210 Musculoskeletal injuries, ergonomically related, are a large segment of the spectrum of injuries and illnesses in all industries and businesses. Since they are costly, reducing their frequency and severity will show notable results. Furthermore, it is well established that successful ergonomics applications result not only in risk reduction, but also in improved productivity, lower costs, and waste reduction. Ergonomists know how to write design specifications for 'the workplace and the work methods that take into consideration the capabilities and limitations of workers. A company that established detailed ergonomics design criteria to be followed by its own engineers and by its vendors and suppliers was DaimlerChrysler. The following intro- duction to the DaimlerChrysler ergonomic design criteria demonstrates the relationship between writing design specifications and including them in purchasing requirements. This document attempts to integrate new technology around the human infra- structure by providing uniform ergonomic design criteria for DaimlerChrysler's manufacturing, assembly, power train -and components operations, as well as part distribution centers. These criteria supply distinct specifications for the Corporation, to be use4, by all DaimlerChrysler eng.\neers, designers, builders, vendors, suppliers, contractors etc. providing new or refurbished/rebuilt mate- rials, services, tools, processes, facilities, task designs, packaging and product components to DairnlerChrysler. In effect, the ergonomic design criteria to be used intemally ,at DaimlerChrysler also became the ergonomic specifications that vendors and suppliers had to meet. In a section on supplier roles and responsibilities, it . is made clear that all suppliers were to "make all reasonable efforts to implement all of the criteria and requirements" of the ergonomic design criteria. If a design requirement was to be compromised, the supplier had to so inform DaimlerChrysler and the matter would be reviewed to a conclusion by a DaimlerChrysler ergonomics representative. DaimlerChrysler's e~onomic design criteria are available at http://www.docstoc. com/docs/25321410/150-ergonomic-design-criteria. The criteria may be downloaded for personal use or business use. GENERAL DESIGN AND PURCHASING GUIDELINES Addendu~ A to this chap~er is a combination of design and purchasing guidelines currentlr m use: Not~ agam that design specifications were developed that became purchasing spec1ficauons. The document is presented here as a reference from which engineering personnel and safety professionals can make selections and add subtract, or _alte_r item~ to suit location n_eeds. It would be inappropriate to implen:ent these gm~elmes w1_thout study and adJustment to reflect the hazards and risks inherent in a particular enuty . . Ado~tion. of a modific~tion of the guidelines will usually require persuasive di~cus~10n w11h_ the p~rchasmg staff. Getting a procurement process as outlined in the gu1delmes applied will require a culture change in all but a few organizations. Safety oes1GNI N G AND WRITING SAFElY SPECIFICATIONS BEYOND THE LEVEL OF STANDARDS 405 r 1·onals must understand the enonnity of what is b~ing undertaken when they pro1ess 'fi . . 1 d d . bave safety spec1 cations me u e m purchasing documents when that is not trY tourrent practice. Nevertheless, the productivity, risk reduction, and waste-saving tbe c th 'd b · · h t,enefits of a process at av01 s nngmg azards and risks into the workplace cannot be refuted. . . . . . . The Guidelines begm with sections on general safety requirements, machine arding, industrial hygiene, ergonomics, machine and process controls, and g\ironrnental impact/hazard evaluation. Section 8 sets forth a procedure for which en · "U thi d the instrUction 1s: se s ocument as a guide whenever purchasing new (or modifying exis~ng) e~uipment.': Major parts of this section deal with codes and Standards, equipment/fixture design; mechanical design and construction, electrical design and construction, pneumatics design and construction, software, and machine guarding. · These guidelines are quite broad. They relate to occupational safety and health, environmental concerns;· productivity and avoiding events that result in business interruption. DESIGNING AND·WRITING SAFETY-SPECIFICATIONS BEYOND THE LEVEL OF STANDARDS In the safety standards writing process, it is common for contributions to be made by many participants, and compromises are made in the deliberations to accommodate the variety of views expressed on the subject being considered. The result often is a standard that includes minimum requirements. The following appears. In Chapter 12: Provisions for Risk Assessments in Standards and Guidelines. A supplementary and advisory document to SEMI S2 (Environmental, Health, and Safety Guideline for Semiconductor Manufacturing Equipment) is titled Related Information I - Equipment/Product Safety Program. It makes an inter- esting statement, cited below, about the need, sometimes, to go beyond issued safety standards in the design [and purchasing] process. Compliance with design-based safety standards does not nece~sarily ensure adequate safety in complex or state-of-the-art sys 1 tems. It often is necessary to perform hazard analyses to identify hazards that are specific with the, system, and develop hazard control measures .that adequately control the associated risk beyond those that are covered in existing design-based standards. 1\vo subjects COJlle to mind that encourage designing beyond compliance standards. Systems designed in accord with OSHA's lockout/tagout and confined space standards may be error-provocative. ' Assume that an electrical system is designed to OSHA lockout/tagout require- ments and to the requirements of the National Electrical Code but that the distance workers have to travel to lockout stations is, in their view, too far and burdensome. I 406 THE PROCUREMENT PROCESS: SECTION s.1.4 OF 210 I . ...n: t 'that sometimes workers will not follow the·written standard t IS a near ce~ uun y · . ti. eci""es If the system's·design and the purchasmg contract merely opera ng proc ..... . . , say "Meet OSHA requirements," the •result could be an error-provocative sy~tem. S · · ·hasi·ng (construction) contracts that confined spaces should be • aymg m pure . . . designed to meet OSHA's standard may also result ~n creating error-provocative situations. An appropriate goal is, first, to to des1~n out confin~ spaces, and then consider the safety entry and exit needs m the·des1gn process where confined spaces must exist. · · · CONCLUSION Too much stress cannot be placed on the significance of the procurement provisions in Zl O and the benefits that will derive from their impleme.ntation. It stands to reason that if the purchasing process limits bringing hazards and risks into the workplace, the probability of incidents resulting in injury or illness will be diminished. That's what 210 is all about: ''To reduce the risk of occupational injuries, illnesses, and fatalities." Since very few organizations have processes in place that comply with ZlO's procurement provisions, safety professionals a:re faced with:an enormous task as they attempt to convince managements to adopt: those provi&ions. Surely,. undertaking to do so is a worthy and noble task. Although Addendum A to this chapter is lengthy, it is recommended that safety professionals read it to gain an· appreciation of how extensive design and purchasing specifications can be and how they can serve well to avoid bringing hazards and risks into,th~ . .workplace. Also, it must be understood that design-engineers may not agree with some.of the specifics included in the guidelines and would write different safety-related specifications. . Addendum B is a find. It is brief but is included because of the entity that issued it. The purchasing guidelines developed at the University of Wollongong are an excellent resource and highly recommended. REFERENCES ANSYAIHA 210-2012. American National Standard, Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems. Fairfax, VA: American Industrial Hygiene Association, 2012. ASSE is now the secretariat: Available at https://www.asse.org/cartpage.php?link=i10_2005. ANSYASSEZ590.3-2011. Prevention Through Design: Guidelines for Addressing Occupational Hawrds and Risks in Design and Redesign Processes. Des Plaines, -IL: American Society of Safety Engineers, 2011. Ergonomic Design Criteria. DaimlerChrysler. http://www.docstoc.com/docs/25321410/ 150-Ergonomic-Design-Criteria. OSHA. Summary of ~SHA Permit-Required Confined Spaces Rule. The rule citation is 29 CPR 1910.146. Avadable at http://www.dol.gov/elaws/osha/confined/PRCSGEN.asp. OSHA. General Environmental Controls. Standard Number 1910.147_ Titled "The Control of Hazardous Energy (Lockout/fagout)." At http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp. show _document?p_id=9804&p_table=STANDARDS. REFERENCES 407 EM1 sz-0706, Environmental, Health, and Safety Guideline for Semiconductor Maniifacturing S Equipment. San Jose, CA: SEMI (SeJ!Uconductor Equipment and Materials Inte~onal), 2006. (Re/aled Information I: Equipment/Product Safety Program is an adjunct to these Guidelines.) WHS ['urchasing Guidelines. University of Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia Available at http:/tus.yhs4.search.yahoo.com/yhs/search?p=HRD-WHS-GUI--070.9+WHS+Purchasing+Gu ideJines+ZO 13+&hspart=att&hsimp=yhs-att--001&type=att_lego_portal_home.
1 Course Learning Outcomes for Unit VII Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to: 6. Relate continuous improvement principles to safety management concepts. 6.1 Detail the link between lean concepts and the safety management system. 7. Examine management tools necessary to implement effective safety management systems. 7.1 Explain how a management of change process can reduce serious injury potential. 7.2 Illustrate how safety design reviews can reduce risks introduced by procurement processes. Reading Assignment Chapter 18: Lean Concepts—Emphasizing the Design Process: Section 5.1.3 of Z10 Chapter 19: Management of Change: Section 5.1.3 of Z10 Chapter 20: The Procurement Process: Section 5.1.4 of Z10 Unit Lesson Business owners and managers are always looking for the best way to run their operations to maximize profits. Many new management systems and processes have been developed and implemented with varying degrees of success in recent years. Regardless of what management system an organization uses, it is critical for safety processes to be integrated into the larger structure of the organization. That is to say, the safety and health management system should not stand alone from the other management efforts put forth by the management of the facility. Integration of the safety and health program with other management systems, rather, is key to successful implementation. A management concept that has proven successful for many organizations (particularly in the manufacturing sector) is lean management, used successfully for more than 50 years by the Toyota Corporation. The basic premise of lean is to reduce waste in all phases of an operation (Manuele, 2014). What better example of a waste of valuable resources is there than an injury or illness? Recall that the hierarchy of controls tells us the best place to reduce risk is at the design stage of a product or process. It is also at the design phase that lean concepts can be applied for the greatest benefit. Z10 does not specifically address lean, but it does call for processes that prevent or stop hazards at the design and redesign phases (Manuele, 2014). One of the foundations of lean is the 5S concept (Manuele, 2014).  Sorting, where everything not needed is removed from the workplace;  Simplifying, where everything needed has a place and is well marked;  Systematic cleaning, where orderliness is created and maintained;  Standardization, where best practices are developed and adopted for efficiency; and  Sustaining, where the previous steps are maintained. Anvari, Zulkifli, and Yussuff (2010) propose that a sixth S, for safety, be added between systematic cleaning and standardization, and they found that some organizations have already done so. They feel this gives safety the visibility and integration it deserves as a significant contributor to reduction of waste. Manuele (2014) UNIT VII STUDY GUIDE Integrating Safety Management and Operational Management 2 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title warns that representing safety in its own step might signal that safety is not really integrated but still separate. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has adopted a 6S model that shows safety as surrounding all the other steps. Organizations must decide what is best for them, and however lean is implemented, it is important for the safety staff to have an active role in the process. Also, as mentioned above, it is important to assure that lean safety initiatives such as 5S (or 6S) are well integrated into the overall management systems. In contrast to the tenets of the 5S (or 6S) system mentioned above, envision a small manufacturing facility that utilizes forklifts but has unmarked aisles. Metal fabrication dies and punches are stored on shelves in no particular order, and the only way to know if one is damaged if it is not obvious is to ask Bubba the mechanical press operator. Metal banding can be spotted in walkways. Palletized materials are stored in front of exits and electrical boxes. Flammable liquid storage cabinets used to hold toluene and xylenes are left open 24 hours a day, and there is a radio sitting on one plugged into an adjacent extension cord which runs through a hole in the wall and is plugged in somewhere on the other side. There are also racks of dusty unused parts from previously discontinued products that did not sell. The key point here is that thoughtful organization is important when it comes to injury prevention efforts. In this scenario, we have everything from fire, tripping, and electrical hazards to potential projectile hazards from exploding punches. The bottom line is that keeping things in an orderly manner is a good policy when it comes to accident prevention in the worlplace. Have you ever heard the adage “Nothing is constant except change?” In some organizations, it does seem true: reorganizations, rebranding, reorganizations, new products, reorganizations, mergers, and acquisitions. Did I mention reorganizations? Many books have been written, and many consultants are waiting to guide organizations through the maze of these transformations. In his research into serious injuries and fatalities, Manuele (2014) found that a large proportion of incidents resulting in severe injury occur in unusual and non- routine work, during modification or construction operations, during shutdowns for repairs, during maintenance and startups, and when situations go from normal to abnormal, in other words, when things change. It is no surprise, then, that an entire chapter in the course textbook, Chapter 19, and a section of Z10 deal with management of change. Many organizations have great safe operating procedures, job hazard analyses, and other safe work systems in use. How many, however, have a plan on how to deal with changes in processes, equipment, procedures, or personnel that may alter the risks previously identified? One place where one is likely to run across a management of change program, as was mentioned in a previous unit lesson, is the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Process Safety Management standard which covers employers that process and store dangerous quantities of highly hazardous materials. According to OSHA (2000): Changes to a process must be thoroughly evaluated to fully assess their impact on employee safety and health and to determine needed changes to operating procedures. To this end, the standard contains a section on procedures for managing changes to processes. Written procedures to manage changes (except for “replacements in kind”) to process chemicals, technology, equipment, and procedures, and change to facilities that affect a covered process, must be established and implemented. These written procedures must ensure that the following considerations are addressed prior to any change:  The technical basis for the proposed change,  Impact of the change on employee safety and health,  Modifications to operating procedures,  Necessary time period for the change, and  Authorization requirements for the proposed change. Employees who operate a process and maintenance and contract employees whose job tasks will be affected by a change in the process must be informed of, and trained in, the change prior to startup of the process or startup of the affected part of the process. If a change covered by these procedures results in a change in the required process safety information, such information also must be updated accordingly. If a change covered by these procedures changes the required operating procedures or practices, they also must be updated. (para. 1-3) It should be clear by applying common sense that this is a wise approach to take when dealing with highly hazardous substances; however, such an approach is not necessarily limited to companies that are required to comply with the PSM Standard. If you think about it, management of change is in alignment with the PDCA 3 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title cycle philosophy, particularly with respect to the Check and Do phases of the cycle as well as section 6.0 of Z10. Uitlizing such a management tool is clearly useful in helping to address difficult-to-spot hazards resulting from signficant changes in organizational processes. Remember, we want to prevent injuries and illnesses. Why not introduce a process that anticipates problems that might occur as a result of organizational and facility changes earlier rather than waiting for an incident to happen? That is management of change, and it is part of the Do phase and section 5.0 of Z10. Manuele (2014) suggests that for management of change to be effective, it must be a formalized process. Many good examples can be found in safety literature. Closely related to safety design reviews, reviewing procurement specifications allows the safety professional to reduce risk up front by ensuring risks are identified and addressed. Influencing the procurement process may well be one of the most difficult challenges for the safety professional. This is particularly true when the price of an expensive piece of equipment is considered. Once again, Manuele (2014) looks to ergonomics as a way to get a foot in the door, and just like the design review process, it is important to keep the dollar sign savings in front of management. Consider a situation, for example, where stands that hold raw material to be stamped by a press operator are considered that can be adjusted to the height of the worker but that will cost $47,000 more than non-adjustable stands. It will not take too many costly back injuries to add up to $47,000. As mentioned in a previous unit lesson, speaking the language of business can be quite useful when it comes to advocating safety in the workplace, and it can be used for advocating important safety and health related efforts such as lean-safety-related initiatives and management of change. Course Project As in previous units, the non-graded learning activities in this unit contain an exercise designed to help you with the course project that will be due in Unit VIII. By completing this activity and similar ones in other units, you will have most of the data and analysis needed to put together a high-quality report to management on the state of the safety management program. References Anvari, A., Zulkifli, N., & Yussuff, R. M. (2011). Evaluation of approaches to safety in lean manufacturing and safety management systems and clarification of the relationship between them. World Applied Sciences Journal, 15(1), 19-26. Manuele, F. A. (2014). Advanced safety management: Focusing on Z10 and serious injury prevention (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. (2000). Process Safety Management. OSHA 3132. Retrieved from https://www.osha.gov/Publications/osha3132.html#moc U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2011). 6S (5S+safety). Lean and environment toolkit (pp. 49-60). Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/lean/environment/toolkits/environment/resources/LeanEnviroToolkit.pdf Suggested Reading In order to access the following resource, click the link below. The suggested reading below provides additional content on lean management and safety: Hansen, M. D., & Gammel, G. W. (2008). Management of change. Professional Safety, 53(10), 41–50. Retrieved from https://libraryresources.waldorf.edu/login?auth=CAS&url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?dire ct=true&db=bth&AN=34751716&site=ehost-live&scope=site https://libraryresources.waldorf.edu/login?auth=CAS&url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=34751716&site=ehost-live&scope=site https://libraryresources.waldorf.edu/login?auth=CAS&url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=34751716&site=ehost-live&scope=site 4 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title Learning Activities (Non-Graded) Non-graded Learning Activities are provided to aid students in their course of study. You do not have to submit them. If you have questions, contact your instructor for further guidance and information. Management of Change Review the types of safe work documents in use at your organization (Standard Operating Procedures, Job Hazards Analyses, etc.). What types of changes might make these documents less effective? Consider things such as weather, new tools, product changes, new personnel, and revised deadlines. Develop a policy that would require review of safe work documents in specific circumstances. Evaluating Operational Elements of the Safety Management System Note: This activity can be used as one of the building blocks of the Unit VIII Project. Using Chapters 18, 19, and 20 of the course textbook as guides, evaluate safety design reviews, management of change, and the procurement process at your current organization or an organization with which you are familiar. For objective evidence to support your evaluation, look for organizational documents such as safety manuals and instructions, safe operating procedures, and job hazard analyses and records such as emails or letters from management to employees, safety meeting minutes, mishap logs, audit reports, Occupational Safety and Health Administration citations, inspection reports, risk assessments, and training records. Interview management personnel, supervisors, and employees, and walk through some workplaces to observe conditions for yourself. Prepare a report to management that summarizes the positive and negative results of the evaluation and provides recommendations for improvement.

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